12th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry
The 12th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union army during the American Civil War. It was formed on June 1861, in Boston, Massachusetts, its original commander was Colonel Fletcher Webster, son of the famed U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, Daniel Webster; the unit was known as the "Webster Regiment" after its first colonel. Col. Webster began recruiting in April 1861 shortly after the attack on Fort Sumter. At that time, most recruits in Massachusetts were used to fill up the ranks in the existing state militia regiments, therefore it was several weeks before Webster had managed to recruit a full regiment; the unit was trained at Fort Warren in Boston harbor. On July 19, 1861, the regiment was reviewed by Governor John Albion Andrew on Boston Common and presented with its colors. On July 23, the 12th Massachusetts departed Boston for the war front; the regimental surgeon was son of Congressman Portus Baxter. J. H. Baxter served as Surgeon General of the United States Army.
The regiment was first assigned to the Army of the Shenandoah under the command of Major General Nathaniel P. Banks; until the spring of 1862, the regiment was employed in uneventful picket duty in the vicinity of Frederick, Maryland. In late February, the 12th Massachusetts, as part of Brigadier General John Abercrombie's brigade, moved into Virginia. On April 18, 1862, while on picket duty along the Rappahannock River the men of the 12th Massachusetts exchanged sporadic fire with Confederates on the other side of the river; this was the first time. At the Battle of Antietam, the regiment lost 224 of 334 men, it was the highest percentage casualty rate of any Union regiment in the battle. Colonel Fletcher Webster--son of Congressman Daniel Webster. Private John Edward Gilman, Company E - 40th Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, 1910-1911 Massachusetts in the Civil War List of Massachusetts Civil War units "Twelfth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry". Massachusetts Soldiers and Marines in the Civil War.
Massachusetts Adjutant General. 1937. Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved September 10, 2011. Bowen, James L.. Massachusetts in the War, 1861–1865. Clark W. Bryan & Co. Schouler, William. A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War. E. P. Dutton & Co. History of the Twelfth Massachusetts Volunteers at the Internet Archive
John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after serving as the tenth vice president. Tyler ascended to the presidency after Harrison's death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration, he was a stalwart supporter of states' rights, as president he adopted nationalist policies only when they did not infringe on the powers of the states. His unexpected rise to the presidency, with the resulting threat to the presidential ambitions of Henry Clay and other politicians, left him estranged from both major political parties. Tyler, born to a prominent Virginia family, became a national figure at a time of political upheaval. In the 1820s the nation's only political party, the Democratic-Republicans, split into factions, he was a Democrat, but opposed Andrew Jackson during the Nullification Crisis, seeing Jackson's actions as infringing upon states' rights, criticized Jackson's expansion of executive power during the Bank War. This led Tyler to ally with the Whig Party.
Tyler served as a Virginia state legislator, governor, U. S. representative, U. S. senator. He was put on the 1840 presidential ticket to attract states' rights Southerners to a Whig coalition to defeat Martin Van Buren's re-election bid. With the death of President Harrison after just one month in office, Tyler became the first vice president to succeed to the presidency without election, he served longer than any president in U. S. history not elected to the office. To forestall constitutional uncertainty, Tyler took the oath of office, moved into the White House, assumed full presidential powers, a precedent that governed future successions and was codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment. While Tyler did sign into law some of the Whig-controlled Congress's bills, as a strict constructionist he vetoed the party's bills to create a national bank and raise the tariff rates. Believing that the president should set policy rather than Congress, he sought to bypass the Whig establishment, most notably Kentucky Senator Henry Clay.
Most of Tyler's Cabinet resigned soon into his term, the Whigs, dubbing him His Accidency, expelled him from the party. Tyler was the first president to see his veto of legislation overridden by Congress. Although he faced a stalemate on domestic policy, he had several foreign-policy achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain and the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing China; the Republic of Texas separated from Mexico in 1836. He sought election to a full term as president, but after failing to gain the support of either Whigs or Democrats, he withdrew in support of Democrat James K. Polk, who favored annexation. Polk won the election, Tyler signed a bill to annex Texas three days before leaving office. Under Polk, the process was completed. After the American Civil War began in 1861, Tyler joined the government of the Confederacy. Although some have praised Tyler's political resolve, his presidency is held in low regard by historians, he is considered an obscure president, with little presence in American cultural memory.
John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790. The Tyler family traced its lineage to colonial Williamsburg in the 17th century. John Tyler Sr. known as Judge Tyler, was a friend and college roommate of Thomas Jefferson and served in the Virginia House of Delegates alongside Benjamin Harrison V, father of William. The elder Tyler served four years as Speaker of the House of Delegates before becoming a state court judge, he subsequently served as governor and as a judge on the U. S. District Court at Richmond, his wife, Mary Marot, was the daughter of Robert Booth Armistead. She died of a stroke. With two brothers and five sisters, Tyler was reared on Greenway Plantation, a 1,200-acre estate with a six-room manor house his father had built; the Tylers' forty slaves grew various crops, including wheat and tobacco. Judge Tyler paid high wages for tutors. Tyler was of frail health and prone to diarrhea throughout life. At the age of twelve, he entered the preparatory branch of the elite College of William and Mary, continuing the Tyler family's tradition of attending the college.
Tyler graduated from the school's collegiate branch at age seventeen. Among the books that formed his economic views was Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, he acquired a lifelong love of Shakespeare, his political opinions were shaped by Bishop James Madison, the college's president and namesake of the future president. After graduation Tyler read the law with his father, a state judge at the time, with Edmund Randolph, former United States Attorney General. Tyler was erroneously admitted to the Virginia bar at the premature age of 19—the admitting judge neglected to ask his age. By this time his father was serving as Governor of Virginia, the young Tyler started a practice in Richmond, the state capital. In 1813 he purchased Woodburn plantation, resided there until 1821. In 1811, at age 21, Tyler was elected to represent Charles City County in the House of Delegate
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30, 1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of the Northern Virginia Campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run fought on July 21, 1861 on the same ground. Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D. C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge and awaited the arrival of the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet. On August 28, 1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawner's Farm, resulting in a stalemate but getting Pope's attention.
On that same day, Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap and approached the battlefield. Pope became convinced that he had concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson's position along an unfinished railroad grade; the attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank. On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks unaware that Longstreet was on the field; when massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter's V Corps, Longstreet's wing of 25,000 men in five divisions counterattacked in the largest simultaneous mass assault of the war; the Union left flank was crushed and the army was driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rear guard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas defeat. Pope's retreat to Centreville was nonetheless precipitous.
Success in this battle emboldened Lee to initiate the ensuing Maryland Campaign. After the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed John Pope to command the newly formed Army of Virginia. Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. Pope's mission was to fulfill two basic objectives: protect the Shenandoah Valley. Based on his experience fighting McClellan in the Seven Days, Robert E. Lee perceived that McClellan was no further threat to him on the Virginia Peninsula, so he felt no compulsion to keep all of his forces in direct defense of Richmond; this allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope and protect the Virginia Central Railroad. Lee had larger plans in mind. Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were separated, Lee saw an opportunity to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan.
He committed Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men. On August 3, General-in-Chief Henry Halleck directed McClellan to begin his final withdrawal from the Peninsula and to return to Northern Virginia to support Pope. McClellan protested and did not begin his redeployment until August 14. On August 9, Nathaniel Banks's corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage, but a Confederate counterattack led by A. P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek. Jackson's advance was stopped, however, by the Union division of Brig. Gen. James B. Ricketts. By now Jackson had learned that Pope's corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions, he remained in position until August 12 withdrew to Gordonsville. On August 13, Lee sent Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. From August 22 to 25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River. Heavy rains had swollen the river and Lee was unable to force a crossing. By this time, reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac were arriving from the Peninsula.
Lee's new plan in the face of all these additional forces outnumbering him was to send Jackson and Stuart with half of the army on a flanking march to cut Pope's line of communication, the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. Pope could be defeated while moving and vulnerable. Jackson reached Salem that night. On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope's right flank via Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson's wing of the army struck the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Manassas Junction; this surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock. During the night of August 27–28, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Bull Run battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade below Stony Ridge; the defensive position was a good one. The heavy woods allowed the Confederates to conceal themselves, while maintaining good observation points of the Warrenton Turnpike, the avenue of Union movement, only a few hundred yards to the south.
There were good approach roads for Longstreet to join Jackson, or for Jackson to retreat to the Bull Run Mountains if he could not be reinforced in time. The unfinished railroad grade offered cuts and fills that could be used as ready-made entrenchments. In the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap on August 28, Longstreet's wing broke through light Union resistance and marched through the gap to join Jackson; this seemingl
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in May 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April; the Army of the Potomac was created in 1861 but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, it was the army that fought the war's first major battle, the First Battle of Bull Run; the arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan changed the makeup of that army. McClellan's original assignment was to command the Division of the Potomac, which included the Department of Northeast Virginia under McDowell and the Department of Washington under Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield. On July 26, 1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, was merged with McClellan's departments and on that day, McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, composed of all military forces in the former Departments of Northeastern Virginia, Washington and the Shenandoah.
The men under Banks's command became an infantry division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more. After the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope, it is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellan's unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign. On the contrary, Pope's army consisted of different units, was named the Army of Virginia. During the time that the Army of Virginia existed, the Army of the Potomac was headquartered on the Virginia Peninsula, outside Washington, D. C. with McClellan still in command, although three corps of the Army of the Potomac were sent to northern Virginia and were under Pope's operational control during the Northern Virginia Campaign. The Army of the Potomac underwent many structural changes during its existence; the army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three grand divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more.
Hooker abolished the grand divisions. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, reported directly to army headquarters. Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and— in 1864— the remaining five corps were recombined into three. Burnside's IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below; the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28, 1865, shortly following its participation in the Grand Review of the Armies; the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregard's Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia, which became famous under General Robert E. Lee. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association.
It had its last reunion in 1929. Because of its proximity to the large cities of the North, such as Washington, D. C. Philadelphia, New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more contemporary media coverage than the other Union field armies; such coverage produced fame for a number of this army's units. Individual brigades, such as the Irish Brigade, the Philadelphia Brigade, the First New Jersey Brigade, the Vermont Brigade, the Iron Brigade, all became well known to the general public, both during the Civil War and afterward; the army consisted of fourteen divisions commanded by Edwin Sumner, William B. Franklin, Louis Blenker, Nathaniel Banks, Frederick W. Lander, Silas Casey, Irvin McDowell, Fitz-John Porter, Samuel Heintzelman, Erasmus Keyes, William F. Smith, Charles P. Stone, George McCall; because this arrangement would be too hard to control in battle, President Lincoln issued an order on March 13, 1862, dividing the army into six corps headed by Sumner, Banks, McDowell and Keyes, the highest-ranking officers.
McClellan was not happy with this, as he had intended to wait until the army had been tested in battle before judging which generals were suitable for corps command. After the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, McClellan requested and obtained permission to create two additions corps. Gen Fitz-John Porter, the VI Corps, headed by Brig. Gen William B. Franklin, both personal favorites of his. After the Battle of Kernstown in the Valley on March 23, the administration became paranoid about "Stonewall" Jackson's activities there and the potential danger they posed to Washington D. C. and to McClellan's displeasure, detached Blenker's division from the II Corps and sent it to West Virginia to serve under John C. Fremont's command. McDowell's corps was stationed in the Rappahannock area. In June 1862, George McCall's division from McDowell's corps was sent down to the Peninsula and temporarily attached to the V Corps. In the Seven Days Battles, the V Corps was engaged; the Pennsylvania Reserves, in particular, suffered heavy loss