An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed on the lines of human form, but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade, with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers; the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing is robotics.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics; these robots have created a newer branch of robotics: soft robotics. From the time of ancient civilization there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and automata resembling animals and humans, designed as entertainment; as mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The term comes from a Czech word, meaning "forced labor". U. R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek, the word's true inventor. Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control machine tools in the late 1940s by John T. Parsons and Frank L. Stulen.
The first commercial and programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey. Robots have replaced humans in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. There are concerns about the increasing use of their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions; the use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future; the word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are referred to as bots.
There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate autonomously to some degree, move around, operate physical parts of itself or physical processes and manipulate their environment, exhibit intelligent behavior behavior which mimics humans or other animals. Related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines; the idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban, a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium, a human automaton described in the Lie Zi.
Many ancient mythologies, most modern religions include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus, the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures." In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, described machines powered by air pressure and water; the 11th century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddha's relics were protected by mechanical robots, from the kingdom of Roma visaya. In ancient China, the
Mark W. Tilden is a robotics physicist who produces complex robotic movements from simple analog logic circuits with discrete electronic components, without a microprocessor, he is controversial because of his libertarian Tilden's Laws of Robotics, is known for his invention of BEAM robotics and the WowWee Robosapien humanoid robot. Born in the UK in 1961, raised in Canada, Tilden started at the University of Waterloo moved on to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he developed simple robots such as the SATbot which instinctively aligned itself to the magnetic field of the earth, de-mining insectoids, "Nervous Network" theory and applications, interplanetary explorers, behavioral research into many solar-powered "Living Machines" of his own design. Tilden referred to his early robots as "wimpy" for the results of their programming using Isaac Asimov's Three Rules of Robotics, he accordingly promulgated another set of three rules for what he called "wild" robots survivalists. Having left government service and moved to Hong Kong, Tilden works as a freelance robotics designer and lecturer.
His commercial products are marketed through WowWee Toys. Biomorphic robot-based items include B. I. O. Bugs, Constructobots, G. I Joe Hoverstrike, RoboSapien, Robosapien v2, Robopet, Roboreptile, RS Media, Roboboa, the humanform Femisapien and the Roomscooper floor-cleaning robot. Tilden and his robots have been featured on several television specials, such as "Robots Rising", "The Shape of Life", "TechnoSpy", "Extreme Machines - Incredible Robots", "The Science behind Star Wars", as well as many magazines, newspaper publications and books. A comprehensive article on Tilden by Thomas Marsh is viewable online through the "Robot" Magazine website. Tilden was a technical consultant for the robot scenes in the 2001 movie Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, his robots are continuous background props in the TV series The Big Bang Theory. Movies which feature his robots in prominent roles include The 40 Year Old Virgin, Paul Blart Mall Cop and X-Men: The Last Stand. Tilden appeared in the 2016 documentary film Machine of Human Dreams, which showed the work of several prominent technologists based in Hong Kong.
Behavior based robotics Robot EvoSapien - A website dedicated on Hacking the Robosapien Robot, lots of mods, useful information, codings, videos, including the new line of Mark Tilden Robots. EvoRaptor A Website dedicated to the Roboraptor, videos, videos and lots more. Created 2005 by M. W Tilden and Wow hacked by fans and the Maker community. RoboCommunity - The official WowWee Robotics user community detailing hacks and how-it-was-made pictorial articles on Mark's robots. Superstreng Podcast- A September 2006 podcast interview with Mark Tilden, conducted by Eirik Newth for Norwegian science radio show Superstreng. Robotsrule - Detailed information site on many commercially available entertainment robots. Solarbotics - On-line store for parts, plans and history of BEAM robotics. BEAM Discussion Group - Active on-line discussion group of BEAM robots, builders and history. "Robot" Magazine - Detailed article on Mark Tilden's history and robotics approach, with images. Discover Magazine - Article about Mark Tilden
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from large gasbags filled with a lifting gas, less dense than the surrounding air. In early dirigibles, the lifting gas used was hydrogen, due to its high lifting capacity and ready availability. Helium gas has the same lifting capacity and is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, but is rare and expensive. Significant amounts were first discovered in the United States and for a while helium was only used for airships in that country. Most airships built; the envelope of an airship may form a single gasbag, or may contain a number of internal gas-filled cells. An airship has engines and optionally payload accommodation housed in one or more "gondolas" suspended below the envelope; the main types of airship are non-rigid, semi-rigid, rigid. Non-rigid airships called "blimps", rely on internal pressure to maintain their shape. Semi-rigid airships maintain the envelope shape by internal pressure, but have some form of supporting structure, such as a fixed keel, attached to it.
Rigid airships have an outer structural framework that maintains the shape and carries all structural loads, while the lifting gas is contained in one or more internal gasbags or cells. Rigid airships were first flown by Count Zeppelin and the vast majority of rigid airships built were manufactured by the firm he founded; as a result, rigid airships are called zeppelins. Airships were the first aircraft capable of controlled powered flight, were most used before the 1940s, their decline was accelerated by a series of high-profile accidents, including the 1930 crash and burning of British R101 in France, the 1933 and 1935 storm-related crashes of the twin airborne aircraft carrier U. S. Navy helium-filled rigids, the USS Akron and USS Macon and the 1937 burning of the German hydrogen-filled Hindenburg. From the 1960s, helium airships have been used in applications where the ability to hover in one place for an extended period outweighs the need for speed and manoeuvrability, such as advertising, camera platforms, geological surveys, aerial observation.
During the pioneer years of aeronautics, terms such as "airship", "air-ship", "air ship" and "ship of the air" meant any kind of navigable or dirigible flying machine. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "air yachts." In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". Nowadays the term "airship" is used only for powered, dirigible balloons, with sub-types being classified as rigid, semi-rigid or non-rigid. Semi-rigid architecture is the more recent, following advances in deformable structures and the exigency of reducing weight and volume of the airships, they have a minimal structure. An aerostat is an aircraft that remains aloft using buoyancy or static lift, as opposed to the aerodyne, which obtains lift by moving through the air. Airships are a type of aerostat; the term aerostat has been used to indicate a tethered or moored balloon as opposed to a free-floating balloon.
Aerostats today are capable of lifting a payload of 3,000 pounds to an altitude of more than 4.5 kilometers above sea level. They can stay in the air for extended periods of time when powered by an on-board generator or if the tether contains electrical conductors. Due to this capability, aerostats can be used as platforms for telecommunication services. For instance, Platform Wireless International Corporation announced in 2001 that it would use a tethered 1,250-pound airborne payload to deliver cellular phone service to a 140-mile region in Brazil; the European Union's ABSOLUTE project was reportedly exploring the use of tethered aerostat stations to provide telecommunications during disaster response. Airships were called dirigible balloons, from the French ballon dirigeable or shortly dirigeable; this was the name that inventor Henri Giffard gave to his machine that made its first flight on 24 September 1852. A blimp is a non-rigid aerostat. In American usage it refers to a non-rigid type of dirigible balloon or airship.
In British usage it refers to any non-rigid aerostat, including barrage balloons and other kite balloons, having a streamlined shape and stabilising tail fins. The term zeppelin is a genericized trademark that referred to airships manufactured by the German Zeppelin Company, which built and operated the first rigid airships in the early years of the twentieth century; the initials LZ, for Luftschiff Zeppelin prefixed their craft's serial identifiers. Streamlined rigid airships are referred to as "Zeppelin", because of the fame that this company has acquired due to the number of airships it produced. Hybrid airships fly with a positive aerostatic contribution equal to the empty weight of the system, the variable payload is sustained by propulsion or aerodynamic contribution. Airships are classified according to their method of construction into rigid, semi-rigid and non-rigid types. A rigid airship has a rigid framework covered by envelope; the interior contains one or more gasbags, balloons to provide lift.
Rigid airships are unpressurised and can be made to any size. Most, but not all, of the Ge
Stiquito is a small, inexpensive hexapod robot used by universities, high schools, hobbyists, since 1992. Stiquito's "muscles" are made of nitinol, a shape memory alloy that expands and contracts emulating the operation of a muscle; the application of heat causes a crystalline structure change in the wire. Nitinol contracts when heated and returns to its original size and shape when cooled. Stiquito was developed by Jonathan W. Mills of Indiana University as an inexpensive vehicle for his research, he soon found. It has been used to introduce students to the concepts of analogue electronics, digital electronics, computer control, robotics, it has been used for advanced topics such as subsumption architectures, artificial intelligence, advanced computer architecture. These books contain instructions for building the Stiquito robot, instructions for designing and building control circuits, examples of student projects that use Stiquito. Most the books contain all the supplies needed to build the robot.
James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito: Advanced Experiments with a Simple and Inexpensive Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7408-3; this first book contains chapters written by the co-author, their students, other roboticists. These chapters describe the Stiquito Robots, their applications, examples of Stiquito's robot cousins. Of note is a chapter by well known robot inventor Mark Tilden; the kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito for Beginners: An Introduction to Robotics. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7514-4; this second book has more of an educational bent. It includes experiments with electricity and nitinol, it has several examples of computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot. The kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad. Stiquito Controlled! Making a Truly Autonomous Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.
ISBN 0-471-48882-8. This third book includes more educational material on Stiquito Computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot; the kit included inside the book is the TI MSP430-based controller board and the Stiquito robot, “Stiquito Controlled”. The first book was compiled from material written between 1991 and 1996; the chapter has more of a "research" feel since it shows the base robot and slight variations and applications of it. The second book was compiled from materials written for education, it includes instructions of control using supplemental kits. The third book is educationally-based, it is a slight departure from the first two books because the third book are centered around a microcontroller board and its leg actuation electronics. Stiquito home page Audio interview with James Conrad about the history of Stiquito Robots Podcast 8 August 2014
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, others. Robotics deals with the design, construction and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing; these technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance; this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, speech and anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature; the concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow until the 20th century.
Throughout history, it has been assumed by various scholars, inventors and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a growing field, as technological advances continue. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is used in STEM as a teaching aid; the advent of nanorobots, microscopic robots that can be injected into the human body, could revolutionize medicine and human health. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design and operation of robots; this field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics and bioengineering. The word robotics was derived from the word robot, introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R., published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" Predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is cited as the word's origin. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of the basis of practical robotics. Autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century; the first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply and more reliably, than humans. They are employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are used in manufacturing, assembly and packaging, transport and space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. There are many types of robots. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks; the mechanical aspect is the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function. Robots have electrical components. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads; that power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Petrol powered machines that get their power from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process, why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries.
The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform b
An airplane or aeroplane is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft, propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes and wing configurations; the broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people and research. Worldwide, commercial aviation transports more than four billion passengers annually on airliners and transports more than 200 billion tonne-kilometres of cargo annually, less than 1% of the world's cargo movement. Most airplanes are flown by a pilot on board the aircraft, but some are designed to be remotely or computer-controlled; the Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". They built on the works of George Cayley dating from 1799, when he set forth the concept of the modern airplane. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal studied heavier-than-air flight.
Following its limited use in World War I, aircraft technology continued to develop. Airplanes had a presence in all the major battles of World War II; the first jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178 in 1939. The first jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952; the Boeing 707, the first successful commercial jet, was in commercial service for more than 50 years, from 1958 to at least 2013. First attested in English in the late 19th century, the word airplane, like aeroplane, derives from the French aéroplane, which comes from the Greek ἀήρ, "air" and either Latin planus, "level", or Greek πλάνος, "wandering". "Aéroplane" referred just to the wing, as it is a plane moving through the air. In an example of synecdoche, the word for the wing came to refer to the entire aircraft. In the United States and Canada, the term "airplane" is used for powered fixed-wing aircraft. In the United Kingdom and most of the Commonwealth, the term "aeroplane" is applied to these aircraft. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus, the Vimana in ancient Indian epics.
Around 400 BC in Greece, Archytas was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was steam, said to have flown some 200 m. This machine may have been suspended for its flight; some of the earliest recorded attempts with gliders were those by the 9th-century poet Abbas ibn Firnas and the 11th-century monk Eilmer of Malmesbury. Leonardo da Vinci researched the wing design of birds and designed a man-powered aircraft in his Codex on the Flight of Birds. In 1799, George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Cayley was building and flying models of fixed-wing aircraft as early as 1803, he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. Alexander F. Mozhaisky made some innovative designs.
In 1883, the American John J. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. Other aviators who made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, Octave Chanute. Sir Hiram Maxim built a craft that weighed 3.5 tons, with a 110-foot wingspan, powered by two 360-horsepower steam engines driving two propellers. In 1894, his machine was tested with overhead rails to prevent it from rising; the test showed. The craft was uncontrollable, which Maxim, it is presumed, because he subsequently abandoned work on it. In the 1890s, Lawrence Hargrave conducted research on wing structures and developed a box kite that lifted the weight of a man, his box kite designs were adopted. Although he developed a type of rotary aircraft engine, he did not create and fly a powered fixed-wing aircraft. Between 1867 and 1896, the German pioneer of human aviation Otto Lilienthal developed heavier-than-air flight, he was the first person to make well-documented, successful gliding flights. Clement Ader constructed his first of three flying machines in the Éole.
It was a bat-like design run by a lightweight steam engine of his own invention, with four cylinders developing 20 horsepower, driving a four-blade propeller. The engine weighed no more than 4 kg/kW; the wings had a span of 14 m. All-up weight was 300 kg. On 9 October 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole. Aviation historians give credit to this effort as a powered take-off and uncontrolled hop of 50 m at a height of 20 cm. Ader's two subsequent machines were not documented to have achieved flight; the Wright brothers flights in 1903 are recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". By 1905, the Wright Flyer III was capable of controllable, stable flight for substantial periods; the Wright brothers credited Otto Lilienthal as a major inspiration for their decision to pursue manned flight. In 1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont made what was claimed to be the first airplane flight unassisted by catapult and set the first world record recognized by the Aéro-Club de France by flying 220 meters in less than 22 seconds.
This flight was certified by the FAI. An ear