Ilanz is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. The former municipality Ilanz was congruent with the town Ilanz. On 1 January 1978 the former municipality of Strada merged into the new municipality of Ilanz. On 1 January 2014 the municipality of Ilanz and the surrounding municipalities Castrisch, Luven, Riein, Schnaus, Duvin, Pigniu and Siat merged into the new municipality of "Ilanz/Glion." Ilanz is first mentioned in 765 as "Iliande." Ilanz became the capital of the newly formed Grey League in 1395. The Grey League was the second of Three Leagues which formed canton Graubünden. Johannes von Ilanz, the Abbott of Disentis, was among the three nobles instrumental in creating this "eternal alliance." Ilanz has a special place in the history of the Protestant Reformation. In the 1520s, the Diet of Ilanz declared that citizens of the Three Leagues should be free to choose between Catholicism and the Protestant forms of Christianity rising to the fore; the so-called “Ilanz Reformation” of 1526 resulted in another systemic shock to the Catholic Church.
These and other events resulted in a counter-reformation within the Swiss Confederation that reversed many of the gains of the Reformation in Switzerland. The town Ilanz/Glion has a total area of 4.7 km2. Of this area, 24.9 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 18.7% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. It is located in the Ilanz sub-district of the Surselva district, it is the first town on the Rhine. Illanz/Glion is the market town for the surrounding area, it is the nearest major town to the Weisse Arena ski resort situated just further up the valley. In Ilanz/Glion are the major train station, large supermarket and nearest hospital of the area; the town is situated in a fork of the Surselva and the Vrin/Vals valley, split by Piz Mundaun. The neighbouring villages of Ruschein and Ladir are accessed from Ilanz/Glion, as well as Vrin and Obersaxen. Ilanz had a population of 2,327; as of 2008, 15.4% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 0.8%.
Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 45.2% male and 54.8% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Ilanz is. Of the adult population, 306 people or 12.3 % of the population are between 29 years old. 378 people or 15.2% are between 30 and 39, 347 people or 13.9% are between 40 and 49, 285 people or 11.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 208 people or 8.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 200 people or 8.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 138 people or 5.5% who are between 80 and 89 there are 31 people or 1.2% who are between 90 and 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the SP. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Ilanz about 67.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education.
Ilanz has an unemployment rate of 1.44%. As of 2005, there were 24 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 8 businesses involved in this sector. 550 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 39 businesses in this sector. 2,073 people are employed with 202 businesses in this sector. From the 2000 census, 1,577 or 63.4% are Roman Catholic, while 562 or 22.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 94 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 19 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are 89. There are 8 individuals who belong to another church, 76 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 63 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: ^a Population includes Strada Ilanz has an average of 112.6 days of rain per year and on average receives 952 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.4 days.
The month with the most days of precipitation is June, with an average of 11.5, but with only 93 mm of precipitation. The driest month of the year is October with an average of 63 mm of precipitation over 11.4 days. The ruins of Grüneck Castle, destroyed before 1544, are visible today. A Carolingian hoard of two ornately decorated salt containers and coins was discovered in the ruins of the castle in 1811. One of the containers, made from antler and T-shaped, is now kept in the British Museum; the Church of St. Margreta and the Church of St. Martin are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. A hoard of fo
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport, can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned.
With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname “Mad River.” The first commercial rafting trip took place. On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering. Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are unnavigable on a reliably safe basis.
Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes; the overall risk level on a rafting trip using proper precautions is low. Thousands of people safely enjoy rafting trips every year. Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality; as a result, the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example is the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which had a reputation far exceeding its actual safety statistics. Today the Grand Canyon sees hundreds of safe rafting trips by both do it yourself rafters and commercial river concessionaires. Rafting companies require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks.
Both do-it-yourself and commercial rafting trips begin with safety presentations to educate rafting participants about problems that may arise. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering rafting, both for the general do-it-yourself public as well as commercial operators, may exist in legislation; these range from the mandatory wearing of lifejackets, carrying certain equipment such as whistles and throwable flotation devices, to certification of commercial outfitters and their employees. It is advisable to discuss safety measures with a commercial rafting operator before signing on for that type of trip; the required equipment needed is essential information to be considered. Risks in white water rafting stem from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained so; these would include ‘keeper hydraulics’, ‘strainers’, undercut rocks, of course dangerously high waterfalls. In safe areas, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has contributed to many accidents. Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler’s positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, submersion/environmental injuries, non-environmental injuries due to undisclosed medical conditions. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are low, though they may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents. Fatalities are rare in both do-it-yourself rafting. Meta-analyses have calculated. Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat; because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual seasons and daily operating times or numbers of rafters. Conflicts have arisen when co
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Obersaxen is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Obersaxen and Mundaun merged to form the new municipality of Obersaxen Mundaun. Obersaxen is first mentioned in 765 as Supersaxa. In 956 it was mentioned as Supersaxa, in 1227 as Ubersahse; the current settlement was founded in the thirteenth century, when a group of German-speaking Walser settled the plateau. Right in the heart of the Romansh-speaking Surselva, Obersaxen is an island of German-speakers. Obersaxen had an area, as of 2006, of 61.5 km2. Of this area, 54.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive; the former municipality is located in the Rueun sub-district of the Surselva district. It is located on the northern face of the Mundaun mountain chain, on the right side of the Rhine valley, it consists of 28 settlements which are divided into five Pirten around the central village of Meierhof.
The municipal coat of arms' blazon is Per pale Gules Azure two Bars Argent. The right half of the coat of arms comes from the seal of the Freiherr of Rhäzüns, who acquired rights in Obersaxen through the Walser immigration; the key is a symbol of Saint Peter, on the 14th Century village seal. Obersaxen had a population of 838; as of 2008, 6.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -4.9%. Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common and Portuguese being third; the language spoken here is a distinctive form of Swiss German. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 50.7 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Obersaxen is. Of the adult population, 65 people or 8.3 % of the population are between 29 years old. 130 people or 16.7% are between 30 and 39, 131 people or 16.8% are between 40 and 49, 92 people or 11.8% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 70 people or 9.0% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 62 people or 8.0% are between 70 and 79, there are 31 people or 4.0% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 2 people or 0.3% who are between 90 and 99.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP. The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the SP. In Obersaxen about 64.9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Obersaxen has an unemployment rate of 0.71%. As of 2005, there were 98 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 47 businesses involved in this sector. 81 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 11 businesses in this sector. 171 people are employed with 42 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: Obersaxen is a large, but not well-known ski resort. Despite the fact that it's quite close to the internationally popular resort of Flims-Laax, it is quite popular among locals and others who are "in-the-know", due to the quality of skiing and lack of the large crowds that are to be found in Flims. Obersaxen is home to 2010 overall alpine skiing World Cup & Olympic champion Carlo Janka
The Vorderrhein is one of the two sources of the Rhine. Its catchment area of 1,512 square kilometres is located predominantly in the canton of Graubünden; the Vorderrhein is about 76 kilometres long, thus more than 5% longer than the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur. The Vorderrhein, has an average water flow of 53.8 m3/s, less than the flow of the Hinterrhein. According to the Atlas of Switzerland of the Swiss Federal Office of Topography, the source of the Vorderrhein– and the Rhine –is located north of the Rein da Tuma and Lake Toma. Vorderrhein was the name of a judicial district, created in 1851 with the reorganization of the judiciary of Graubünden. In 2001, it was annexed by the District Surselva; the largest communities along the Vorderrhein are Ilanz. The Vorderrhein flows in an east-northeast direction, through the Surselva, a large longitudinal valley, its north side is steep, with short valleys, the southern side, however, is divided by some long valleys. Its main tributaries, the Rein da Sumvitg, the Glenner and the Rabiusa all come from the south.
In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through the Flims Rockslide, giving rise to the canyon country of the Ruinaulta. Near Reichenau, it joins the Hinterrhein to form the Rhine; some of the tributaries of the Vorderrhein are as long as the main branch. In downstream order, they are: Two unnamed streams originating in the Puozas and Milez areas near the Oberalppass Rein da Tuma, including the Lai da Tuma and the main head of the lake, about 71 kilometres The Aua da Val from the Val valley Rein da Maighels Rein da Curnera Rein da Nalps Rein da Medel, the upper reaches in the Canton of Ticino are known as Reno di Medel, as Froda So the longer arms are not the source at Oberalppass, but further southeast; the longest headwater front of the Vorderrhein, is the Reno di Medel, which rises on the border of the municipality Quinto in Ticino. In the uppermost part of its course, it runs in the Val Cadlimo, south of the geomorphological main Alpine ridge, west of the Lukmanier Pass; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level.
It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. Thanks to its attractive scenery and some interesting passage, the Vorderrhein is a popular river for paddling and rafting the section between Ilanz and Versam. Along entire length of the Vorderrhein there is a narrow-gauge railway line: from Chur to Disentis there is a line of the Rhätische Bahn. From Disentis, the Furka-Oberalp line of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn runs to the Oberalp Pass and on to Andermatt. In the Ruinaulta area, the main road runs to the North of the river, at its highest point, at Flims, it is about 480 metres above the Rhine; the Senda Sursilvana, a hiking trail along the young Rhine River lead from the Oberalp Pass along the Vorderrhein in the direction of Chur. Natural Monument Ruinaulta flow description for water rides
An aerial tramway, sky tram, cable car, ropeway or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. With this form of lift, the grip of an aerial tramway cabin is fixed onto the propulsion rope and cannot be decoupled from it during operations. In comparison to gondola lifts, aerial tramways provide lower line capacities, higher wait times and are unable to turn corners; because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French and German names, téléphérique and Seilbahn are also used in an English language context. Cable car is the usual term in British English, as in British English the word tramway refers to a railed street tramway while in American English, cable car may additionally refer to a cable-pulled street tramway with detachable vehicles; as such, careful phrasing is necessary to prevent confusion. It is sometimes called a ropeway or incorrectly referred to as a gondola lift.
A gondola lift has cabins suspended from a continuously circulating cable whereas aerial trams shuttle back and forth on cables. In Japan, the two are considered as the same category of vehicle and called ropeway, while the term cable car means Cable car and funicular. An aerial railway where the vehicles are suspended from a fixed track is known as a suspension railway. An aerial tramway consists of one or two fixed cables, one loop of cable, a number of passenger cabins; the fixed cables provide support for the cabins while the haulage rope, by means of a grip, is solidly connected to the truck. An electric motor drives the haulage rope. Aerial tramways are constructed as reversible systems. Aerial tramways differ from gondola lifts. Two-car tramways use a jig-back system: A large electric motor is located at the bottom of the tramway so that it pulls one cabin down, using that cabin's weight to help pull the other cabin up. A similar system of cables is used in a funicular railway; the two passenger cabins, which carry from 4 to over 150 people, are situated at opposite ends of the loops of cable.
Thus, while one is coming up, the other is going down the mountain, they pass each other midway on the cable span. Some aerial trams have only one cabin, which lends itself better for systems with small elevation changes along the cable run; the first design of an aerial lift was by Croatian polymath Fausto Veranzio and the first operational aerial tram was built in 1644 by Adam Wiebe in Gdańsk. It was used to move soil over the river to build defences, it is called the first known cable lift in European history and precedes the invention of steel cables. It is not known. In any case, it would be another 230 years before Germany would get the second cable lift, this newer version equipped with iron wire cable. Other mining systems were developed in the 1860s by Hodgson, Andrew Smith Hallidie. Hallidie went on to perfect a line of mining and people tramways after 1867 in California and Nevada. See Hallidie ropeway. Tramways are sometimes used in mountainous regions to carry ore from a mine located high on the mountain to an ore mill located at a lower elevation.
Ore tramways were common in the early 20th century at the mines in South America. One can still be seen in the San Juan Mountains of the US state of Colorado. Over one thousand mining tramways were built around the world—Spitsbergen, Alaska, New Zealand and Gabon; this experience was replicated with the use of tramways in the First World War on the Isonzo Front in Italy. The German firm of Bleichert built hundreds of freight and military tramways, built the first tourist tramway at Bolzano/Bozen, in Tyrolian Austria in 1913. Other firms entered the mining tramway business- Otto, Breco Ropeways Ltd. Ceretti and Tanfani, Riblet for instance. A major British contributor was Bullivant who became a constituent of British Ropes in 1924; the perfection of the aerial tramway through mining lead to its application in other fields including logging, sugar fields, beet farming, tea plantations, coffee beans and guano mining. A resource on the history of aerial tramways in the mining industry is "Riding the High Wire, Aerial Mine Tramways in the West" In the beginning of the 20th century the rise of the middle class and the leisure industry allowed for investment in sight seeing machines.
Prior to 1893 a combined goods and passenger carrying cableway was installed at Gibraltar. Its passengers were military personnel. An 1893 industry publication said of a two-mile system in Hong Kong that it "is the only wire tramway, erected for the carriage of individuals" Going to the Isle of Dogs by Lesser Columbus, Bullivant & Co. 1893 page 10. This item can be accessed through an original held by the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. After the pioneer cable car of 1907 at mount Ulia by Torres Quevedo others to the top of high peaks in the Alps of Austria and Switzerland resulted, they were much cheaper to build than the earlier rack railway. One of the first trams was at Chamonix, while others in Garmisch soon followed. From this, it was a natural transposition t
Valendas is a former municipality in the district of Surselva in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. The municipalities of Valendas, Versam and Tenna merged on 1 January 2013 into the new municipality of Safiental. Valendas is first mentioned in 765 as in Valendano. Valendas had an area, as of 2006, of 22.8 km2. Of this area, 21.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 48.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The former municipality is located in the Ilanz sub-district of the Surselva district, it is located above the right side of the Vorderrhein canyon. It consists of the haufendorf village of Valendas and the hamlets of Carrera, Brün, Dutjen and Turisch. Valendas had a population of 298; as of 2008, 6.8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -2.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third.
As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 51.3% male and 48.7% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Valendas is. Of the adult population, 23 people or 7.8% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 41 people or 13.9% are between 30 and 39, 43 people or 14.6% are between 40 and 49, 40 people or 13.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 32 people or 10.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 18 people or 6.1% are between 70 and 79, there are 16 people or 5.4% who are between 80 and 89 there are 3 people or 1.0% who are between 90 and 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 68.1% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SP and the CVP. In Valendas about 68.1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Valendas has an unemployment rate of 0.11%. As of 2005, there were 66 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 25 businesses involved in this sector.
21 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 4 businesses in this sector. 29 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 10 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: The Türelihus and the Haus Joos and attached barn are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance; the Türelihus is located in the center of Valendas and is one of the most valuable houses in the village. The interior contains many of the original furnishings from the Baroque eras; the original building was constructed in 1485. In 1554 it was expanded, this expansion was known as the Renaissance phase, with a spiral staircase within a tower and a stable was added to the north side. In 1775 it was renovated in the baroque style; the four-story building had begun to decay. In 1994, the first attempt to renovate this building ended with only the addition of a temporary roof; the oldest part of the Haus Joos may date to about 1300. The attached barn has a date of 1572 carved into it.
However, the building is in poor condition and has not been used for a number of years. Valendas-Sagogn station, on the line of the Rhaetian Railway that links Chur and Disentis, lies some 120 metres below and 1.2 kilometres distant from the village of Valendas. Valendas in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland