Costa Rica the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area; the sovereign state of Costa Rica is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. It is known for its long-standing and stable democracy, for its educated workforce, most of whom speak English; the country spends 6.9% of its budget on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%. Its economy, once dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies and ecotourism. Many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones where they benefit from investment and tax incentives.
Costa Rica was facing a market liquidity crisis in 2017 due to a growing budget deficit. By August 2017, the Treasury was having difficulty paying its obligations. Other challenges facing the country in its attempts to improve the economy by increasing foreign investment include a poor infrastructure and a need to improve public sector efficiency. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century, it remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the First Mexican Empire, followed by membership in the United Provinces of Central America, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. Since Costa Rica has remained among the most stable and progressive nations in Latin America. Following the brief Costa Rican Civil War, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army; the country has performed favorably in the Human Development Index, placing 69th in the world as of 2015, among the highest of any Latin American nation.
It has been cited by the United Nations Development Programme as having attained much higher human development than other countries at the same income levels, with a better record on human development and inequality than the median of the region. Costa Rica has progressive environmental policies, it is the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. It was ranked 42nd in the world, third in the Americas, in the 2016 Environmental Performance Index, was twice ranked the best performing country in the New Economics Foundation's Happy Planet Index, which measures environmental sustainability, was identified by the NEF as the greenest country in the world in 2009. Costa Rica plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021. By 2016, 98.1% of its electricity was generated from green sources hydro, solar and biomass. Historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
More pre-Columbian Costa Rica has been described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. Stone tools, the oldest evidence of human occupation in Costa Rica, are associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley; the presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, two different cultures coexisted. Agriculture became evident in the populations, they grew tubers and roots. For the first and second millennia BCE there were settled farming communities; these were small and scattered, although the timing of the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the main livelihood in the territory is still unknown. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE. Shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters and other forms of vases decorated with grooves and some modelled after animals have been found; the impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been small compared to other nations, since the country lacked a strong native civilization to begin with.
Most of the native population was absorbed into the Spanish-speaking colonial society through inter-marriage, except for some small remnants, the most significant of which are the Bribri and Boruca tribes who still inhabit the mountains of the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the southeastern part of Costa Rica, near the frontier with Panama. The name la costa rica, meaning "rich coast" in the Spanish language, was in some accounts first applied by Christopher Columbus, who sailed to the eastern shores of Costa Rica during his final voyage in 1502, reported vast quantities of gold jewelry worn by natives; the name may have come from conquistador Gil González Dávila, who landed on the west coast in 1522, encountered natives, appropriated some of their gold. During most of the colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In practice, the captaincy general was a autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire.
Costa Rica's distance from the capital of the captaincy in Guatemala, its legal prohibition under Spanish law from trade with its southern neighbor Panama part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, lack of r
Flora of the United States
The native flora of the United States includes about 17,000 species of vascular plants, plus tens of thousands of additional species of other plants and plant-like organisms such as algae and other fungi, mosses. About 3,800 additional non-native species of vascular plants are recorded as established outside of cultivation in the U. S. as well as a much smaller number of non-native non-vascular plants and plant relatives. The United States possesses one of the most diverse temperate floras in the world, comparable only to that of China. Several biogeographic factors contribute to the richness and diversity of the U. S. flora. While most of the United States has a temperate climate, Alaska has vast arctic areas, the southern part of Florida is tropical, as well as Hawaii, alpine summits are present on many western mountains, as well as a few in the Northeast; the U. S. coastline borders three oceans: The Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific. The U. S. shares long borders with Canada and Mexico, is close to the Bahamas and other Caribbean islands, easternmost Asia.
There are rainforests as well as some of the driest deserts in the world. The native flora of the United States has provided the world with a large number of horticultural and agricultural plants ornamentals, such as flowering dogwood, mountain laurel, bald cypress, southern magnolia, black locust, all now cultivated in temperate regions worldwide, but various food plants such as blueberries, black raspberries, maple syrup and sugar, pecans, Monterey pine and other timber trees; some of the native U. S. plants, such as Franklinia alatamaha, have demonstrably become extinct in the wild. Thousands of other native U. S. vascular plants are considered rare, threatened, or endangered, either globally or within particular states. According to Armen Takhtajan, Robert F. Thorne, other geobotanists, the territory of the United States is divided between three floristic kingdoms, six floristic regions and twelve floristic provinces, characterized by a certain degree of endemism: Holarctic Kingdom Circumboreal Region Arctic Province Canadian Province North American Atlantic Region Appalachian Province Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Province North American Prairies Province Rocky Mountain Region Vancouverian Province Rocky Mountain Province Madrean Region Great Basin Province Californian Province Sonoran Province Neotropical Kingdom Caribbean Region West Indian Province Paleotropic Kingdom Hawaiian Region Hawaiian Province John Clayton John Bartram Carl Linnaeus Peter Kalm William Bartram André Michaux William Clark Meriwether Lewis Frederick Traugott Pursh Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de Candolle Constantine Samuel Rafinesque Thomas Nuttall John Torrey George Engelmann Asa Gray George Vasey Sereno Watson Charles Sprague Sargent Edward Lee Greene John Merle Coulter Marcus Eugene Jones Liberty Hyde Bailey Nathaniel Lord Britton Aven Nelson Per Axel Rydberg Alfred Rehder Albert Spear Hitchcock Charles Piper Willis Lynn Jepson John Kunkel Small Mary Agnes Chase Merritt Lyndon Fernald LeRoy Abrams Henry Allan Gleason Paul Carpenter Standley Edgar Theodore Wherry Earl Edward Scherff Emma Lucy Braun Philip Alexander Munz Harold St. John Eric Hultén Ivan Murray Johnston Charles Leo Hitchcock Frederick Joseph Hermann George Ledyard Stebbins Elbert Luther Little, Jr. Julian Alfred Steyermark Lyman David Benson Reed Clark Rollins Rupert Charles Barneby Albert Ernest Radford Warren Herbert Wagner William Alfred Weber Arthur Cronquist Ronald Leighton McGregor Carlyle August Luer Robert Kral Stanley Larson Welsh George William Argus Edward Groesbeck Voss James Lauritz Reveal Anton Alfred Reznicek Warren Lambert Wagner Barbara Jean Ertter John Thomas Kartesz Flora of North America North of Mexico.
12+ vols. New York and Oxford, 1993+; the PLANTS Database @ United States Department of Agriculture NatureServe Explorer
Flora of Cuba
This is a list of plants which includes trees and other herbs, climbers, shrubs, subshrubs that are native or endemic, found in Cuba. This list should exclude plants introduced by humans; the endemic genera or species will be marked in bold type. This list is sorted in alphabetical order by binomial names. Common names are in parentheses. Acacia belairioides Acacia bucheri Acacia cornigera Acacia daemon Acacia roigii Acacia zapatensis Acoelorrhaphe wrightii Acrocomia crispa Agave anomala Ageratina riparia Albizia berteriana Allophylus roigii Amyris cubensis Amyris polymorpha Ancistranthus harpochiloides Annona cristalensis Annona ekmanii Ateleia gummifera Ateleia salicifolia Atkinsia cubensis Avicennia germinans Bactris cubensis Banara wilsonii Begonia cubensis Behaimia cubensis Belairia parvifolia Brya ebenus Bucida ophiticola Buddleja americana Bunchosia linearifolia Bursera simaruba Byrsonima crassifolia Dorstenia crenulata Dorstenia erythranda Dorstenia nummularia Dorstenia peltata Dorstenia petraea Dorstenia rocana Dorstenia roigii Dorstenia tuberosa Encyclia tampensis Erythrina elenae Erythroxylum echinodendron Euchorium cubense Eugenia aceitillo Eugenia acunai Eugenia acutissima Eugenia bayatensis Ficus meizonochlamys Garcinia aristata Garrya fadyenii Gastrococos crispa see Acrocomia crispa Gaussia princeps Gordonia curtyana Gyminda orbicularis Harpalyce maisiana Helietta glaucescens Hemithrinax compacta Hemithrinax rivularis Henleophytum echinatum Henriettea granularis Henriettea punctata Henriettea squamata Hernandia cubensis Hibiscus elatus Hieronyma crassistipula Hildegardia cubensis Hymenaea torrei Illicium cubense Jacaranda arborea Jatropha integerrima Juglans insularis Krokia pilotoana Licaria cubensis Lunania cubensis Lunania dodecandra Lunania elongata Lyonia elliptica Lyonia maestrensis Magnolia minor Manilkara mayarensis Manilkara valenzuelana Marcgravia evenia Melocactus matanzanus Miconia perelegans Microcycas calocoma Micropholis polita Mozartia emarginata Mozartia maestrensis Mozartia manacalensis Myrtus claraensis Nectandra coriacea Nectandra hihua Nectandra membranacea Nectandra minima Nectandra turbacensis Neea ekmanii Nowellia wrightii Pachyanthus pedicellatus Phyla dulcis Picrodendron baccatum Pimenta adenoclada Pimenta cainitoides Pimenta ferruginea Pimenta filipes Pimenta odiolens Pimenta oligantha Pimenta podocarpoides Pinguicula lithophytica Pinguicula toldensis Pinus caribaea Pinus cubensis Pinus tropicalis Pisonia ekmani Pithecellobium savannarum Plinia rupestris Podocarpus aristulatus Pouteria aristata Pouteria cubensis Pouteria micrantha Pouteria moaensis Pseudosamanea cubana Psidium havanense Psychotria cathetoneura Quercus sagraeana Rheedia aristata see Garcinia aristata Rivea corymbosa see Turbina corymbosa Sabal palmetto Sabal yapa Sarcomphalus havanensis Senna domingensis Sideroxylon acunae Sideroxylon angustum Sideroxylon confertum Sideroxylon jubilla Sideroxylon salicifolium Spirotecoma apiculata Spirotecoma holguinensis Synapsis ilicifoliatrees of **** Tabebuia anafensis Tabebuia arimaoensis Tabebuia bibracteolata Tabebuia dubia Tabebuia elongata Tabebuia furfuracea Tabebuia hypoleuca Tabebuia jackiana Tabebuia oligolepis Tabebuia polymorpha Tabebuia shaferi Tabernaemontana apoda Tapura orbicularis Terminalia eriostachya Terminalia intermedia Tetrazygia elegans Thrinax ekmaniana Trichilia pungens Trichilia trachyantha Tripsacum floridanum Turbina corymbosa Utricularia breviscapa Utricularia cornuta Utricularia incisa Utricularia juncea Utricularia olivacea Utricularia purpurea Utricularia pusilla Utricularia resupinata Utricularia simulans Vaccinium bissei Victorinia regina Vitex acunae Vitis tiliifolia Ximenia roigii Xylopia ekmanii Zamia integrifolia Zamia kickxii Zamia pumila Zamia pygmaea Cuban cactus scrub Cuban dry forests Cuban moist forests Cuban pine forests Flora de la República de Cuba online The Spermatophyta of Cuba – A Preliminary Checklist Grisebach, August.
Catalogus plantarum cubensium. Engelmann, Leipzig. Grisebach, A. 1862. Plantæ Wrightianæ e Cuba orientali, Pars II.. Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, ser.2, 8: 503–536. Howard, R. A. 1988. Charles Wright in Cuba, 1856–1867. Chadwyck-Healey, Alexandria. León, H. & Alain, H. 1946-62. 1969. Flora de Cuba. 5 Volumes. Havana Manitz, H. 1987. Pp. 23–24 in: Las collecciones de Charles Wright en Pinar del Río. IV Conferencia sobre la Flora de Cuba. Resúmenes. Machurrucutu-La Habana. Oviedo Prieto, R. 1994. Plantae Wrightianae ex insula Cuba quae in herbario Horti Regii Matritensis asservantur. Fontqueria 39: 165–213. Richard, A.. Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de L'Ile de Cuba. Botanique. Plantes Vasculaires. Sauvalle, F. A. 1870. Flora cubana. Anales Acad. Ci. Méd. Habana 7. Urban, I. 1902. Symbolae Antillanae, 3. Bornträger, Leipzig
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Wildlife of Bermuda
The flora and fauna of Bermuda form part of a unique ecosystem due to Bermuda's isolation from the mainland of North America. The wide range of endemic species and the islands form a distinct ecoregion, the Bermuda subtropical conifer forests. Located 900 km off the American East Coast, Bermuda is a crescent-shaped chain of 184 islands and islets that were once the rim of a volcano; the islands are hilly rather than having steep cliffs, with the highest point being 79m. The coast has many bays and inlets, with sandy beaches on the south coasts. Bermuda has a semi-tropical climate, warmed by the Gulf Stream current. Bermuda is densely populated. Twenty of the islands are inhabited. Wildlife that could fly to the island or were carried there by winds and currents formed the species. There are no native mammals other than bats, only two reptiles, but large numbers of birds and insects. Once on the island, organisms had to adapt to local conditions, such as the humid climate, lack of fresh water, frequent storms, salt spray.
The area of the islands shrank as water levels rose at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, fewer species were able to survive in the reduced land-area. Nearly 8,000 different species of flora and fauna are known from the islands of Bermuda; the number is to be higher if all microorganisms, cave-dwellers and deep-sea species were counted. Today the variety of species on Bermuda has been increased by introductions, both deliberate and accidental. Many of these introduced species have posed a threat to the native flora and fauna because of competition and interference with habitat. Over 1000 species of vascular plant are found on the islands. Of the 165 native species, 17 are endemic. At the time of the first human settlement by shipwrecked English sailors in 1593, Bermuda was dominated by forests of Bermuda cedar with mangrove swamps on the coast. More deliberate settlement began after 1609, colonists began clearing forests to use for building and shipmaking, to develop agricultural cultivation. By the 1830s, the demands of the shipbuilding industry had denuded the forests, but these recovered in many areas.
In the 1940s the cedar forests were devastated by introduced scale insects, which killed 8 million trees. Replanting using resistant trees has taken place since but the area covered by cedar is only 10% of what it used to be. Another important component of the original forest was a small palm tree, it now grows in a few small patches, notably at Paget Marsh. Other trees and shrubs include Bermuda Bermuda snowberry; the climate allows for the growth of other palms such as royal palm and coconut palm, although the lack of warm temperatures does not allow coconuts to fruit properly. Bermuda is the farthest north location in the Northern Hemisphere where coconut palms will grow naturally. Remnant patches of mangrove swamp can be found around the coast and at some inland sites, including Hungry Bay Nature Reserve and Mangrove Lake, Bermuda; these were important for providing transition habitats. Here black mangrove and red mangrove are the northernmost mangroves in the Atlantic; the inland swamps are interesting as mangroves thrive in salty water.
Areas of peat marsh include Devonshire and Paget marshes. Bermuda has four endemic ferns: Bermuda maidenhair fern, Bermuda shield fern, Bermuda cave fern and Governor Laffan's fern; the latter is grown at Bermuda Botanical Gardens. The endemic flora of the island include two mosses, ten lichens and forty fungi. Among the many introduced species are the Suriname cherry. Trees and palms Shrubs Flowers, grasses and others Bermudiana Darrell's fleabane Bermuda campylopus Bermuda bean Bermuda spike rush Bermuda trichostomum Governor Laffan's fern Bermuda has no native amphibians. A species of toad, cane toad, two species of frog, Antilles coqui, Eleutherodactylus gossei were introduced by humans and subsequently became naturalized. R. marina and E. johnstonei are common, but E. gossei is thought to have been extirpated. Four species of lizard and two species of turtle comprise Bermuda's non-marine reptilian fauna. Of the lizards, the Bermuda rock skink, is the only endemic species. Once common, the Bermuda skink is critically endangered.
The Jamaican anole was deliberately introduced in 1905 from Jamaica and is now by far the most common lizard in Bermuda. The Leach's anole is now common; the Barbados anole was accidentally introduced about 1940 and is seen. The diamondback terrapin is native to Bermuda; the red-eared slider has subsequently become invasive. All mammals in Bermuda are human introductions, except for four species of migratory North American bats of the genus Lasiurus: the hoary bat, eastern red bat, Seminole bat and silver-haired bat. Early accounts refer to
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l