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Flint, Michigan

Flint is the largest city and seat of Genesee County, United States. Located along the Flint River, 66 miles northwest of Detroit, it is a principal city within the region known as Mid Michigan. According to the 2010 census, Flint has a population of 102,434, making it the seventh largest city in Michigan; the Flint metropolitan area is located within Genesee County. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Michigan with a population of 425,790 in 2010; the city was incorporated in 1855. Flint was founded as a village by fur trader Jacob Smith in 1819 and became a major lumbering area on the historic Saginaw Trail during the 19th century. From the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, the city was a leading manufacturer of carriages and automobiles, earning it the nickname "Vehicle City". General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908, the city grew into an automobile manufacturing powerhouse for GM's Buick and Chevrolet divisions after World War II up until the early 1980s recession. Flint was the home of the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936–37 that played a vital role in the formation of the United Automobile Workers.

Since the late 1960s, Flint has faced several crises. The city sank into a deep economic depression after GM downsized its workforce in the area from a 1978 high of 80,000 to under 8,000 by 2010. From 1960 to 2010, the population of the city nearly halved from 196,940 to 102,434. In the mid-2000s, Flint became known for its high crime rates and has been ranked among the most dangerous cities in the United States; the city was under a state of financial emergency from 2002–2004 and again from 2011–2015. Since 2014, the city has faced a major public health emergency due to lead contamination in the local water supply that has affected thousands of residents, as well as an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease due to tainted water; the Saginaw Valley the vicinity of Flint, is considered by some to be the oldest continually inhabited area of Michigan. Regardless of the validity of this claim, the region was home to several Ojibwa tribes at the start of the 19th century, with a significant community established near present-day Montrose.

The Flint River had several convenient fords which became points of contention among rival tribes, as attested by the presence of arrowheads and burial mounds near it. Some of the city resides atop ancient Ojibwa burial grounds. In 1819, Jacob Smith, a fur trader on cordial terms with both the local Ojibwas and the territorial government founded a trading post at the Grand Traverse of the Flint River. On several occasions, Smith negotiated land exchanges with the Ojibwas on behalf of the U. S. government, he was regarded on both sides. Smith apportioned many of his holdings to his children; as the ideal stopover on the overland route between Detroit and Saginaw, Flint grew into a small but prosperous village, incorporated in 1855. The 1860 U. S. census indicated that Genesee County had a population of 22,498 of Michigan's 750,000. In the latter half of the 19th century, Flint became a center of the Michigan lumber industry. Revenue from lumber funded the establishment of a local carriage-making industry.

As horse-drawn carriages gave way to the automobiles, Flint naturally grew into a major player in the nascent auto industry. Buick Motor Company, after a rudimentary start in Detroit, soon moved to Flint. AC Spark Plug originated in Flint; these were followed by several now-defunct automobile marques such as the Dort, Little and Mason brands. Chevrolet's first manufacturing facility was in Flint, although the Chevrolet headquarters were in Detroit. For a brief period, all Chevrolets and Buicks were built in Flint. In 1904, local entrepreneur William C. Durant was brought in to manage Buick, which became the largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1908. In 1908, Durant founded General Motors, filing incorporation papers in New Jersey, with headquarters in Flint. GM moved its headquarters to Detroit in the mid-1920s. Durant lost control of GM twice during his lifetime. On the first occasion, he befriended Louis Chevrolet and founded Chevrolet, a runaway success, he used the capital from this success to buy back share control.

He lost decisive control again, permanently. Durant experienced financial ruin in the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequently ran a bowling alley in Flint until the time of his death in 1947; the city's mayors were targeted for recall twice, Mayor David Cuthbertson in 1924 and Mayor William H. McKeighan in 1927. Recall supporters in both cases were jailed by the police. Cuthbertson had angered the KKK by the appointment of a Catholic police chief; the KKK supported Judson Transue, Cutbertson's elected successor. Transue however did not remove the police chief. McKeighan survived his recall only to face conspiracy charges in 1928. McKeighan was under investigation for a multitude of crimes which angered city leaders enough to push for changes in the city charter. In 1928, the city adopted a new city charter with a council-manager form of government. Subsequently, McKeighan ran the "Green Slate" of candidates who won in 1931 and 1932 and he was select as mayor in 1931. In 1935, the city residents approved a charter amendment establishing the Civil Service Commission.

For the last century, Flint's history has been dominated by both car culture. During the Sit-Down Strike of 1936–1937, the fledgling United Automobile Workers triumphed over General Motors, inaugurating the era of labor unions; the successful mediation of the strike by Governor Frank Murphy, culminating in a one-page agreement recognizing the Union, began an era of successful organizing by th

1982 Bonn summit

The 1982 Bonn summit was the 6th NATO summit bringing the leaders of member nations together at the same time. The formal sessions and informal meetings in Bonn took place on 10 June 1982; this event was only the fifth meeting of the NATO heads of state following the ceremonial signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. When the summit was held, there were sixteen members of NATO. In this period, the organization faced unresolved questions concerned whether a new generation of leaders would be as committed to NATO as their predecessors had been; the Bonn Summit discussed many topics. Most notable of these topics was the accession of Spain to NATO, as the summit was held years after the fall of Francisco Franco; the summit voiced concern to the perceived threat the Soviet Union posed to members of NATO. EU summit G8 summit Thomas, Ian Q. R.. The promise of alliance: NATO and the political imagination. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-8581-3.

Gudibande Poornima

Gudibande Poornima is a Kannada poet and novelist from the State of Karnataka, India. Born in Shravanabelagola, Hassan District, Poornima holds a master's degree in Kannada literature from Bangalore University, master's degree in Prakrit and Docotorate degree in Jainalogy from Mysore University, she was the president of the district Kannada Sahitya Parishat in 1982-3. She has published more than 60 books in Kannada in various categories of literature - novels, poem collections, article collections, biographies, etc. Gudibande poornima has won many awards like, Sahitya Akademi Award, Shri Gomateshwara Vidyapeetha award, Mallika award, Sharada Seva Shree, etc; the writer has presided the Chikkaballapura District Kannada Sahitya Sammelana, held in Shidlaghatta in the year 2013 She has published more than 100 research papers, articles in many Kannada magazines and journals. The Karanataka Lekhakiyara Sangha, an organization and association of women writers has established a yearly award in her name, called as "The Gudibande Poornima awards for poets" is given to prominent Kannada Women poets every year

Perek Shirah

Perek Shirah is an ancient Jewish text. There are a number of versions extant, some associated with the Ashkenazic tradition, some with the Sephardic, some with the Mizrahi Jews tradition, it was first printed, with a commentary, in Moses ben Joseph de Trani's Bet Elohim, but it is mentioned as early as the 10th century. It contains 85 sections, in each of which elements of creation, beginning with the celestial and ending with dogs, use biblical and rabbinic verses in order to sing God's praises. Use of Perek Shirah used to be prevalent in the daily liturgy and medieval philosopher Joseph Albo wrote that whoever recites Perek Shirah is guaranteed a place in the World to Come. Though Perek Shirah means "Chapter of Song", the book is organized into six chapters; some of the utilized verses make mention of the speaker. For example, the song begins with the heavens who say, "the heavens speak of the glory of God, of His handiwork the skies tell." Others describe some characteristic or activity of the speaker, e.g. the book ends with the dogs who say "come, let us prostrate and bend our knees, kneel before God our maker".

The vast majority of the verses of Perek Shirah are biblical, most of these are from the book of Psalms, but there are a few verses from the Babylonian Talmud, at least one from Kabbalistic literature, a few whose source is unknown. Some of the birds and animals listed are difficult to identify, it appears that all the creatures named are found in the Holy Land, the only exceptions being the elephant - but elephants were brought into the Holy Land by foreign armies, as mentioned, for example, in the First Book of Maccabees. In modern times, Perek Shirah does not appear liturgically. However, there are many publishers who publish Perek Shirah as a separate entity, anywhere from a wallet-sized booklet to full-sized coffee table books complete with pictures illustrating each of the characters speaking to God. Psalm 19, Psalm 92, Psalm 95, Psalm 136, Psalm 150'Perek Shirah' for android in Hebrew Rabbi Nosson Slifkin's downloadable 2003 English translation with Hebrew text Rabbi Eliezer Raphael Brody's downloadable 2011 English translation Perek Shira transliterated, translated or in hebrew

Beit Hanania

Beit Hanania is a moshav in northern Israel. Located close to the south edge of Mount Carmel close to Zikhron Ya'akov, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hof HaCarmel Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 912; the moshav was founded in 1950 by the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association and Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe on land that had belonged to the Palestinian village of Kabara, depopulated in the 1948 Palestine war. The new village was named after Hanania Gottlib, a leader of the PICA; the Israel National Trail runs through the moshav. An aqueduct built in Hadrian's time is located at its entrance, whilst the Taninim River Nature Reserve is located nearby; the Taninim River flows through the park, both of which are named after the alligators that, until the beginning of the 20th century, lived in the nearby Cabra swamp. Media related to Beit Hanania at Wikimedia Commons

Love Among the Ruins (film)

Love Among the Ruins is a 1975 American made-for-television romantic comedy film directed by George Cukor and starring Katharine Hepburn and Laurence Olivier which premiered on ABC on March 6, 1975. The story is set at the end of the Edwardian period. Jessica Medlicott is an aging grande dame an actress of the London theatre, accused of having met, promised marriage to, jilted and abandoned her suitor; the much-younger ex-fiancé files suit, seeking £50,000 in damages for the breach of promise by her. She retains the greatest barrister in Sir Arthur Granville-Jones, to defend her, he is incidentally a man she seduced and abandoned 40 years earlier, but who has remained hopelessly in love with her since. Katharine Hepburn as Jessica Medlicott Laurence Olivier as Sir Arthur Granville-Jones Colin Blakely as J. F. Devine Richard Pearson as Druce Joan Sims as Fanny Pratt Leigh Lawson as Alfred Pratt Gwen Nelson as Hermione Davis Robert Harris as The Judge Peter Reeves as Maiden John Blythe as Tipstaff Arthur Hewlett as The Usher John Dunbar as Clerk of the Court Iain Sinclair as Pratt's Solicitor Mervyn Pascoe as Barrister Colin Thomas as Barrister Lincoln Wright as Barrister Edward Arthur as Barrister John Bromley as Barrister Leslie Southwick as Barrister Stanley Platts as Foreman of the Jury Philip Lennard as Reporter Peter Lund as Reporter Frank Forsyth as Jessop John G. Heller as Head Waiter Rosamond Burne as Woman Spectator Coral Fairweather as Woman Spectator Jacqueline Clarke as Miss Pratt T. C. Hogan as Teplow Love Among the Ruins on IMDb Love Among the Ruins at AllMovie