Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
The Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University brings together biomedical, clinical and behavioral scientists to conduct research and community service programs in the field of human nutrition. Founded in 1981, the school's mission is to generate trusted science, educate future leaders, produce real world impact in nutrition science and policy; the Friedman School is one of the eight schools that comprise Tufts University. Although split between the university's Medford/Somerville campus and the health sciences campus in Boston all of the school's facilities and programs now share the health sciences campus with the School of Medicine and the School of Dental Medicine; the Jaharis Family Center for Biomedical and Nutrition Research, which opened in 2002, houses most of the nutrition school. The school enrolls over 200 masters and doctoral students; the Friedman School is under the supervision of a dean, appointed by the president and the provost, with the approval of the Trustees of Tufts College.
The dean has responsibility for the overall administration of the school, including faculty appointments, curriculum and financial aid, student affairs and facilities. Dariush Mozaffarian, a cardiologist and epidemiologist, was appointed dean of the Friedman School in 2014, assuming the post on July 1 of that year. Faculty at the school include biomedical scientists, nutritionists, physicians, political scientists and psychologists focusing on a myriad of issues with the common thread of nutrition and its role in understanding and fostering the growth and development of human populations; the school's concern with the problems of hunger and malnutrition in United States and abroad is reflected in the research and applied work being done by its faculty and students. Areas of specialty include the socioeconomic parameters of malnutrition, nutrition program design and implementation, social marketing and development policy. Graduates of the programs in these areas are employed in government and non-governmental agencies as well as private voluntary organizations throughout the world and in the United States.
Many Friedman School faculty members hold a dual appointment at the Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging. Supported by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the HNRCA is the largest research institution in the world devoted to investigating the relationship between nutrition and aging. Official website
College of Europe
The College of Europe is a postgraduate institute of European studies with its main campus in Bruges, Belgium and a smaller campus in Warsaw, Poland. The College of Europe in Bruges was founded in 1949 by leading historical European figures and founding fathers of the European Union, including Salvador de Madariaga, Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak and Alcide De Gasperi in the wake of the Hague Congress of 1948 to promote "a spirit of solidarity and mutual understanding between all the nations of Western Europe and to provide elite training to individuals who will uphold these values" and "to train an elite of young executives for Europe." The founders imagined the college as a place where Europe's future leaders could live and study together. It has the status of "Institution of Public Interest", operating according to Belgian law; the second campus in Natolin, Poland was opened in 1992. Students are selected in cooperation with their countries' ministries of foreign affairs, admission is competitive.
The College of Europe is bilingual, students must be proficient in English and French. Students receive an advanced master's degree following a one-year programme. Traditionally, students specialise in either European Law, European Economic Studies, or European Political and Administrative Studies. According to The Times, the "College of Europe, in the medieval Belgian city of Bruges, is to the European political elite what the Harvard Business School is to American corporate life, it is a hothouse where the ambitious and talented go to make contacts". The Economist describes it as "an elite finishing school for aspiring Eurocrats." The Financial Times writes that "the elite College of Europe in Bruges" is "an institution geared to producing crop after crop of graduates with a lifelong enthusiasm for EU integration." Former European Commissioner for Education Ján Figeľ described the college as "one of the most emblematic centres of European studies in the European Union". The BBC has referred to it as "the EU's own Oxbridge".
The college has been described as "the leading place to study European affairs" and as "the elite training center for the European Union's political class". RFE/RL has referred to the college as "a Euro-federalist hot-spot." The Global Mail has described its students as "Europe's leaders-in-waiting."Each academic year is named after a patron and referred to as a promotion. The academic year is opened by a leading European politician; the College of Europe shares several traditions with the École nationale d'administration of France, but has a more European focus. Its anciens include the former Prime Minister of Denmark Helle Thorning-Schmidt, the former Prime Minister of Finland Alexander Stubb, the former British Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg as well as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy Enzo Moavero Milanesi, several of whom have been professors at the college. Many of its anciens go on to serve as senior civil servants in European institutions. In February 2019, following investigations of the press, a series of articles revealed that the College of Europe was paid by the Saudi government to set up private meetings between Saudi ambassadors, EU officials, MEPs.
In addition, it was published that a culture of sexual harassment and misogyny takes place at the College of Europe. The College of Europe was the world's first university institute of postgraduate studies and training in European affairs, it was founded in 1949 by leading European figures, such as Salvador de Madariaga, Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak and Alcide De Gasperi, in the wake of the Hague Congress of 1948. They imagined a college where Europe's future leaders, some from countries only a short while before at war with each other, could live and study together; the Hague Congress led to the creation of the European Movement. A group of Bruges citizens led by the Reverend Karel Verleye succeeded in attracting the college to Bruges. Professor Hendrik Brugmans, one of the intellectual leaders of the European Movement and the President of the Union of European Federalists, became its first Rector. After the fall of communism, in the wake of the changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the College of Europe campus at Natolin, was founded in 1992 with the support of the European Commission and the Polish government.
The college now operates as ‘one College – two campuses,’ and what was once referred to as the ‘esprit de Bruges’, is now known as the ‘esprit du Collège’. In 1998, former students of the college set up the Madariaga – College of Europe Foundation, presided over by Javier Solana; the number of enrolled students has increased since the 1990s. The College of Europe had no permanent teaching staff. In the last couple of decades, the college has employed professors and other teaching staff on a permanent basis. On the 12th of February 2019, the European online newspaper EUobserver wrote that the College of Europe was paid by the Saudi government to set up private meetings between Saudi ambassadors, EU officials, MEPs.. The following week, the French language weekly news magazine based in Brussels Le Vif/L'Express published an article which revealed a culture of sexual harassement and misogyny from both the academics and the students from which the College administration turns a blind eye; the Bruges campus is situated in the centre of Bruges, appointed European Capital of Culture in 2002.
Bruges is located in the Flemish Region of Belgium, a Dutch-speaking area, although the colleg
Goddard Hall (Tufts University)
Goddard Hall known as Goddard Gymnasium, is a historic academic building on the campus of Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Built in 1883 and designed by George Albert Clough, it was built to serve Tufts students as a gymnasium. In 1892, the building was remodeled and in 1930, the building was handed over to the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy for use as a library. Goddard Hall was built as a three story rectangular brick building with arched windows; the south and east facade were altered from the original design but still contain the same motif of arched windows and egg-and-dart molding of the original section. The 1892 facade makes extensive use of Meander motifs in the corner quoins. Prior to construction, students would exercise by using an open-air gym behind West Hall. Announcement of construction of Goddard Hall came at the same time as that of the Barnum Museum of Natural History; the building was built with funds from Mary T. Goddard who assisted in the construction of Goddard Chapel.
The university commissioned George Clough, well known in Boston for his restoration of the Old State House, the design of the Suffolk County Courthouse. The original building provided basic facilities, including an open main floor and locker and shower facilities located in the basement. In 1897, freshmen and sophomores were required two hours of week at the gymnasium from Thanksgiving until Spring recess. At the time, the building was the only large space used for large gatherings; the building was used for commencement dinner each year. In 1898, the demands to expand the building were approved by the Board of Trustees. Additions to the front and sides provided the building with a basketball dance floor above. An indoor track was built at the level of the dance floor, in addition to a gallery around the main gym area; the Department of Music was given rooms on the third floor. In 1930, Goddard Gymnasium became Goddard Hall, when the gymnasium moved to Cousens Gym on College Avenue; the building was handed over to the new Fletcher School of Diplomacy.
The interior space was converted into. The main part houses a large reading room while the top floors are reserved for stacks, office space, seminar rooms; the structure was connected to Mugar Hall in the west in 1960, the Cabot Intercultural Center in 1980
International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes of aggression; the ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force; the Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute, for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC; as of March 2019, there are 124 ICC member states. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, the Registry.
The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates proceedings before the Judicial Division; the Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the administrative functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit, public defense office. The Office of the Prosecutor has opened ten official investigations and is conducting an additional eleven preliminary examinations, thus far, 44 individuals have been indicted in the ICC, including Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony, Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, Kenyan president Uhuru Kenyatta, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, DR Congo vice-president Jean-Pierre Bemba. The ICC has faced a number of criticisms from states and civil society, including objections about its jurisdiction, accusations of bias, questioning of the fairness of its case-selection and trial procedures, doubts about its effectiveness.
The establishment of an international tribunal to judge political leaders accused of international crimes was first proposed during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the First World War by the Commission of Responsibilities. The issue was addressed again at a conference held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations in 1937, which resulted in the conclusion of the first convention stipulating the establishment of a permanent international court to try acts of international terrorism; the convention was signed by 13 states, but none ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two ad hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes; the International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly first recognised the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind prosecuted after the Second World War.
At the request of the General Assembly, the International Law Commission drafted two statutes by the early 1950s but these were shelved during the Cold War, which made the establishment of an international criminal court politically unrealistic. Benjamin B. Ferencz, an investigator of Nazi war crimes after the Second World War, the Chief Prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, became a vocal advocate of the establishment of international rule of law and of an international criminal court. In his first book published in 1975, entitled Defining International Aggression: The Search for World Peace, he advocated for the establishment of such a court. A second major advocate was Robert Kurt Woetzel, who co-edited Toward a Feasible International Criminal Court in 1970 and created the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court in 1971. In June 1989 Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago A. N. R. Robinson revived the idea of a permanent international criminal court by proposing the creation of such a court to deal with the illegal drug trade.
Following Trinidad and Tobago's proposal, the General Assembly tasked the ILC with once again drafting a statute for a permanent court. While work began on the draft, the United Nations Security Council established two ad hoc tribunals in the early 1990s; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was created in 1993 in response to large-scale atrocities committed by armed forces during Yugoslav Wars, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was created in 1994 following the Rwandan Genocide. The creation of these tribunals further highlighted the need for a permanent international criminal court. In 1994, the ILC presented its final draft statute for the International Criminal Court to the General Assembly and recommended that a conference be convened to negotiate a treaty that would serve as the Court's statute. To consider major substantive issues in the draft statute, the General Assembly established the Ad Hoc Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, which met twice in 1995.
After considering the Committee's report, the General Assembly created the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of the ICC to prepare a consolidated draft text. From 1996 to 1998, six sessions of the Preparatory Committee were held at the United Nations headquarters in New York City, during which NGOs provided input and attended meetings under the umbrella organisation of the Coalition for the International Criminal Court. In January 1998, the Bureau and coordinators
Institute for Business in the Global Context
Institute for Business in the Global Context is an educational organization founded in 2011, devoted to international business studies, within The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, at Tufts University. IBGC houses the school's Master of International Business, the Council on Emerging Market Enterprises. In the late 1970s the Fletcher school started to incorporate some international business and finance courses within a curriculum traditionally centered on international politics. In 2007 the Fletcher school created the Master of International Business program and the think tank Center for Emerging Market Enterprises, both of which were launched in the fall 2008 along with several new international business centered initiatives at The Fletcher School; these new initiatives, under the auspices of Dean Stephen W. Bosworth, were part of the Fletcher school's strategy of connecting the study of business with its larger social and political context. Fletcher alumnus and co-founder and former executive director of Mercer Oliver Wyman, Charles N. Bralver, was appointed the first Senior Associate Dean for International Business and Finance at the Fletcher School from 2007 to 2010 and was Executive Director of the MIB and CEME during that period.
In 2011 Bralver was succeeded by Bhaskar Chakravorti. Chakravorti is a former partner of McKinsey & Company, held research and teaching positions at MIT and Harvard University; as the Senior Associate Dean of International Business and Finance, Chakravorti founded the IBGC and incorporated within it the MIB and CEME. The new institute serves as umbrella department to host the school's international business education and research, he defined the purpose of IBGC as "creating cross-linkages between business and the broader contextual factors that affect business and vice versa", adding that subjects could include "geography, cross-border issues, security questions and cultural issues." He argued that Fletcher's unique approach to business lies in that "there is a lot of overlap of business decisions with the public policy arena and issues like international trade and conflict, humanitarian issues, inclusive growth issues. These are not the kind of topics that business schools talk about". Inc. magazine noted IBGC's thinking that as more businesses become global in scope, leaders must become experts in geopolitics as well as economics and must be conversant in topics as diverse as the domestic agendas of foreign markets and the ways those countries use natural resources and resolve regional disputes.
In December 2013 CEME's full form name was changed to Council on Emerging Market Enterprises, transitioned into serving as a nexus of experts. At the same time of the name change, CEME was merged with, became a subsidiary of, IBGC. IBGC houses the Fletcher School's the two-year residential Master of International Business degree program which combines an international affairs curriculum with a core of business courses. IBGC's founding dean noted that the MIB program is different from traditional business schools MBA programs in that the MIB trains its students to not only understand markets and private enterprise, but to understand the underlying international socio-political forces that impact them: "the political framework, legislative environment, security issues and historical considerations that are specific to each country, as well as the widening gap between rich and poor that plagues many economies". "The biggest problems in the world arise not just from state failures, or just from market failures.
They come from a combination of both", so "classes on finance and marketing are crucial but they have little value unless they're framed in the appropriate historical, political or sociological context". Understanding these can lead to identifying new opportunities. In addition, Dean Chakravorti argues that the program, infused with a liberal-arts education, prepares graduates to understand ambiguity and the constant shifting of the world; the MIB degree offers courses on emerging market entrepreneurship, impact investing, inclusive finance ventures, as well as more traditional business courses in finance, operations and management, etc. Students who undertake the MIB have previous international experience, coming from both the private sector, as well as NGOs. Students are required to demonstrate proficiency in a second language. IBGC's director notes that the program gets its value from the academic proficiency of the professors, as well as from the diversity of experiences that students bring.
Besides housing the school's Master of International Business and other course-based programs, IBGC is organized around three other "core activity areas": research, a lab. IBGC’s research areas of focus include Country Management and Doing Business in BRICS, Inclusive and Sustainable Growth and Change, Sovereign Wealth Funds and Global Capital Flows; the Institute, CEME, engage with global entities and businesses through its several conferences, speaker series, a consulting course. One example of such events was the 2014 conference Turkey’s Turn? Perennial Linchpin or Emerging Hub?. IBGC supports the student-led Fletcher International Business Club. Additional activities offered through the Institute allow students to engage in field work through consulting, business-related research and social start-ups. Under the Global Consulting Program businesses can engage students for consulting projects that require "a multidisciplinary approach, as well as cross-cultural and foreign language skills".
Since 2013 IBGC has organized the Fletcher D-Prize Poverty Solutions Ventur
United States Under Secretary of the Air Force
The Under Secretary of the Air Force is the second-highest ranking civilian official in the Department of the Air Force of the United States of America, serving directly under the Secretary of the Air Force. In the absence of the Secretary, the Under Secretary exercises all the powers and duties of the Secretary and serves as Acting Secretary when the position of Secretary is vacant; the Under Secretary of the Air Force is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent the Senate, to serve at the President's pleasure. The Secretary and Under Secretary, together with two military officers, constitute the senior leadership team of the Department of the Air Force; the Under Secretary of the Air Force supervises the following officials: Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Assistant Secretary of the Air Force General Counsel of the Air ForceThe current Under Secretary of the Air Force is Matthew Donovan, confirmed by the United States Senate on August 1, 2017.
Leadership of the National Reconnaissance Office HAF MISSION DIRECTIVE 1–2, UNDER SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE, 8 SEPTEMBER 2008, accessed on 2011-01-10. Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2004. Washington, D. C.: Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2004 Office of the Secretary of the Air Force – Organizational and Functional Charts 1947–1984. Washington, D. C.. Washington, D. C.. Washington, D. C..
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations, dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural and economic impacts and risks, possible response options. It was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly. Membership is open to all members of the WMO and UN; the IPCC produces reports that contribute to the work of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main international treaty on climate change. The objective of the UNFCCC is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system"; the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report was a critical scientific input into the UNFCCC's Paris Agreement in 2015. IPCC reports cover the "scientific and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation."
The IPCC does not carry out original research, nor does it monitor climate or related phenomena itself. Rather, it assesses published literature including non-peer-reviewed sources. However, the IPCC can be said to stimulate research in climate science. Chapters of IPCC reports close with sections on limitations and knowledge or research gaps, the announcement of an IPCC special report can catalyse research activity in that area. Thousands of scientists and other experts contribute on a voluntary basis to writing and reviewing reports, which are reviewed by governments. IPCC reports contain a "Summary for Policymakers", subject to line-by-line approval by delegates from all participating governments; this involves the governments of more than 120 countries. The IPCC provides an internationally accepted authority on climate change, producing reports which have the agreement of leading climate scientists and the consensus of participating governments; the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was shared, between the IPCC and Al Gore.
Following the election of a new Bureau in 2015, the IPCC embarked on its sixth assessment cycle. Besides the Sixth Assessment Report, to be completed in 2022, the IPCC released the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C in October 2018, will release an update to its 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories—the 2019 Refinement—in May 2019, will deliver two further special reports in 2019: the Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, Climate Change and Land. This makes the sixth assessment cycle the most ambitious in the IPCC's 30-year history; the IPCC decided to prepare a special report on cities and climate change in the seventh assessment cycle, held a conference in March 2018 to stimulate research in this area. The IPCC developed from an international scientific body, the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases set up in 1985 by the International Council of Scientific Unions, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Organization to provide recommendations based on current research.
This small group of scientists lacked the resources to cover the complex interdisciplinary nature of climate science. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and State Department wanted an international convention to agree restrictions on greenhouse gases, the conservative Reagan Administration was concerned about unrestrained influence from independent scientists or from United Nations bodies including UNEP and the WMO; the U. S. government was the main force in forming the IPCC as an autonomous intergovernmental body in which scientists took part both as experts on the science and as official representatives of their governments, to produce reports which had the firm backing of all the leading scientists worldwide researching the topic, which had to gain consensus agreement from every one of the participating governments. In this way, it was formed as a hybrid between a scientific body and an intergovernmental political organisation; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assesses peer-reviewed scientific literature and other relevant publications to provide information on the state of knowledge about climate change.
It does not conduct its own original research. It produces comprehensive assessments, reports on special topics, methodologies; the assessments build on previous reports. For example the wording of the reports from the first to the fifth assessment reflects the growing evidence for a changing climate caused by human activity; the IPCC has adopted and published "Principles Governing IPCC Work", which states that the IPCC will assess: the risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, possible options for prevention. This document states that IPCC will do this work by assessing "on a comprehensive, objective and transparent basis the scientific and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis" of these topics; the Principles state that "IPCC reports should be neutral with respect to policy, although they may need to deal objectively with scientific and socio-economic factors relevant to the application of particular policies." Korean economist Hoesung Lee has been the chair of the IPCC since 8 October 2015, with the election of the new IPCC Bureau.
Before this election, the IPCC was led by Vice-Chair Ismail El Gizouli, designated acting Chair after the resignation of Rajendra K. Pachauri in February 2015; the previous chairs w