Fletcher v. Peck

Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U. S. 87, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in which the Supreme Court first ruled a state law unconstitutional. The decision helped create a growing precedent for the sanctity of legal contracts and hinted that Native Americans did not hold complete title to their own lands. Following the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolution, Georgia claimed possession of the Yazoo lands, a 54,000 sq mi region of the Indian Reserve, west of its own territory; the land became the states of Alabama and Mississippi. In 1795, the Georgia legislature divided the area into four tracts; the state sold the tracts to four separate land development companies for $500,000, about $0.014 per acre, a bargain at 1790 prices. The Georgia legislature overwhelmingly approved this land grant, known as the Yazoo Land Act of 1795. However, it was revealed that the Yazoo Land Act had been approved in return for bribes; the voters rejected most of the incumbents in the next election. Robert Fletcher and John Peck were speculators in the Yazoo lands.

Fletcher bought a tract of land from Peck. Fletcher, in 1803, brought a suit against Peck, claiming that Peck had not had clear title to the land when he sold it. There was collusion between the two. Both would have their land secured if the Supreme Court decided that Native Americans did not hold original title. Fletcher set out to win the case; the Supreme Court unanimously ruled. John Marshall wrote that the sale was a binding contract, which under Article I, Section 10, Clause I of the Constitution, cannot be invalidated if it is illegally secured; the ruling lent further protection to property rights against popular pressures and is the earliest case of the Court asserting its right to invalidate state laws which are in conflict with or are otherwise contrary to the Constitution. A Chief Justice, William H. Rehnquist, wrote that Fletcher v. Peck, "represented an attempt by Chief Justice Marshall to extend the protection of the contract clause to infant business". List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 10 Yazoo land scandal Smith, Jean Edward.

John Marshall: Definer Of A Nation. Henry Holt & Company. Magrath, C. Peter. Yazoo: Law and Politics in the New Republic: The Case of Fletcher v. Peck. ISBN 0-608-18419-5. Text of Fletcher v. Peck, 10 U. S. 87 is available from: Cornell CourtListener Justia Library of Congress OpenJurist Oyez University of Tulsa Famous Cases Case Brief for Fletcher v. Peck at

Nowergup, Western Australia

Nowergup is a rural locality about 40 kilometres north of Perth, Western Australia. It is in the local government area of the City of Wanneroo; the suburb of Nowergup takes its name from Lake Nowergup. The lake name was first recorded by Surveyor General John Septimus Roe in 1841, is a Noongar word which means "place of sweet water", it was approved as a suburb name in 1982. Nowergup is bounded by Romeo Road/Karoborup Road to the north, the proposed Mitchell Freeway to the west, Pinjar Road to the east and Hester Avenue and Wattle Avenue to the south. At the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 census, Nowergup had a population of 212 people living in 81 dwellings. Nowergup is a sparsely populated agricultural suburb. Several plant nurseries, the Ocean View Tavern and the Nowergup Lake wetland and fauna sanctuary are situated along Wanneroo Road; the western strip between Wanneroo Road and the proposed Mitchell Freeway is the northern half of the Neerabup National Park. The area contains most of the Pinjar Pine Plantation, numerous sand and limestone quarries and a Water Corporation biosolids facility.

Barbagallo Raceway, WA's premier motorsport facility, is located just beyond Nowergup's southern border. The Nowergup Depot marks the end of the Joondalup railway line. Nowergup was served by the Transperth 490 bus route between Clarkson train station and Two Rocks along Wanneroo Road. However, the service was relocated to Marmion Avenue on 14 December 2008 and the suburb is no longer served. Nowergup's political leanings are unclear due to the lack of a polling booth; the nearest large booths tend to favour the Australian Labor Party although most have been won by the Coalition in recent times at federal level

HAL Airport

HAL Airport known as Hindustan Airport, is an airport located in Bangalore, India. Due to its location in the heart of the city, it serves as a hub for general, business and VIP aviation; the airport is used by the Indian Air Force as a cargo and logistics base, as a testing facility by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. It served as the city's main domestic and international airport until 24 May 2008, when it was replaced by the new, much larger Kempegowda International Airport in Devanahalli. There have since been repeated attempts to restart commercial service at the airport; the airport was constructed in 1940 by Walchand Hirachand, founder of Hindustan Aircraft Company, as an aircraft manufacturing centre. Two years the airport was requisitioned by the British for use by the Royal Air Force in order to protect India from Japan during World War II. In 1964 the airport was acquired by the newly established Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. Commercial flights only domestic, began in 1980; the first international flights from HAL Airport began in 1997.

In September 2001, Lufthansa commenced flights between Frankfurt and Bangalore, marking the airport's first nonstop link to Europe. British Airways and Air France followed in October 2005 with flights to London and Paris, respectively. During the 2000s, commercial traffic to HAL Airport was rising at a rate of 35% per year. Between 2006 and 2007 the airport received 8.2 million passengers, well above its capacity of 3.6 million. Because of this, in July 2004 the Government of India permitted the construction of another much larger airport for the city, situated 30 km from the downtown area of the city in the suburb of Devanahalli, after a concession agreement with Bangalore International Airports Limited; the new airport, named Kempegowda International Airport, opened on 24 May 2008. Per the Government's decision that no two commercial airports could exist within a 150 km radius, all passenger and revenue cargo flights were transferred from HAL Airport to KIAB. Since there have been several attempts to reinstate commercial air service at HAL Airport.

Shortly before BIAL's opening, 20,000 employees of the Airports Authority of India went on strike against the closure of HAL Airport and Begumpet Airport in Hyderabad. In January 2015, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar appealed to the Civil Aviation Minister to reopen HAL Airport, citing its loss of revenue and its convenient location within Bangalore. However, the Indian Government has denied these requests in accordance with its 150 km policy; the airport however remains operational round the clock due to non-scheduled, military cargo/logistics, VIP aircraft movements and as a diversion alternative to Kempegowda International Airport in case of emergencies. Runways HAL Airport has one main runway, Runway 09/27: 3,307 by 60 metres CAT I, ILS equippedThis is the principal runway at the airport, it can cater to any type of aircraft including Code-F aircraft like the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 747. There are 4 entry/exit taxiways, 2 on the east side named E2 and E1. There are 2 taxiways on the west side - W2 and W1.

In addition, there are six aprons. The passenger terminal is located on the north side of the airport, it contains separate sections for domestic and international flights. Despite the rise in passenger traffic, there was no room to expand the terminal, the apron in front of it could only park six aircraft; this terminal has now been converted into an executive terminal with lounges and facilities for business and VIP aviation. 14 February 1990, Indian Airlines Flight 605, an Airbus A320, crashed on final approach with 92 fatalities. 28 December 1996, a Blue Dart Aviation Boeing 737 made a heavy, off-center landing causing damage to the aircraft and runway. 12 February 2004, a helicopter being used by the HAL Rotary Wing Academy crashed, injuring both occupants. 26 October 2005, an Indian Air Force MiG-21 crashed killing the pilot. 11 March 2006, a Deccan ATR 72, with 40 passengers and 4 crew made a heavy landing. There were no major injuries but the aircraft was written off. 4 May 2006, a Transmile Air Services 727-2F2F suffered damage to the left wing fuel tank.

21 August 2006, a Kiran Mark II trainer aircraft crashed. 6 June 2007, Sri Lankan Cargo Antonov An-12 lost engine power on runway. 6 March 2009, A NAL Saras aircraft prototype that had taken off from HAL Airport crashed in a field near Bidadi, killing the three man crew of test pilots. 1 February 2019, An Indian Air Force Mirage 2000 modified by HAL on an acceptance flight crashed 500 meters outside the airport perimeter wall after an unsuccessful touch and go on runway 09, both pilots ejected but landed on burning wreckage and died Kempegowda International Airport Begumpet Airport Airport information for VOBG at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Accident history for BLR at Aviation Safety Network Images of HAL Airport passenger terminal after closure