Presiding Officer of the United States Senate
The Presiding Officer of the United States Senate is the person who presides over the United States Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing members to speak, interpreting the Senate's rules and precedents. Senate presiding officer is a role, not an actual office; the actual role is performed by one of three officials: the Vice President. Outside the constitutionally mandated roles, the actual appointment of a person to do the job of presiding over the Senate as a body is governed by Rule I of the Standing Rules; the Vice President is assigned the responsibility by the Constitution of presiding over the Senate and designated as its president. The vice president has the authority to cast a tie-breaking vote. Early vice presidents took an active role in presiding over proceedings of the body, with the president pro tempore only being called on during the vice president's absence. During the 20th century, the role of the vice president evolved into more of an executive branch position.
Now, the vice president is seen as an integral part of a president's administration and presides over the Senate only on ceremonial occasions or when a tie-breaking vote may be needed. The Constitution provides for the appointment of one of the elected senators to serve as President pro tempore; this senator presides. The president pro tempore is selected by the body for the role of presiding in the absence of the actual presiding officer. By tradition, the title of President pro tempore has come to be given more-or-less automatically to the most senior senator of the majority party. In actual practice in the modern Senate, the president pro tempore does not serve in the role. Instead, as governed by Rule I, they designate a junior senator to perform the function; when the Senate hears an impeachment trial of the President of the United States, by the procedure established in the Constitution, the Chief Justice is designated as the presiding officer. The Constitution provides for two officers to preside over the Senate.
Article One, Section 3, Clause 4 designates the Vice President of the United States as the President of the Senate. In this capacity, the vice president was expected to preside at regular sessions of the Senate, casting votes only to break ties. From John Adams in 1789 to Richard Nixon in the 1950s, presiding over the Senate was the chief function of vice presidents, who had an office in the Capitol, received their staff support and office expenses through the legislative appropriations, were invited to participate in cabinet meetings or other executive activities. In 1961, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson changed the vice presidency by moving his chief office from the Capitol to the White House, by directing his attention to executive functions, by attending Senate sessions only at critical times when his vote, or ruling from the chair, might be necessary. Vice presidents since Johnson's time have followed his example. Next, Article One, Section 3, Clause 5 provides that in the absence of the vice president the Senate could choose a president pro tempore to temporarily preside and perform the duties of the chair.
Since vice presidents presided in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Senate thought it necessary to choose a president pro tempore only for the limited periods when the vice president might be ill or otherwise absent. As a result, the Senate elected several presidents pro tempore during a single session. On three occasions during the 19th century, the Senate was without both a president and a president pro tempore: July 9–11, 1850, following Millard Fillmore's accession to the presidency upon the death of Zachary Taylor, until William R. King was elected president pro tempore. Additionally, Article One, Section 3, Clause 6 grants to the Senate the sole power to try federal impeachments and spells out the basic procedures for impeachment trials. Among the requirements is the stipulation that the Chief Justice is to preside over presidential impeachment trials; this rule underscores the solemnity of the occasion and aims, in part, to avoid the possible conflict of interest of a Vice President's presiding over the proceeding for the removal of the one official standing between the Vice President and the presidency.
The Chief Justice has presided as such only twice: Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson in 1868. According to Article One, Section 5, Clause 2 of the U. S. Constitution, the Senate is allowed to establish, for itself, its own rules of operations, including the roles and duties of the presiding officer; those rules are known as the Standing Rules of the United States Senate, Rule I deals with the appointment of a person to act as the chair, or presiding officer, for normal Senate proceedings. It recognizes the constitutionally mandated roles of vice president and president pro tempore, but goes further to allow for the appointment of an acting president pro tempore, further allows for the president pro tempore to designate any other senator to perform his duties; as a resu
Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term. Commissioners function in every respect as a member of Congress, including sponsoring legislation and serving on congressional committees, where they can vote on legislation, except that they are denied a vote on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor, they receive a salary of $174,000 per year. The current commissioner is Jenniffer González-Colón of the New Progressive Party, the first woman to hold the post, she is affiliated with the Republican Party at the national level. Other U. S. territories have a similar representative position called a delegate. List of United States congressional districts Resident Commissioners from the Philippines
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions. Non-voting members may vote in a House committee of which they are a member and introduce legislation. There are six non-voting members: a delegate representing the federal district of Washington D. C. a resident commissioner representing Puerto Rico, one delegate for each of the other four permanently inhabited US Territories: American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the US Virgin Islands. As with voting members, non-voting delegates are elected every two years, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico is elected every four years. Non voting members serve in the House of Representatives—not the Senate. All delegates serve a term of two years, they receive compensation and franking privileges similar to full House members.
Since 1993, the rules governing the rights of a non-voting member have changed three times, current delegates—along with the resident commissioner—enjoy privileges that they did not have previously. Territorial delegates existed before the ratification of the United States Constitution; the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed for a territory with "five thousand free male inhabitants of full age" to elect a non-voting delegate to the Continental Congress. After the ratification of the Constitution, the first United States Congress reenacted the Ordinance and extended it to include the territories south of the Ohio River. In 1790, the state of North Carolina—having ratified the constitution, becoming the 12th state—sent its congressional delegation to what was the federal capital at New York City. Among them was former State of Franklin Governor John Sevier, whose district comprised the "counties beyond the Alleghenies", he took office June 16, 1790, the government of North Carolina had ceded his district to the federal government on February 25, 1790 and it was organized into a territory on August 7, 1790.
He remained a member of the House until March 3, 1791 when he was appointed brigadier general of the militia. On September 3, 1794, James White was elected by the Southwest Territory, which contained Sevier's former district, to be their delegate to Congress. A resolution was put forth in the House to admit him to Congress, but as a delegate was not a position stated in the Constitution, the House debated what, if any, privileges White would have; as the Northwest Ordinance had only stated that a delegate is to sit "in Congress" the first debate was which chamber a delegate would sit in. Resolutions that he sit in both chambers and that his right to debate be limited to territorial matters were defeated; the House voted to allow him a non-voting seat in the House. Following his placement, representatives debated. Representative James Madison stated "The proper definition of Mr. White is to be found in the Laws and Rules of the Constitution, he is not a member of Congress, so cannot be directed to take an oath, unless he chooses to do it voluntarily."
As he was not a Member, he was not directed to take the oath, though every delegate after him has done so. He was extended franking privileges, which allowed him to send official mail free of charge, compensation at the same rate as members. In 1802 Congress passed a law that extended franking privileges and pay to delegates. An act passed in 1817 codified the term and privileges of delegates: n every territory of the United States in which a temporary government has been, or hereafter shall be established...shall have the right to send a delegate to Congress, such delegate shall be elected every second year, for the same term of two years for which members of the House of Representatives of the United States are elected. Similar to delegates are resident commissioners, who represented the large areas acquired during the Spanish–American War, for much of the 20th century were considered colonies, not territories and unlike the acquired areas which would become the contiguous U. S. or Alaska and Hawaii, did not have residents with the rights of, or to U.
S. citizenship. Unlike incorporated territories, they have the right to secede from the Union, in the case of the Philippines, they have. Puerto Rico, a U. S. Commonwealth, has been represented by a non-voting Resident Commissioner since 1901; the resident commissioner holds a status similar to that of a delegate within the House, but serves a four-year term. The resident commissioner is the only individual elected to the House. From 1907 until 1937, while it was a U. S. territory, the Philippines elected two non-voting resident commissioners to serve in the U. S. House of Representatives. From 1937 until 1946, while it was a U. S. Commonwealth, the Philippines sent one non-voting resident commissioner to the House. Upon independence in 1946, the Philippines ceased to be represented in Congress. In the mid-1960s, a number of small territories which had no prospects of becoming states began to petition for representation in Congress. Starting in 1970, the House of Representatives started to grant representation to these territories, but with limited voting rights.
American Samoa, an insular area since 1929, first elected a delegate, A. U. Fuimaono, in 1970. However, A
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
116th United States Congress
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2019 and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census. In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate; this is the first split Congress since the 113th, the first Republican Senate/Democrat House split since the 99th. This Congress is considered to be the most diverse elected, the youngest in the past three cycles. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown January 3, 2019: Nancy Pelosi elected Speaker of the House, becoming the first former speaker to return to the post since Sam Rayburn in 1955.
February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address, after being delayed from January 29, 2019, due to the partial government shutdown. February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States. February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee, accusing Trump of several financial fraud crimes. March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation: Summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report issued to congress by attorney general William Barr. February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub. L. 116–6, H. J. 31 March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, Pub. L. 116–9, S. 47 For the People Act of 2019, H. R. 1 Equality Act, H. R. 5 Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal, H. Res. 109 SAFE Banking Act of 2019, H. R. 1595 Taxpayer First Act of 2019, H. R. 1957 March 15, 2019: A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of a national emergency declaration at the southern border.
Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. President: Mike Pence President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell Majority Whip: John Thune Conference Chair: John Barrasso Conference Vice Chair: Joni Ernst Policy Committee Chair: Roy Blunt Campaign Committee Chair: Todd Young Steering Committee Chair: Mike Lee Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer Minority Whip: Dick Durbin Assistant Leader: Patty Murray Policy Committee Chair: Debbie Stabenow Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren Steering Committee Chair: Amy Klobuchar Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders Policy Committee Vice Chair: Joe Manchin Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz Speaker: Nancy Pelosi Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján Caucus Chair: Hakeem Jeffries Caucus Vice Chair: Katherine Clark Campaign Committee Chair: Cheri Bustos Policy and Communications Committee Chair: David Cicilline Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy Minority Whip: Steve Scalise Conference Chair: Liz Cheney Conference Vice Chair: Mark Walker Conference Secretary: Jason Smith Policy Committee Chair: Gary Palmer Campaign Committee Chair: Tom Emmer Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson Most members of this Congress are Christian, with half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic.
Jewish membership is the highest percentage in American history. Other religions represented include Buddhism and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased; the Senate includes 25 women, the most female senators to date. In six states — California, Nevada, Arizona and New Hampshire — both senators are women. 13 states are represented by one male and one female senator, while 31 states are represented by two male senators. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, four Hispanic, three Black, three Asian, one multiracial senators, while two identify as LGBTQ+. There are 102 women in the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, 4 Native American. Eight identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest and oldest freshman women in history. Freshmen women Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar are the first two female Muslims and freshmen Sharice Davids and Deb Haaland are the first two female Native American members.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024.
115th United States Congress
The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Several political scientists described the legislative accomplishments of this Congress as modest, considering that both Congress and the Presidency were under unified Republican Party control. According to a contemporary study, "House and Senate GOP majorities struggled to legislate: GOP fissures and an undisciplined, unpopular president undermined the Republican agenda. Most notably, clashes within and between the two parties strained old ways of doing business." January 5, 2017: House of Representatives condemned United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. January 6, 2017: Joint session counted and certified the electoral votes of the 2016 presidential election.
January 11–12, 2017: Senate, in an all-night session, took first steps to repeal the Affordable Care Act. The final vote was 51 to 48 to approve a budget resolution to allow "broad swaths of the Affordable Care Act to be repealed through a process known as budget reconciliation." January 20, 2017: Inauguration of President Donald Trump. February 7, 2017: Vice President Mike Pence cast the tie-breaking vote to confirm Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education; this was the first time in United States history that a cabinet confirmation was tied in the Senate and required a tie-breaking vote. February 28, 2017: President's speech to a Joint Session. April 6, 2017: Senate invoked the "nuclear option" to weaken Supreme Court filibusters. Nominee Neil Gorsuch was confirmed the next day. June 14, 2017: Majority Whip Steve Scalise and several staffers were shot during the 2017 Congressional baseball shooting, they were practicing for the annual Congressional Baseball Game. September 1, 2017: The Parliamentarian of the United States Senate decreed that the Senate had until the end of the month to pass ACA repeal via the reconciliation process, or the option would no longer be viable.
October 24 – December 14, 2017: 2017 United States political sexual scandals from the "Me too" movement: Allegations that Congressman Ruben Kihuen sexually harassed a campaign staffer led some in congressional leadership to call for his resignation. Kihuen announced he would not seek another term in office. Senator Al Franken announced he would resign "in the coming weeks" after photographs were made public suggesting that he sexually assaulted a Los Angeles-based radio personality during a USO tour in Iraq in 2006, he was accused by multiple female constituents of groping at various Minnesota fair appearances that he attended. Three members of Congress either announced their impeding resignations. Allegations that President Donald Trump raped and sexually harassed at least nineteen women, one girl, Miss Teen USA contestants resulted in calls by members of Congress for him to resign. Allegations that Republican Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore raped and sexually harassed at least eight women and one girl contributed to his defeat by Democrat Doug Jones in a special Senate election to replace Attorney General Jeff Sessions.
Allegations that Representative Blake Farenthold sexually harassed a former staffer resulted in the commencement of an investigation by the House Ethics Committee and his announcement he would not seek re-election in 2018. He subsequently resigned on April 6, 2018. January 20–22, 2018: United States federal government shutdown of January 2018 January 30, 2018: 2018 State of the Union Address February 9, 2018: United States federal government funding gap October 6, 2018: Senate confirms Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the U. S. Supreme Court. November 28, 2018: Senate discharges from committee and calendars S. J. Res. 54, bill that ends US intervention in the Yemeni Civil War. December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–19 United States federal government shutdown May 5, 2017: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H. R. 244, Pub. L. 115–31 August 2, 2017: Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, H. R. 3364, Pub. L. 115–44 December 12, 2017: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, H.
R. 2810, Pub. L. 115–91 December 22, 2017: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, H. R. 1, Pub. L. 115–97 February 9, 2018: Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, H. R. 1892, Pub. L. 115–123 March 23, 2018: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, H. R. 1625, Pub. L. 115–141 April 11, 2018: Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act, H. R. 1865, Pub. L. 115–164 May 24, 2018: Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act, S. 2155, Pub. L. 115–174 May 30, 2018: Trickett Wendler, Frank Mongiello, Jordan McLinn, Matthew Bellina Right to Try Act of 2017, S. 204, Pub. L. 115–176 August 13, 2018: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, H. R. 5515, Pub. L. 115–232 October 5, 2018: FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, H. R. 302, Pub. L. 115–254 October 11, 2018: Music Modernization Act, H. R. 1551, Pub. L. 115–264 October 23, 2018: America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018, S. 3021, Pub. L. 115–270 October 24, 2018: SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, H. R. 6, Pub. L. 115–271 December 20, 2018: Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, H.
R. 2, Pub. L. 115–334 December 21, 2018: FIRST STEP Act, S. 756, Pub. L. 115–391 May 4, 2017: American Health Care Act, passed House May 4, 2017 June 8, 2017: Financial CHOICE Act, passed House June 8, 2017 Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below. Section contents: Senate: Majority, Minority • House: Majority, Minority President: Joe Biden