Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Software testing can provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs, verifying that the software product is fit for use. Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test: meets the requirements that guided its design and development, responds to all kinds of inputs, performs its functions within an acceptable time, it is sufficiently usable, can be installed and run in its intended environments, achieves the general result its stakeholders desire; as the number of possible tests for simple software components is infinite, all software testing uses some strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources.
As a result, software testing attempts to execute a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs. The job of testing is an iterative process as when one bug is fixed, it can illuminate other, deeper bugs, or can create new ones. Software testing can provide objective, independent information about the quality of software and risk of its failure to users or sponsors. Software testing can be conducted as soon; the overall approach to software development determines when and how testing is conducted. For example, in a phased process, most testing occurs after system requirements have been defined and implemented in testable programs. In contrast, under an agile approach, requirements and testing are done concurrently. Although testing can determine the correctness of software under the assumption of some specific hypotheses, testing cannot identify all the defects within the software. Instead, it furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behavior of the product against test oracles—principles or mechanisms by which someone might recognize a problem.
These oracles may include specifications, comparable products, past versions of the same product, inferences about intended or expected purpose, user or customer expectations, relevant standards, applicable laws, or other criteria. A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions, but only that it does not function properly under specific conditions; the scope of software testing includes the examination of code as well as the execution of that code in various environments and conditions as well as examining the aspects of code: does it do what it is supposed to do and do what it needs to do. In the current culture of software development, a testing organization may be separate from the development team. There are various roles for testing team members. Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process by which software is developed.
Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for video game software is different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers and other stakeholders. Software testing aids the process of attempting to make this assessment. Not all software defects are caused by coding errors. One common source of expensive defects is requirement gaps, i.e. unrecognized requirements that result in errors of omission by the program designer. Requirement gaps can be non-functional requirements such as testability, maintainability, usability and security. Software faults occur through the following processes. A programmer makes an error. If this defect is executed, in certain situations the system will produce wrong results, causing a failure. Not all defects will result in failures. For example, defects in the dead code will never result in failures.
A defect can turn into a failure. Examples of these changes in environment include the software being run on a new computer hardware platform, alterations in source data, or interacting with different software. A single defect may result in a wide range of failure symptoms. A fundamental problem with software testing is that testing under all combinations of inputs and preconditions is not feasible with a simple product; this means that the number of defects in a software product can be large and defects that occur infrequently are difficult to find in testing. More non-functional dimensions of quality —usability, performance, reliability—can be subjective. Software developers can't test everything, but they can use combinatorial test design to identify the minimum number of tests needed to get the coverage they want. Combinatorial test design enables users to get greater test coverage with fewer tests. Whether they are looking for speed or
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Vudu, Inc. is an American content delivery and media technology company responsible for Vudu-branded interactive media services and devices. Vudu distributes full-length movies over the Internet to televisions in the United States of America and Canada, it does this with a content delivery network. Vudu was acquired by Walmart in March 2010. Vudu began by only making its own set-top boxes, but Vudu now markets its software as a smart TV/connected TV platform and video on demand distribution service to third-party consumer electronics devices. Vudu is available via PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360, Xbox One, iPad, Android TV, Apple TV, TiVo Roamio, Roku devices, as well as most smartphones via the Vudu app which supports Chromecast use; as of December 2011, the Vudu app within the downloadable version of the Boxee media player is no longer supported, due to DRM and certification requirements. Vudu Box requires. Users are given the option of watching it later; the first couple of seconds of every movie within the catalog are loaded onto the Vudu Box's hard drive, ensuring instant playback when the user chooses to watch a given film.
The remainder of the movie is delivered to the box via an exclusive peer-to-peer network. This process begins instantaneously while the user views the loaded portion of the movie, allowing for seamless viewing; the movie finishes downloading to the box's hard drive. Users are able to set the amount of bandwidth the box uses, with settings at 1 Mbit/s, 2 Mbit/s, 4 Mbit/s. In 2012, Vudu began partnering with the movie-industry-backed UltraViolet to offer users a digital locker as well as digital versions to some DVD and Blu-ray purchased in retail stores. In 2014, Vudu became a participating provider in Disney Movies Anywhere, Disney's digital locker service, separate from Ultraviolet. Vudu is one of only two U. S. streaming providers to be compatible with both UltraViolet and Movies Anywhere, the successor to DMA. On January 30, 2019, Variety reported that DECE will shut down UltraViolet on July 31, 2019, they mentioned that users connect to at least one major retailer, like Vudu, who have continued to support UltraViolet redeemed streaming rights after the service has been shut down.
Movies are encoded in Dolby Digital Plus audio. Vudu offers movies in three formats: standard-definition, high-definition and ultra high-definition or known as UHD or 4K. Standard-definition movies are up-scaled to higher 1080i/p resolution and high-definition movies can be output at 1080p24. Audio is sourced in Dolby Digital Plus and output in Dolby Digital 5.1, with the option of stereo output. Audio is limited to stereo playback on HTPC/PC/Mac platforms. Users are able to adjust video to display in stretched, boxed, or zoomed format as well as adjusting overscan settings depending on their television format; as of January 2015, there were over 18,000 movies in the Vudu catalog, 5,000 television shows. Titles range from major motion pictures, independent films, children's programming, musicals, recorded musical performances and television series. Over 13,000 of these titles are available in high-definition, the largest for any service of its kind. Vudu has established content licensing contracts with all major movie studios as well as over 50 smaller and independent studios.
Free ad-supported films are licensed from Sony Pictures, Cinedigm, Screen Media, Paramount Pictures, Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Warner Bros. Movies are available to rent in standard-definition, high-definition, HDX format. A rented title can be stored on the Vudu Box for 30 days before being watched. Once a user begins watching a rented title they have 24 hours. After this 24-hour period, rentals can be extended for a discounted price; the majority of movies and television shows are available for purchase in standard-definition format only. This policy is consistent with studio standards and other digital retailers concerning digital purchases. Movies from FirstLook Studios and Magnolia Pictures are available to purchase in high-definition format. On February 25, 2010, to comply with the policies of its parent corporation, Vudu discontinued operating the AVN After Dark channel which provided users with adult movies. Vudu is capable of downloading and playing movies in HDX format, a format created by Vudu which encodes titles in 1080p HD at 24 frames-per-second.
This technology is similar to a movie on a Blu-ray Disc. However, Blu-ray Discs will have better audio quality because of their higher bitrates. Vudu utilizes the H.264 encoding process along with proprietary encoding techniques dubbed TruFilm. TruFilm is composed of four main technologies designed to maximize the H.264 encoding standard: Psychovisual Processing: Designed to dampen and eliminate artifacting and pixelation seen in areas of dark sky and water in movies by utilizing a constant algorithmic and visual check flagging these sections to be re-encoded. See Psychophysics and Subjective video quality. Film Grain Preservation: A process which maintains the slight imperfections that the director of the movie decided to leave in the final film. Vudu makes multiple encoding passes over the original film, allowing the final encoded product to contain the original film grain. Statistical Variable Bitrate: Ensures optimal video quality throughout the film by allocating a higher enco
Quantcast is an American technology company, founded in 2006, that specializes in AI-driven real-time advertising, audience insights & measurement. The company claims, it has offices in the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Sweden. Quantcast was launched in 2006; the company claimed to be the first rating service to rely on direct measurement. The company was built on the belief that digital advertising requires reliable data to be successful, so the primary aim was to gather detailed, real-time insights on audience characteristics across the internet. By placing tags on digital content across the open internet, the firm measures metrics such as audience age and gender makeup, areas of interest and type and frequency of their engagement with certain types of content; this private information is made publicly available to be used by marketers and publishers to understand their audience in granular detail.2009, Quantcast launched the real-time advertising side of their business, using all of the insight into human behavior they received from the direct measurement of audiences.
In 2010, Quantcast's Publisher Program was the first syndicated online traffic measurement service to receive official accreditation from the Media Rating Council. In 2013, the company acquired MakeGood Software, an advertising technology startup that simplifies data management and reporting for online advertising campaigns; the technology was subsequently integrated with Quantcast Advertise to enhance the reporting functions available for Quantcast campaigns. This nudged the company closer towards competition in the ad effectiveness category, which includes companies like comScore. 2013 OnMedia 100 Top Private Companies - B2B: Advertising Analytics 2012 WIRED Magazine: The 10 San Francisco Tech Companies You Wish You Worked For 2012 AlwaysOn Global 250 Top Private Companies 2011 OnMedia 100 Top Private Companies - B2B: Advertising Analytics 2011 Business Insider Digital 100: Quantcast Ranked #54 2010 Fast Company Most Innovative Companies - Web 2015 Glassdoor Employee's Choice Award, Best Places to Work 2016 Quantcast partnered with IAB Europe, IAB UK and the ANAs to create an educational program for industry professionals to understand the language and processes of the online advertising ecosystem.
2016 Business Insider: The 37 hottest pre-IPO ad tech startups of 2016. Ranked #11. Official website Quantcast at Crunchbase
Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, groups, photos and videos. Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world from 2005 to 2009, it is headquartered in California. Myspace was acquired by News Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million, in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. In April 2008, Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and was surpassed in the number of unique U. S. visitors in May 2009, though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue during the 2008 fiscal year. Since the number of Myspace users has declined in spite of several redesigns; as of January 2018, Myspace was ranked 4,153 by total Web traffic, 1,657 in the United States. Myspace had a significant influence on pop culture and music and created a computer game platform that launched the successes of Zynga and RockYou, among others. Despite an overall decline, in 2015 Myspace still had 50.6 million unique monthly visitors and had a pool of nearly 1 billion active and inactive registered users.
In June 2009, Myspace employed 1,600 employees. In June 2011, Specific Media Group and Justin Timberlake jointly purchased the company for $35 million. On February 11, 2016, it was announced that Myspace and its parent company had been purchased by Time Inc. Time Inc. was in turn purchased by the Meredith Corporation on January 31, 2018. In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features; the group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise and server capacity was available for the site; the project was overseen by Brad Greenspan, who managed Chris DeWolfe, Josh Berman, Tom Anderson, a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees; the company held contests to see. EUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.
A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the Myspace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. Co-founder and CTO Aber Whitcomb played an integral role in software architecture, utilizing the superior development speed of ColdFusion over other dynamic database driven server-side languages of the time. Despite over ten times the number of developers, developed in JavaServer Pages, could not keep up with the speed of development of Myspace and cfm; the MySpace.com domain was owned by YourZ.com, Inc. intended until 2002 for use as an online data storage and sharing site. By late 2003, it was transitioned from a file storage service to a social networking site. A friend, who worked in the data storage business, reminded Chris DeWolfe that he had earlier bought the domain MySpace.com. DeWolfe suggested. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping Myspace free was necessary to make it a successful community. Myspace gained popularity among teenagers and young adults.
In February 2005, DeWolfe held talks with Mark Zuckerberg over acquiring Facebook but DeWolfe rejected Zuckerberg's $75 million offer. Some employees of Myspace, including DeWolfe and Berman, were able to purchase equity in the property before MySpace and its parent company eUniverse was bought. In July 2005, in one of the company's first major Internet purchases, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation purchased Myspace for US$580 million. News Corporation had beat out Viacom by offering a higher price for the website, the purchase was seen as a good investment at the time. Of the $580 million purchase price $327 million has been attributed to the value of Myspace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. Within a year, Myspace had tripled in value from its purchase price. News Corporation saw the purchase as a way to capitalize on Internet advertising and drive traffic to other News Corporation properties. After losing the bidding war for Myspace, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone stunned the entertainment industry in September 2006 when he fired Tom Freston from the position of CEO. Redstone believed that the failure to acquire MySpace contributed to the 20% drop in Viacom's stock price in 2006 up to the date of Freston's ouster.
Freston's successor as CEO, Philippe Dauman, was quoted as saying "never let another competitor beat us to the trophy". Redstone told interviewer Charlie Rose that losing MySpace had been "humiliating", adding, "MySpace was sitting there for the taking for $500 million" In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of Myspace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene", which they did, they launched similar versions in other countries. The 100 millionth account was created on August 2006, in the Netherlands. On November 1, 2007, Myspace and Bebo joined the Google-led OpenSocial alliance, which included Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Plaxo and Six Apart. OpenSocial was to promote a common set of standards for software developers to write programs for social networks. Facebook remained independent. Google had been unsuccessful in build
A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were intended for productivity assistance such as Email and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store or Google Play Store; some apps are free, others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.
The term "app", short for "software application", has since become popular. Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, mapping program, an app for buying music, other media, or more apps; some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps. Apps that are not preinstalled are available through distribution platforms called app stores, they began appearing in 2008 and are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as GetJar and F-Droid; some apps are free. They are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider, the rest goes to the producer of the app.
The same app can, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform. Apps can be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices. Mobile apps were offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages; as with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review and curation sources, including blogs and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps medical apps; some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website. With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices.
Usage of mobile apps has become prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated can yield many benefits. Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013, which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market. There are three kinds of apps — native and web-based. All apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as native apps.
Therefore, an app meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is. While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules; this accounts for better performance and good user experience. Users benefit from wider access to APIs and make limitless use of all apps from the particular device. Further, they switch over from one app to another effortlessly; the main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system. Concept of hybrid apps is a mix of web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category; these are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are faster to develop, it involves use of single code. Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in performance. Apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile op