Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force was formed after the dissolution of the IJN; the Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet, it was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War. The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shōgun of the Edo period, Japan's navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854.
This led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization; the navy had several successes, sometimes against much more powerful enemies such as in the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, before being destroyed in World War II. Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became active in plundering the coast of China. Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships when Oda Nobunaga, a daimyō, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.
In 1588 Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy. Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the daimyō of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which continued to Europe. From 1604 the Bakufu commissioned about 350 Red seal ships armed and incorporating some Western technologies for Southeast Asian trade. For more than 200 years, beginning in the 1640s, the Japanese policy of seclusion forbade contacts with the outside world and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained, with the Dutch through the port of Nagasaki, the Chinese through Nagasaki and the Ryukyus and Korea through intermediaries with Tsushima; the study of Western sciences, called "rangaku" through the Dutch enclave of Dejima in Nagasaki led to the transfer of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution which allowed Japan to remain aware of naval sciences, such as cartography and mechanical sciences.
Seclusion, led to loss of any naval and maritime traditions the nation possessed. Apart from Dutch trade ships no other Western vessels were allowed to enter Japanese ports. A notable exception was during the Napoleonic wars. Frictions with foreign ships, started from the beginning of the 19th century; the Nagasaki Harbour Incident involving HMS Phaeton in 1808, other subsequent incidents in the following decades, led the shogunate to enact an Edict to Repel Foreign Vessels. Western ships, which were increasing their presence around Japan due to whaling and the trade with China, began to challenge the seclusion policy; the Morrison Incident in 1837 and news of China's defeat during the Opium War led the shogunate to repeal the law to execute foreigners, instead to adopt the Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water. The shogunate began to strengthen the nation's coastal defenses. Many Japanese realized that traditional ways would not be sufficient to repel further intrusions, western knowledge was utilized through the Dutch at Dejima to reinforce Japan's capability to repel the foreigners.
Numerous attempts to open Japan ended in failure, in part to Japanese resistance, until the early 1850s. During 1853 and 1854, American warships under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry entered Edo Bay and made demonstrations of force requesting trade negotiations. After two hundred years of seclusion, the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa led to the opening of Japan to international trade and interaction; this was soon followed by treaties with other powers. As soon as Japan opened up to foreign influences, the Tokugawa shogunate recognized the vulnerability of the country from the sea and initiated an active policy of assimilation and adoption of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, began using it for training, establishing a Naval Training Center at Nagasaki. Samurai such as the future Admiral Enomoto Takeaki were sent by the shogunate to study in the Netherlands for several years. In 1859 the
Sankichi Takahashi was an Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy. After the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 Takahashi, an important figure of the IJN's Fleet Faction, made a swift career, from commander of an obsolete cruiser in 1923 to commander of the Combined Fleet in 1934, he was instrumental in crushing the opposing moderate Treaty Faction but soon lost his command in another round of political turmoil. In the 1920s, the Japanese Navy brass was split into an "administrative" Treaty Faction that accepted limitations imposed by the Washington Naval Treaty and a "command" Fleet Faction that opposed them. Takahashi Sankichi, promoted by his superior Kato Kanji, was on the Fleet side headed by Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu, Kato Kanji and Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, he held brief assignments on the high seas, commanding the cruiser Aso and battleship Fusō. and headed the Operations section of Naval General Staff under vice chief Kato Kanji who ran the organization, overwhelming its mild-mannered chief Yamashita Gentarō.
Takahashi became chief of staff of the Combined Fleet in 1927, when Kato Kanji assumed command and subjected the fleet to the most rigorous and risky drills, attempting to compensate numeric constraints of the Washington Treaty with superior training. Ten years as the Commander of Combined Fleet, Takahashi upheld the same mentality: "If we are compelled to use the short sword to combat a foe brandishing the long sword, I am sure we shall win! We have tactics to defeat the combined fleets of Great Britain and the U. S.". He continued to rally against Washington Treaty limitations during the Geneva Naval Conference of 1927, supporting the faction of Mineo Ōsumi and Tōgō Heihachirō; the moderates tried to restore their influence in the late 1920s but were crushed by the Fleet Faction in 1932-1933. In 1928, Takahashi was appointed the first commander of the newly formed First Carrier Division, IJN's first air supremacy formation. In February 1932, Takahashi was appointed vice chief of Naval General Staff through the efforts of Kato Kanji while Prince Fushimi chaired the Staff from January 1932 to March 1941.
Asada wrote that Takahashi "virtually controlled the naval high command in this capacity", Ian Gow argued that Prince Fushimi was an independent and capable leader in his own right. Upon promotion, Takahashi revived the plans to expand the Staff authority and reduce that of the Naval Ministry that he developed for Kato Kanji in 1922. In September 1933, the Fleet Faction prevailed and Fushimi gained clear supremacy over Navy Minister Mineo Ōsumi. In 1933-1934, the militarists silenced the opposition leaders and forced them to retire during the Osumi purge, thus gaining unchecked control of the Navy. After World War II, Takahashi recalled that "one of his aims was to be prepared with a war with the United States". In November 1934, Takahashi was appointed commander of the Combined Fleet and held this command for two years. Contrary to the battleship mentality of the old-school admirals, he spoke in favor of increasing aircraft carrier arm of the Fleet. Takahashi did not have significant naval commands during World War II.
As the former commander of Combined Fleet, well known in Japan and abroad and not involved in actual combat, Takahashi spoke to the public on military and political topics and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In 1936, he spoke that "Japan's economic advantage must be directed southward, with either Formosa or the South Sea Islands as a foothold". In the first stage, the sphere that Japan demands includes Manchukuo, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Netherlands Indies, New Caledonia, New Guinea, many islands in the West Pacific, Japan's mandated islands and the Philippines. Australia and the rest of the East Indies can be included later...". Takahashi was an early adopter of Aikido and invited its founder Morihei Ueshiba to the Naval Staff College as a budō instructor. Allied war-time sources connected Takahashi Sankichi with the Black Dragon Society that infiltrated the United States and silenced political opposition in Japan.. In the beginning of December 1945, General Douglas MacArthur placed Takahashi on the list of 59 most wanted Japanese along with Prince Nashimoto Morimasa and admiral Soemu Toyoda.
He was freed in December 1948. Sadao Asada. From Mahan to Pearl Harbor: the imperial Japanese navy and the United States. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-042-8, ISBN 978-1-55750-042-7. Sadao Asada. Culture shock and Japanese-American relations: historical essays. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8262-1745-1, ISBN 978-0-8262-1745-5. Donald M. Goldstein, Katherine V. Dillon; the Pacific War papers: Japanese documents of World War II. Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-632-0, ISBN 978-1-57488-632-0. Ian Gow. Military intervention in pre-war Japa
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu
Marshal Admiral Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1941. Prince Hiroyasu was born in Tokyo as Prince Narukata, the eldest son of Prince Fushimi Sadanaru and Princess Arisugawa Toshiko, the daughter of Prince Arisugawa Taruhito, he was the twenty-third head of the Fushimi-no-miya, one of the four shinnōke cadet branches of the imperial family entitled to succeed to the throne in default of a direct heir. Prince Fushimi was a second cousin to both Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun, nephew of Prince Kan'in Kotohito He succeeded to title Kachō-no-miya on April 23, 1883, upon which he changed his name from "Narukata" to "Hiroyasu," but returned to the house of Fushimi-no-miya on January 16, 1904. On January 9, 1896, Prince Hiroyasu married Tokugawa Tsuneko, the ninth daughter of Prince Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Japan's last shōgun, with whom he had six children: Prince Fushimi Hiroyoshi Princess Yasuko.
Princess Tomoko. Prince Hirohide. Prince Hiroyasu entered the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy on 5 April 1886, but resigned in September 1889 and moved to Germany, he enrolled in the Naval Academy of the Kaiserliche Marine on 8 April 1892. Promoted to midshipman on March 30, 1893 and to ensign on April 20, 1894, he graduated from the academy on 15 August 1895 and returned to service in the IJN, he spoke fluent German. He served aboard the cruisers Itsukushima and Matsushima. On December 1, 1897, he was promoted to sub-lieutenant and assigned to the battleship Fuji, receiving a promotion to lieutenant on December 27. Promoted to lieutenant-commander on July 29, 1903, he served in the Russo-Japanese War, sustained wounds aboard the battleship Mikasa in the Battle of the Yellow Sea, he served as executive officer on the cruiser Niitaka, battleship Okinoshima, cruisers Naniwa and Nisshin. He was awarded the Order of the Golden Kite, 4th class, for his services in the Russo-Japanese War, was promoted to commander on September 28, 1906.
He studied in Great Britain from 1907 to 1910 and upon his return to Japan was promoted to captain on December 1, 1910. He commanded the cruiser Takachiho, the Asahi and the battlecruiser Ibuki. Promoted to rear admiral on August 31, 1913, he rose to vice admiral on December 1, 1916 and to full admiral on December 1, 1922, he was a member of the Supreme War Council from 1920 onward. He was a strong supporter of the Fleet Faction within the Navy, pushing for cancellation of the Washington Naval Agreement and the building of a more powerful navy. Prince Hiroyasu succeeded his father as the twenty-third head of the house of Fushimi in 1923, he was appointed commander of the Sasebo Naval District in 1924. Admiral Prince Fushimi became the chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff on February 2, 1932, replacing Admiral Abo Kiyokazu, held the post to April 9, 1941. Prince Fushimi received the honorary rank of marshal admiral on May 27, 1932, the Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1934.
While he was Chief of Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service used strategic bombing against Chinese cities including Shanghai and Chongqing. The bombing of Nanjing and Guangzhou, which began on September 22–23, 1937, resulted in widespread international condemnation of Japan and a resolution against Japan by the Far Eastern Advisory Committee of the League of Nations; as Chief of Staff, he supported the "southward advance" into northern French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies, but expressed reservations about the Tripartite Pact during the September 19, 1940, Imperial Conference. Hiroyasu Fushimi was awarded the Order of the Golden Kite, 1st class, in 1942, he remained a member of the Supreme War Council throughout the Pacific War, but retired from the active list in 1945. After the war, Fushimi was the honorary president of the Imperial Life Boat Association, the Japan Seamen's Relief Association, the Cancer Research Society, the Naval Club, the Japan-German Society, the Scientific and Chemical Research Institute.
Like all members of the Imperial family involved in the conduct of the war, Prince Fushimi was exonerated from criminal prosecutions before the Tokyo tribunal by Douglas MacArthur. He died in Tokyo shortly after the end of World War II on August 16, 1946. 1910: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-093130-2. Frank, Richard B.. Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-100146-1. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-74101-3. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Materials of IJN: Fushimi Hiroyasu". Imperial Japanese Navy. Retrieved 2007-08-23
Nobumasa Suetsugu was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, served as Home Minister in the 1940s. Suetsugu was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture as the younger son of a former samurai in the service of Tokuyama Domain, he graduated from the 27th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, ranked 50th out of 114 cadets. He served as a junior officer on several smaller craft, including a combat tour during the Russo-Japanese War on the Banjō. After the war, he attended the Naval Staff College where he specialized in naval artillery, graduating with honors from the class of 1909 with the rank of lieutenant commander. After serving as chief gunnery officer on the Hizen and Tokiwa, he was assigned to the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff Office. In 1914, he was sent to Great Britain as a naval attaché during World War I and was promoted to commander. During the war, he served on the Agamemnon and the HMS Queen Mary and reported on the Battle of Jutland, he became a strong advocate on the increased use of submarines by the Imperial Japanese Navy, which he felt could be deployed to an advantage in an attrition strategy against the United States Navy provided that issues with long-distance operations could be overcome.
After his return to Japan in 1916, he served on the staff of the IJN 1st Fleet. In December 1918, Suetsugu was given command of the cruiser Tama. Suetsugu subsequently served on the Japanese delegation to the Washington Naval Treaty negotiations in 1921, although he was a prominent member of the Fleet Faction. During his period in staff assignments at the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, he worked on revisions to the Japanese battle plans and strategies targeting the United States Navy, to opposing the efforts of the Treaty Faction after the signing of the London Naval Treaty, he was promoted to rear admiral in 1923 and vice admiral in 1927. In December 1931, he became commander of the Maizuru Naval District and in December 1932 became commander of the IJN 2nd Fleet. In 1933, he commanded the IJN 1st Fleet. Suetsugu promoted rigorous training for the fleet in severe weather conditions, he was promoted to full admiral in 1934, became commander of the Yokosuka Naval District in December of the same year.
In December 1935, Suetsugu joined the Supreme War Council. He entered the reserves. In December 1937, Suetsugu was named Home Minister under the first Konoe administration, serving in that post until January 1939. Noted for his anti-leftist politics, Suetsugu ordered the Tokko special police to begin widespread arrests of known left-wing individuals, he supported Konoe’s plans for the creation of a single-party state under the Taisei Yokusankai. He was an outspoken advocate of the Tripartite Alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy He was outspoken against those in the government and those in the Imperial Japanese Army who were advocating a negotiated settlement to end the Second Sino-Japanese War, he served as a Cabinet councilor under the Hiranuma administration from January to August 1939, as a special advisor to the cabinet under the Koiso administration from October to the end of December 1944. Suetsugu died in December 1944, his grave is at the Tama Cemetery in Tokyo. Boyd, Carl; the Japanese Submarine Force in World War II.
Bluejacket Books. ISBN 1612512062. Toland, John; the Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936–1945. Modern Library. ISBN 0-8129-6858-1. Gow, Ian. Military Intervention in Pre-War Japanese Politics: Admiral Kato Kanji and the Washington System. Routledge. ISBN 0700713158. Vego, Milan N. Joint Operational Warfare: Theory and Practice. Government Printing Office. Spang, Christian W. Japanese-German Relations, 1895–1945: War and Public Opinion. Routledge. ISBN 0203481585. Boyl, John Hunter. China and Japan at War, 1937–1945: The Politics of Collaboration. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804708002. Nishida Imperial Japanese Navy Newspaper clippings about Nobumasa Suetsugu in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Ministry of the Navy (Japan)
The Navy Ministry was a cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Navy. It existed from 1872 to 1945; the Navy Ministry was created in April 1872, along with the Army Ministry, to replace the Ministry of War of the early Meiji government. The Navy Ministry was in charge of both administration and operational command of the Imperial Japanese Navy. However, with the creation of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff in May 1893, it was left with only administrative functions. "The ministry was responsible for the naval budget, ship construction, weapons procurement, relations with the Diet and the cabinet and broad matters of naval policy. The General Staff directed the operations of the fleet and the preparation of war plans"; the post of Navy Minister was politically powerful. Although a member of the Cabinet after the establishment of the cabinet system of government in 1885, the Navy Minister was answerable directly to the Emperor and not the Prime Minister.
Up until the 1920s, the Navy Ministry held the upper hand over the Navy General Staff in terms of political influence. However, the officers of the Navy General Staff found an opportunity at the Washington Naval Conference in 1921–22 to improve their situation. At this meeting, the United States and Britain wanted to establish a worldwide naval ratio, asking the Japanese to limit themselves to a smaller navy than the Western powers; the Naval Ministry was willing to agree to this, seeking to maintain the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, but the Navy General Staff refused. The Imperial Japanese Navy became divided into mutually hostile Fleet Faction and Treaty Faction political cliques; the treaty was signed by Japan, but terminated in 1934. Through the 1930s, with increasing Japanese militarism, the Fleet Faction gained ascendancy over the Treaty Faction and came to dominate the Navy General Staff, which pushed through the attack on Pearl Harbor against the resistance of the Navy Ministry. After 1937, both the Navy Minister and the Chief of the Navy General Staff were members of the Imperial General Headquarters.
With the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Navy Ministry was abolished together with the Imperial Japanese Navy by the American occupation authorities in November 1945 and was not revived in the post-war Constitution of Japan. Military Affairs Bureau Mobilization Bureau Technical Bureau Personnel Bureau Training Bureau Medical Bureau Shipyard Bureau Naval Construction Bureau Legal Bureau Administrative/Accounting Bureau Navy Aviation Bureau Navy Academy Naval War College Naval Accounting School Navy Medical School Naval Engineering School Submarine Division Canals and Waterways Division Naval Technical Department Naval Tribunal Tokyo Naval Tribunal Chemical Warfare Division Radio and Radar Division Supply and Transport Bureau Naval Construction Division Naval Maintenance & Repair Division Special Attack Weapons Division Emergency Reaction Division Naval Aviation Training Division Naval Intelligence Division By law, Navy Ministers had to be appointed from active duty admirals or vice-admirals.
Katsu Kaishū Kawamura Sumiyoshi Enomoto Takeaki Nakamuta Kuranosuke Kabayama Sukenori Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff Asada, Sadao. From Mahan to Pearl Harbor: The Imperial Japanese Navy and the United States. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-042-8. Schencking, J. Charles. Making Waves: Politics, And The Emergence Of The Imperial Japanese Navy, 1868–1922. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4977-9. Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-74101-3. "Foreign Office Files for Japan and the Far East". Adam Matthew Publications
The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London at Lansdowne House, on 30 January 1902, by Lord Lansdowne and Hayashi Tadasu. A diplomatic milestone that saw an end to Britain's splendid isolation, the alliance was renewed and expanded in scope twice, in 1905 and 1911, before its demise in 1921, it was terminated in 1923. The possibility of an alliance between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Empire of Japan had been canvassed since 1895, when Britain refused to join the Triple Intervention of France and Russia against the Japanese occupation of the Liaodong Peninsula. While this single event was an unstable basis for an alliance, the case was strengthened by the support Britain had given Japan in its drive towards modernisation and their co-operative efforts to put down the Boxer Rebellion. Newspapers of both countries voiced support for such an alliance; the 1894 Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation had paved the way for equal relations and the possibility of an alliance.
In the end, the common interest fuelling the alliance was opposition to Russian expansion. This was made clear as early as the 1890s, when the British diplomat Cecil Spring Rice identified that Britain and Japan working in concert was the only way to challenge Russian power in the region. Negotiations began. Both countries had their reservations. Britain was cautious about abandoning its policy of "splendid isolation", wary of antagonising Russia, unwilling to act on the treaty if Japan were to attack the United States. There were factions in the Japanese government that still hoped for a compromise with Russia, including the powerful political figure Hirobumi Itō, who had served four terms as Prime Minister of Japan, it was thought that friendship within Asia would be more amenable to the US, uncomfortable with the rise of Japan as a power. Furthermore, Britain was unwilling to protect Japanese interests in Korea and the Japanese were unwilling to support Britain in India. Hayashi and Lord Lansdowne began their discussions in July 1901, disputes over Korea and India delayed them until November.
At this point, Hirobumi Itō requested a delay in negotiations in order to attempt a reconciliation with Russia. He was unsuccessful, Britain expressed concerns over duplicity on Japan's part, so Hayashi hurriedly re-entered negotiations in 1902; the treaty contained six articles: Article 1 The High Contracting parties, having mutually recognised the independence of China and Korea, declare themselves to be uninfluenced by aggressive tendencies in either country, having in view, their special interests, of which those of Great Britain relate principally to China, whilst Japan, in addition to the interests which she possesses in China, is interested in a peculiar degree, politically as well as commercially and industrially in Korea, the High Contracting parties recognise that it will be admissible for either of them to take such measures as may be indispensable in order to safeguard those interests if threatened either by the aggressive action of any other Power, or by disturbances arising in China or Korea, necessitating the intervention of either of the High Contracting parties for the protection of the lives and properties of its subjects.
Article 2 Declaration of neutrality if either signatory becomes involved in war through Article 1. Article 3 Promise of support if either signatory becomes involved in war with more than one Power. Article 4 Signatories promise not to enter into separate agreements with other Powers to the prejudice of this alliance. Article 5 The signatories promise to communicate frankly and with each other when any of the interests affected by this treaty are in jeopardy. Article 6 Treaty to remain in force for five years and at one years' notice, unless notice was given at the end of the fourth year. Articles 2 and 3 were most crucial concerning mutual defence; the treaty laid out an acknowledgement of Japanese interests in Korea without obligating Britain to help should a Russo-Japanese conflict arise on this account. Japan was not obligated to defend British interests in India. Although written using careful and clear language, the two sides understood the Treaty differently. Britain saw it as a gentle warning to Russia.
From that point on those of a moderate stance refused to accept a compromise over the issue of Korea. Extremists saw it as an open invitation for imperial expansion; the alliance was renewed and extended in scope twice, in 1905 and 1911. This was prompted by British suspicions about Japanese intentions in South Asia. Japan appeared tolerating visits by figures such as Rash Behari Bose; the July 1905 renegotiations allowed for Japanese support of British interests in India and British support for Japanese progress into Korea. By November of that year Korea was a Japanese protectorate, in February 1906 Itō Hirobumi was posted as the Resident General to Seoul. At the renewal in 1911, Japanese diplomat Komura Jutarō played a key role to restore Japan's tariff autonomy; the alliance was announced on 12 February 1902. In response, Russia sought to form alliances with Germany, which Germany declined. On 16 March 1902, a mutual pact was signed between Russia. China and the United States were opposed to the alliance.
The nature o