FishBase is a global species database of fish species. It is the most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web. Over time it has "evolved into a dynamic and versatile ecological tool", cited in scholarly publications. FishBase provides comprehensive species data, including information on taxonomy, geographical distribution and morphology, behaviour and habitats and population dynamics as well as reproductive and genetic data. There is access to tools such as trophic pyramids, identification keys, biogeographical modelling and fishery statistics and there are direct species level links to information in other databases such as LarvalBase, GenBank, the IUCN Red List and the Catalog of Fishes; as of November 2018, FishBase included descriptions of 34,000 species and subspecies, 323,200 common names in 300 languages, 58,900 pictures, references to 55,300 works in the scientific literature. The site has about 700,000 unique visitors per month; the origins of FishBase go back to the 1970s, when the fisheries scientist Daniel Pauly found himself struggling to test a hypothesis on how the growing ability of fish was affected by the size of their gills.
Hypotheses, such as this one, could be tested only if large amounts of empirical data were available. At the time, fisheries management used analytical models which required estimates for fish growth and mortality, it can be difficult for fishery scientists and managers to get the information they need on the species that concern them, because the relevant facts can be scattered across and buried in numerous journal articles, reports and other sources. It can be difficult for people in developing countries who need such information. Pauly believed that the only practical way fisheries managers could access the volume of data they needed was to assemble and consolidate all the data available in the published literature into some central and accessed repository; such a database would be useful if the data has been standardised and validated. This would mean that when scientists or managers need to test a new hypothesis, the available data will be there in a validated and accessible form, there will be no need to create a new dataset and have to validate it.
Pauly recruited Rainer Froese, the beginnings of a software database along these lines was encoded in 1988. This database confined to tropical fish, became the prototype for FishBase. FishBase was subsequently extended to cover all finfish, was launched on the Web in August 1996, it is now the most accessed online database for fish in the world. In 1995 the first CD-ROM was released as "FishBase 100". Subsequent CDs have been released annually; the software runs on Microsoft Access. FishBase does not detail the early and juvenile stages of fish. In 1999 a complimentary database, called LarvalBase, went online under the supervision of Bernd Ueberschär, it covers ichthyoplankton and the juvenile stage of fishes, with detailed data on fish eggs and larvae, fish identification, as well as data relevant to the rearing of young fish in aquaculture. Given FishBase's success, there was a demand for a database covering forms of aquatic life other than finfish; this resulted, in the birth of SeaLifeBase. The long-term goal of SeaLifeBase is to develop an information system modelled on FishBase, but including all forms of aquatic life, both marine and freshwater, apart from the finfish which FishBase specialises in.
Altogether, there are about 300,000 known species in this category. As awareness of FishBase has grown among fish specialists, it has attracted over 2,310 contributors and collaborators. Since 2000 FishBase has been supervised by a consortium of nine international institutions. To date, the FishBase consortium has grown to twelve members; the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research for Ocean Research Kiel in Germany, functions as the coordinating body. Catalog of Fishes List of online encyclopedias Bailly N Why there may be discrepancies in the assessment of scientific names between the Catalog of Fishes and FishBase Version 2, 6 May 2010. Bailly N, Reyes Jr R, Atanacio R and Froese R "Simple Identification Tools in FishBase" In: Nimis PL and Vignes Lebbe R. Tools for Identifying Biodiversity: Progress and Problems, pages 31–36. ISBN 978-88-8303-295-0. Christensen V, CJ Walters, R Ahrens, J Alder, J Buszowski, LB Christensen, WWL Cheung, J Dunne, R Froese, V Karpouzi, K Kaschner, K Kearney, S Lai, V Lam, MLD Palomares, A Peters-Mason, C Piroddia, JL Sarmiento, J Steenbeek, R Sumaila, R Watson, D Zeller and D Pauly Database-driven models of the world's Large Marine Ecosystems Ecological Modelling, 220: 1984–1996.
Froese R "The science in Fishbase" In: Villy Christensen and Jay Maclean Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press, pages 47–54. ISBN 978-0-521-13022-6. Froese R and Pauly D FishBase 2000: concepts and data sources ICLARM, Philippines. Froese R and Pauly D "Fishbase as a tool for comparing the life history patterns of flatfish" Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 32: 235–239. Nauen CE A public electronic archive on the world’s fishes in support of sustainable fisheries CTA/Commonwealth Secretariat Seminar, Expert Meeting on ACP-EU Fisheries Relations, Brussels. Palomares, M. L. D. N. Bailly and D. Pauly FishBase, SeaLifeBase and database-driven ecosystem modeling p. 156-158. In: M. L. D. Palomares, L. Morissette, A. Cisnero-Montemayor, D. Varkey, M. Coll and C. Piroddi Ecopath 25 Years Conference Proceedings: Extended Abstracts. UBC Fisheries Centre Resear
Natural History Museum, London
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum; the Natural History Museum's main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road. The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections: botany, mineralogy and zoology; the museum is a centre of research specialising in taxonomy and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin; the museum is famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons and ornate architecture—sometimes dubbed a cathedral of nature—both exemplified by the large Diplodocus cast that dominated the vaulted central hall before it was replaced in 2017 with the skeleton of a blue whale hanging from the ceiling.
The Natural History Museum Library contains extensive books, journals and artwork collections linked to the work and research of the scientific departments. The museum is recognised as the pre-eminent centre of natural history and research of related fields in the world. Although referred to as the Natural History Museum, it was known as British Museum until 1992, despite legal separation from the British Museum itself in 1963. Originating from collections within the British Museum, the landmark Alfred Waterhouse building was built and opened by 1881 and incorporated the Geological Museum; the Darwin Centre is a more recent addition designed as a modern facility for storing the valuable collections. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Natural History Museum does not charge an admission fee; the museum is an exempt charity and a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge is a patron of the museum.
There are 850 staff at the Museum. The two largest strategic groups are Science Group; the foundation of the collection was that of the Ulster doctor Sir Hans Sloane, who allowed his significant collections to be purchased by the British Government at a price well below their market value at the time. This purchase was funded by a lottery. Sloane's collection, which included dried plants, animal and human skeletons, was housed in Montagu House, Bloomsbury, in 1756, the home of the British Museum. Most of the Sloane collection had disappeared by the early decades of the nineteenth century. Dr George Shaw sold many specimens to the Royal College of Surgeons and had periodic cremations of material in the grounds of the museum, his successors applied to the trustees for permission to destroy decayed specimens. In 1833 the Annual Report states that, of the 5,500 insects listed in the Sloane catalogue, none remained; the inability of the natural history departments to conserve its specimens became notorious: the Treasury refused to entrust it with specimens collected at the government's expense.
Appointments of staff were bedevilled by gentlemanly favoritism. J. E. Gray complained of the incidence of mental illness amongst staff: George Shaw threatened to put his foot on any shell not in the 12th edition of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae; the huge collection of the conchologist Hugh Cuming was acquired by the museum, Gray's own wife had carried the open trays across the courtyard in a gale: all the labels blew away. That collection is said never to have recovered; the Principal Librarian at the time was Antonio Panizzi. The general public was not encouraged to visit the Museum's natural history exhibits. In 1835 to a Select Committee of Parliament, Sir Henry Ellis said this policy was approved by the Principal Librarian and his senior colleagues. Many of these faults were corrected by the palaeontologist Richard Owen, appointed Superintendent of the natural history departments of the British Museum in 1856, his changes led Bill Bryson to write that "by making the Natural History Museum an institution for everyone, Owen transformed our expectations of what museums are for".
Owen saw that the natural history departments needed more space, that implied a separate building as the British Museum site was limited. Land in South Kensington was purchased, in 1864 a competition was held to design the new museum; the winning entry was submitted by the civil engineer Captain Francis Fowke, who died shortly afterwards. The scheme was taken over by Alfred Waterhouse who revised the agreed plans, designed the façades in his own idiosyncratic Romanesque style, inspired by his frequent visits to the Continent; the original plans included wings on either side of the main building, but these plans were soon abandoned for budgetary reasons. The space these would have occupied are now taken by the Earth Galleries and Darwin Centre. Work began in 1873 and was completed in 1880; the new museum opened in 1881, although the move from the old museum was not completed until 1883. Both the interiors and exteriors of the Waterhouse building make extensive use of
Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia
The Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia is a biogeographic regionalisation of Australia developed by the Australian Government's Department of Sustainability, Water and Communities. It was developed for use as a planning tool, for example for the establishment of a National Reserve System. Within the broadest scale, Australia is a major part of the Australasia biogeographic realm, as developed by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Based on this system, the world is split into 14 terrestrial habitats of which eight are shared by Australia; the Australian land mass is divided into 419 subregions. Each region is a land area made up of a group of interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form across the landscape; the most recent version is IBRA7, developed during 2012, which replaced IBRA6.1. This is a list of region and subregions under IBRA7. Region codes are given in parentheses. Images of regions are from IBRA6.1, pending creation of maps for IBRA7. Ecoregions in Australia Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation of Australia "Australia's bioregions".
Department of Sustainability, Water and Communities. Commonwealth of Australia. 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013. Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia regions and codes. Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia subregions and codes
Department of Environment and Conservation (Western Australia)
The Department of Environment and Conservation was a department of the Government of Western Australia, responsible for implementing the state's conservation and environment legislation and regulations. It was formed on 1 July 2006 by the amalgamation of the Department of Environment and the Department of Conservation and Land Management; the DEC was separated on 30 June 2013 forming the Department of Parks and Wildlife and the Department of Environment Regulation, which both commenced operations on 1 July 2013. DPaW focuses on nature conservation and the community’s enjoyment and appreciation of Western Australia’s world-class network of national and marine parks. DER focuses on environmental regulation and appeals processes, pollution prevention; the department was managing more than 285,000 km², including more than nine per cent of WA's land area: its national parks, marine parks, conservation parks, regional parks, state forests and timber reserves, nature reserves, roadside reserves and marine nature reserves.
It provided recreation facilities at a sustainable level for many of these. It supported or worked with the following authorities: Environmental Protection Authority Conservation Commission of WA Keep Australia Beautiful Marine Parks and Reserves Authority Swan River Trust Waste AuthorityThe total reportable visitation to DEC-managed lands and waters during the 2012-13 financial year was 16.02 million, with visitor satisfaction levels of 88%. 4,717 people were registered volunteers with the Department in 2012-13 that helped in a range of projects across the state with 564,350 hours contributed. DEC was responsible from 2007 to 2013 for protecting and conserving the state of Western Australia’s environment; the department’s key responsibilities included roles in managing and assessing aspects of the use of the State’s natural resources and biodiversity, including the regulation of native vegetation clearing and pollution control. The department initiated 14 environmental prosecutions during 2012–13, involving a broad range of charges including pollution, unauthorised clearing of native vegetation and illegal dumping.
At 30 June 2013, eight environmental prosecutions remained before the courts. There were an additional 18 pending cases that, subject to the evidentiary standard being met, could result in prosecution or other sanction. DEC was responsible for the wildlife conservation project Western Shield; the Department was in charge of wildfire prevention and suppression on its land as well as fire prevention in unallocated Crown land. The indicative burn target for 2012–13 in the south-west forest regions was 200,000 hectares. In 2012–13, DEC achieved 23,468 hectares in the south-west forest regions, including about 6,410 hectares that were burnt for pine plantation protection; the combination of unsuitable weather conditions, fuels remaining dry due to summer conditions extending into autumn, enhanced requirements in prescribed burn planning and risk management as a result of the 2011 Margaret River bushfire contributed to a significant reduction of the area able to be prescribed burnt this year. The average area of burning achieved over the past 10 years has been about 163,019 hectares per annum.
A further 6,023,884 hectares was burnt in the Kimberley, Goldfields, Midwest and South Coast regions. The burns were carried out on DEC-managed lands as well as on unallocated Crown lands and unmanaged reserves within these regions. DEC staff attended and monitored 676 bushfires throughout the state in 2012–13, which burnt about 5,477,394 hectares; the causes of these fires were: lightning—28 per cent deliberately lit or arson-caused fires—37 per cent accidental fires—16 per cent escapes from private burns—4 per cent escapes from DEC burns—0 per cent other causes—4 per cent unknown—11 per cent. Some of the most severe bushfires the Department had to suppress, in chronological order, included: National parks in Western Australia were under: Department of Lands and Surveys: 1 January 1890 – 31 December 1895 Wood and Forests Department: 1 January 1896 – 31 December 1918 Forests Department: 1 January 1919 – 21 March 1985 State Gardens Board: 15 December 1920 – 30 April 1957 National Parks Board: 1 May 1957 – 30 July 1977 Department of Fisheries and Fauna: 1 October 1964 – 31 December 1973 National Parks Authority: 1 August 1977 – 15 April 1985 Wildlife section of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife: 1 January 1974 – 21 March 1985 Department of Environment: 1 July 2004 - 30 June 2006 Department of Conservation and Land Management: 22 March 1985 – 30 June 2006 The Department maintained and coordinated a range of specialist equipment and emergency response vehicles.
This included pumpers, water bombers and tankers and other equipment relating to operations involving search and rescue and firefighting. National Parks of Western Australia Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Department of Environment and Conservation Department of Parks and Wildlife Department of Environment Regulation
Center for Biological Diversity
The Center for Biological Diversity, based in Tucson, Arizona, is a nonprofit membership organization with 1.1 million members and online activists, known for its work protecting endangered species through legal action, scientific petitions, creative media and grassroots activism. It was founded in 1989 by Peter Galvin, Todd Schulke and Robin Silver; the Center has offices and staff in New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Minnesota, Vermont and Washington, D. C. Given a small grant by the Fund for Wild Nature, the organization started in 1989 as a small group by the name of Greater Gila Biodiversity Project, with the objective to protect endangered species and critical habitat in the southwest; the organization grew and became the Center for Biological Diversity. Kieran Suckling, Peter Galvin, Todd Schulke founded the organization in response to what they perceived as a failure on the part of the United States Forest Service to protect imperiled species from logging and mining; as surveyors in New Mexico, the three men discovered "a rare Mexican spotted owl nest in an old-growth tree", but their discovery was overshadowed by Forest Service plans to lease the land to timber companies.
Suckling and Schulke went to the media to register their outrage with success: the old-growth tree was allowed to stand, this success led to the founding of the Center for Biological Diversity. The Center focused on issues specific to the Southwestern United States, but today its mission encompasses far-reaching problems such as global threats to biological diversity and climate change. One of the Center's biggest recent victories was in 2011, when it reached a historic legal settlement with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service compelling the agency to make progress on protecting 757 imperiled but neglected animals and plants; the Center employs a group of paid and pro bono attorneys to use litigation to effect change, claims a 93 percent success rate for their lawsuits. On 13 June 2007, the Center spoke out against a Bush administration proposal to reduce the protected area for spotted owls in the United States Pacific Northwest. According to Noah Greenwald, the group's representative in the Northwest, the proposed habitat cut is "typical of an administration, looking to reduce protections for endangered species at every turn."
Greenwald said that the rollback is part of a series of "sweetheart deals," in which the administration settles an environmental lawsuit out of court and, "at the industry's wishes, reduces the critical habitat." According to the Center, the move conforms to a broad trend that includes at least 25 earlier Bush administration decisions on habitat protections for endangered species. In those cases, the protected areas were reduced an average of 36 percent. On 16 December 2008, the Center announced intent to sue the United States government for introducing "regulations... that would eviscerate our nation’s most successful wildlife law by exempting thousands of federal activities, including those that generate greenhouse gases, from review under the Endangered Species Act." The lawsuit, critical of U. S. Interior Department Secretary Dirk Kempthorne and President George W. Bush, was filed in the Northern District of California by the Center and Defenders of Wildlife. According to the Center, "The lawsuit argues that the regulations violate the Endangered Species Act and did not go through the required public review process.
The regulations, first proposed on August 11th, were rushed by the Bush administration through an abbreviated process in which more than 300,000 comments from the public were reviewed in 2-3 weeks, environmental impacts were analyzed in a short and cursory environmental assessment, rather than a fuller environmental impact statement." Every year since 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity has given an award "to those who have done the most to destroy wild places and biological diversity". Environmental journalism List of environment topics Wildlife conservation Wildlife management Center for Biological Diversity website
Flora of Australia
The flora of Australia comprises a vast assemblage of plant species estimated to over 20,000 vascular and 14,000 non-vascular plants, 250,000 species of fungi and over 3,000 lichens. The flora has strong affinities with the flora of Gondwana, below the family level has a endemic angiosperm flora whose diversity was shaped by the effects of continental drift and climate change since the Cretaceous. Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include scleromorphy and serotiny; these adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae and Fabaceae. The arrival of humans around 50,000 years ago and settlement by Europeans from 1788, has had a significant impact on the flora; the use of fire-stick farming by Aboriginal people led to significant changes in the distribution of plant species over time, the large-scale modification or destruction of vegetation for agriculture and urban development since 1788 has altered the composition of most terrestrial ecosystems, leading to the extinction of 61 plant species and endangering over 1000 more.
Austrial major commonwealth foundations Australia was part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, which included South America, Africa and Antarctica. Most of the modern Australian flora had their origin in Gondwana during the Cretaceous when Australia was covered in subtropical rainforest. Australian ferns and gymnosperm bear strong resemblance to their Gondwanan ancestors, prominent members of the early Gondwanan angiosperm flora such as the Nothofagus and Proteaceae were present in Australia. Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago; as Australia drifted and global climate change had a significant and lasting effect: a circumpolar oceanic current developed, atmospheric circulation increased as Australia moved away from Antarctica, precipitation fell, there was a slow warming of the continent and arid conditions started to develop. These conditions of geographic isolation and aridity led to the development of a more complex flora. From 25-10 MYA pollen records suggest the rapid radiation of species like Eucalyptus, Allocasuarina and the pea-flowered legumes, the development of open forest.
Collision with the Eurasian Plate led to additional South-east Asian and cosmopolitan elements entering the flora like the Lepidium and Chenopodioideae. The development of aridity and the old and nutrient poor soils of the continent led to some unique adaptations in the Australian flora and evolutionary radiation of genera – like Acacia and Eucalyptus – that adapted to those conditions. Hard leaves with a thick outer layer, a condition known as scleromorphy, C4 and CAM carbon fixation which reduce water loss during photosynthesis are two common adaptations in Australian arid-adapted dicot and monocot species respectively. Rising aridity increased the frequency of fires in Australia. Fire is thought to have played a role in the development and distribution of fire-adapted species from the Late Pleistocene. An increase in charcoal in sediment around 38,000 years ago coincides with dates for the inhabitation of Australia by the Indigenous Australians and suggests that man-made fires, from practices like fire-stick farming, have played an important role in the establishment and maintenance of sclerophyll forest on the east coast of Australia.
Adaptations to fire include lignotubers and epicormic buds in Eucalyptus and Banksia species that allow fast regeneration following fire. Some genera exhibit serotiny, the release of seed only in response to heat and/or smoke. Xanthorrhoea grass trees and some species of orchids only flower after fire. In biogeography and zoogeography, Australia alone is sometimes considered a realm, while some authors unite the area with other regions to form the Australasian realm. In phytogeography, the area is considered a floristic kingdom, with the following endemic families, according to Takhtajan: Platyzomataceae, Austrobaileyaceae, Gyrostemonaceae, Davidsoniaceae, Eremosynaceae, Emblingiaceae, Tremandraceae, Brunoniaceae, Doryanthaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae, it is the center of origin of Eupomatiaceae, Epacridaceae, Stackhousiaceae and Goodeniaceae. Other families with high occurrences are Poaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae and Proteaceae. Australia's terrestrial flora can be collected into characteristic vegetation groups.
The most important determinant is rainfall, followed by temperature which affects water availability. Several schemes of varying complexity have been created, the most recent scheme developed by the Natural Heritage Trust divides Australia's terrestrial flora into 30 Major Vegetation Groups, 67 Major Vegetation Subgroups. According to the scheme the most common vegetation types are those that are adapted to arid conditions where the area has not been reduced by human activities such as land clearing for agriculture; the dominant vegetation type in Australia is the hummock grasslands that occur extensively in arid Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory. It accounts for 23% of the native vegetation, the predominant species of which are from the genus Triodia. Zygochloa occurs in inland sandy areas like the Simpson Desert. A furt
British Trust for Ornithology
The British Trust for Ornithology is an organisation founded in 1932 for the study of birds in the British Isles. In 1931 Max Nicholson wrote: In the United States, Hungary and elsewhere a clearing-house for research is provided by the state: in this country such a solution would be uncongenial, we must look for some alternative centre of national scope not imposed from above but built up from below. An experiment on these lines has been undertaken at Oxford since the founding of the Oxford Bird Census in 1927; the scheme now has a full-time director, Mr W. B. Alexander, it is intended to put this undertaking on a permanent footing and to build it up as a clearing-house for bird-watching results in this country. This led to a meeting at the British Museum in February 1932, which in turn led to the foundation of an organisation to develop the Oxford scheme; the name British Trust for Ornithology was used from May 1933 and an appeal for funds was published in The Times on 1 July. Max Nicholson was Bernard Tucker the secretary.
Harry Witherby was an early vice-chairman. Much has been discovered about birds by watching and counting them, but such methods allow birds to be identified as individuals; this is essential if we are to learn about how long they live and when and where they move, questions that are vital for bird conservation. Placing a lightweight, uniquely numbered, metal ring around a bird's leg provides a reliable and harmless method of identifying birds as individuals; each ring has an address so that anyone finding a ringed bird can help by reporting where and when it was found and what happened to it. Some ringing projects use colour rings to allow individual birds to be identified without being caught. Birds have been ringed in Britain and Ireland for nearly 100 years, ringing still reveals new facts about migration routes and wintering areas. However, the primary focus of the BTO's Ringing Schemes is now the monitoring of bird populations, to provide information on how many young birds leave the nest and survive to become adults, as well as how many adults survive the stresses of breeding and severe weather.
Changes in survival rates and other aspects of birds' biology can indicate the causes of population changes. This information is so important; the Constant Effort Sites scheme provides information on population size, breeding success and survival of bird species living in scrub and wetland habitats. Ringers work at over 130 CES scheme sites each year; the Retrapping Adults for Survival project gathers survival data for a wide range of species those of current conservation concern. Ringing revealed that declines in the number of Sedge Warblers breeding in Britain and Ireland was linked to lower levels of rainfall in their African wintering quarters; this information should aid identification of the environmental factors responsible for the decline. In 1938 the BTO contributed funds to the new Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology. In 1947, the institute became part of a new department of Zoological Field Studies at Oxford University, the BTO again concentrated on a programme of volunteer-based surveys.
In December 1962, at the behest of Tony Norris, the BTO purchased Beech Grove, a large Victorian house in Tring, relocating there from Oxford, along with their Ringing Office, at the British Museum. In April 1991, the BTO moved to The Nunnery, Norfolk, a large property lying between the A134 and the River Little Ouse, donated to them. Parts of the medieval Benedictine Nunnery of St George can still be seen on this site; the BTO runs its only bird reserve, Nunnery Lakes Reserve, on this site. The reserve lies between the River Thet and the River Little Ouse, extending upstream from The Nunnery, along the banks of the Little Ouse, incorporates several flooded gravel pits. In the early 2000s, a new library was created there, dedicated to the memory of Chris Mead. Professor Jeremy Greenwood PhD, Director since 1988, retired in September 2007, the current Director is Dr Andy Clements; the BTO carries out research into the lives of birds, chiefly by conducting population and breeding surveys and by bird ringing carried out by a large number of volunteers.
Its Garden Birdwatch survey, for example, allows large numbers of non-expert birdwatchers to participate, by making a weekly count of the birds they see in their gardens. The BTO publishes a number of journals: Bird Study - a scientific journal, published since 1953. ISSN 0006-3657 BTO News - the newsletter for all members. ISSN 0005-3392 Bird Table - for participants in the Garden BirdWatch Project. ISSN 1460-6755 Ringing & Migration - Journal of the BTO Ringing Scheme. WeBS News - newsletter for participants in the Wetland Bird Survey. In September 1967, inspired by on-going work on the innovative Atlas of Breeding Birds of the West Midlands, produced by the West Midland Bird Club, in partnership with the Irish Wildbird Conservancy, work began on the first Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland. 3,862 10 km squares were surveyed and the atlas was published in 1976. The New Atlas updated and refined this huge survey, again with the help of IWC and the Scottish Ornithologists Club. A Winter Atlas and a Historical Atlas have been published.
The groundbreaking Migration Atlas presents the results of 100 years of bird ringing. As with all BTO studies, the vast majority of the fieldwork was undertaken by volunteers; the Bird Atlas 2007–11, published