Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Biceps femoris muscle
The biceps femoris is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back. As its name implies, it has two parts, it has two heads of origin: the long head arises from the lower and inner impression on the posterior part of the tuberosity of the ischium. This is a common tendon origin with the semitendinosus muscle, from the lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament; the short head, arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera, between the adductor magnus and vastus lateralis extending up as high as the insertion of the gluteus maximus, from the lateral prolongation of the linea aspera to within 5 cm. of the lateral condyle. The two muscle unite in an intricate fashion; the fibers of the long head form a fusiform belly, which passes obliquely downward and lateralward across the sciatic nerve to end in an aponeurosis which covers the posterior surface of the muscle and receives the fibers of the short head. Inferiorly, the aponeurosis condenses to form a tendon which predominantly inserts onto the lateral side of the head of the fibula.
There is a second small insertional attachment by a small tendon slip into the lateral condyle of the tibia. At its insertion the tendon divides into two portions, which embrace the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. Together, this joining of tendons is referred to as the conjoined tendon of the knee. From the posterior border of the tendon a thin expansion is given off to the fascia of the leg; the tendon of insertion of this muscle forms the lateral hamstring. The short head may be absent; the tendon of insertion may be attached to the Iliotibial band and to retinacular fibers of the lateral joint capsule. A slip may pass to the gastrocnemius, it is a composite muscle as the short head of the biceps femoris develops in the flexor compartment of the thigh and is thus innervated by common fibular branch of the sciatic nerve, while the long head is innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve. The muscle's vascular supply is derived from the anastomoses of several arteries: the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery, the inferior gluteal artery, the popliteal artery.
Both heads of the biceps femoris perform knee flexion. Since the long head originates in the pelvis it is involved in hip extension; the long head of the biceps femoris is a weaker knee flexor. For the same reason the long head is a weaker hip extender; when the knee is semi-flexed, the biceps femoris in consequence of its oblique direction rotates the leg outward. Avulsion of the biceps femoris tendon is common in sports that require explosive bending of the knee as seen in sprinting; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 478 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Kumakura, Hiroo. "Functional analysis of the biceps femoris muscle during locomotor behavior in some primates". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 79: 379–391. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330790314. PMID 2504047. Marshall, John L.. "The Biceps Femoris Tendon and Its Functional Significance". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 54: 1444–1450. Sneath, R. S.. "The insertion of the biceps femoris". J. Anat. 89: 550–553. PMC 1244747. PMID 13278305.
UWash - long head UWash - short head Anatomy photo:14:06-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy photo:14:st-0402 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Vastus intermedius muscle
The vastus intermedius arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under the rectus femoris muscle and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum. Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the quadriceps femoris tendon; the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the rectus femoris has been reflected during dissection a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, however, the two muscles are continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained, it cannot be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres sideways as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral
Quadratus femoris muscle
The quadratus femoris is a flat, quadrilateral skeletal muscle. Located on the posterior side of the hip joint, it is a strong external rotator and adductor of the thigh, but acts to stabilize the femoral head in the acetabulum, it originates on the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity of the ischium of the pelvis. From there, it passes laterally to its insertion on the posterior side of the head of the femur: the quadrate tubercle on the intertrochanteric crest and along the quadrate line, the vertical line which runs downward to bisect the lesser trochanter on the medial side of the femur. Along its course, quadratus is aligned edge to edge with the inferior gemellus above and the adductor magnus below, so that its upper and lower borders run horizontal and parallel. At its origin, the upper margin of the adductor magnus is separated from it by the terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex vessels. A bursa is found between the front of this muscle and the lesser trochanter. Sometimes absent.
Groin pain can be a disabling ailment with many potential root causes: one such cause overlooked, is quadratus femoris tendinitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can show abnormal signal intensity at the insertion of the right quadratus femoris tendon, which suggests inflammation of the area. Since the muscle works to laterally rotate and adduct the femur, actions involving the lower body can strain the muscle. In addition, patients present with hip pain and an increased signal intensity of the MRI of the quadratus femoris have been shown to have a narrower ischiofemoral space compared to the general populace; the ischiofemoral impingement may be a cause of the hip pain associated with quadratus femoris tendinitis. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Mcminn, R. M. H.. Last's Applied. Elsevier Australia. ISBN 0-7295-3752-8. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol 1: Locomotor system. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy.
Thieme. 2006. ISBN 978-1-60406-062-1. PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0409 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips, its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates can not sustain standing erectly; the muscle is remarkably coarse in function and structure, being made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a pelvic bone, the portion of the bone including the crest of the ilium above and behind it; the fibers are lateralward. Three bursae are found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle: One of these, of large size, separates it from the greater trochanter.
When the gluteus maximus takes its fixed point from the pelvis, it extends the acetabulofemoral joint and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body. Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur, its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and adductor magnus. The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed; the lower part of the muscle acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints; the gluteus maximus is involved from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg. Hip thrusts Glute bridge Quadruped hip extensions Kettlebell swings Squats and variations like split squats, pistol squats and wide-stance lunges Deadlift Reverse hyperextension Four-way hip extensions Glute-ham raise Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles.
These tests include: 30 Second Chair to Stand testThis test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility and endurance, which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done. Passive piriformis stretch; the piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required.
Table of muscles of the human body Coccyx This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0403 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-female-17—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Muscles/GluteusMaximus at exrx.net
Anterior compartment of thigh
The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which extend the knee and flex the hip. The anterior compartment is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh that contains groups of muscles together with their nerves and blood supply; the anterior compartment contains the sartorius muscle and the quadriceps femoris group, which consists of the rectus femoris muscle and the three vasti muscles – the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, the vastus medialis. The iliopsoas is sometimes considered a member of the anterior compartment muscles, as is the articularis genus muscle; the anterior compartment is separated from the posterior compartment by the lateral intermuscular septum and from the medial compartment by the medial intermuscular septum. The nerve of the anterior compartment of thigh is the femoral nerve. Innervation for the quadriceps muscles come from the posterior division of the femoral nerve, while the anterior division gives a lateral and a medial branch, the second being responsible for the innervation of the sartorius muscle.
The iliacus and the psoas major and psoas minor muscles, sometimes considered part of the anterior compartment, do not share the same innervation. Whereas the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve, the psoas is innervated by ventral rami of L1-L3; when the external iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament, it becomes the femoral artery, which supplies blood to the anterior compartment and is the largest blood vessel of the inferior member. The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which are extensors of the knee and flexors of the hip joints; the anterior compartment may be affected as part of a compartment syndrome. Antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman knee/muscles/thigh1 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at stanford.edu
The gluteus medius one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis. Its posterior third is covered by the gluteus maximus, its anterior two-thirds by the gluteal aponeurosis, which separates it from the superficial fascia and integument; the gluteus medius muscle starts, or "originates," on the outer surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line above, the anterior gluteal line below. The fibers of the muscle converge into a strong flattened tendon that inserts on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. More the muscle's tendon inserts into an oblique ridge that runs downward and forward on the lateral surface of the greater trochanter. A bursa separates the tendon of the muscle from the surface of the trochanter; the posterior border may be more or less united to the piriformis, or some of the fibers end on its tendon. The posterior fibres of gluteus medius contract to produce hip extension, lateral rotation and abduction.
During gait, the posterior fibres help to decelerate internal rotation of the femur at the end of swing phase. • The anterior part acting alone helps to flex and internally rotate the hip. • The posterior part acting alone helps to extend and externally rotate the hip. • The anterior and posterior parts working together abduct the hip and stabilize the pelvis in the coronal plane. Dysfunction of the gluteus medius or the superior gluteal nerve can be indicated by a positive Trendelenburg's sign. Trendelenburg gait This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:13:st-0404 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna