In typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, condensation, slant, italicization and designer or foundry. For example, "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond, it is a different font from "ITC Garamond Condensed Italic" and "ITC Garamond Bold Condensed", but all are fonts within the same typeface, "ITC Garamond". ITC Garamond is a different typeface from "Adobe Garamond" or "Monotype Garamond". There are thousands of different typefaces with new ones being developed constantly; the art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are employed by type foundries. In digital typography, type designers are sometimes called font developers or font designers; every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics; the term typeface is confused with the term font. Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more understood meanings. In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, because the term font has been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size. For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided; the design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight and stylistic variants have led to font families, collections of related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles.
A font family is a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, width, etc. but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts; the distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a "family" or related set of fonts. For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include roman and italic fonts. In the metal type era, a font meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size; the first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham, with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton.
Examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina. Some became superfamilies as a result such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers. Typeface superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing Clearface; the superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families and are not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, additional superior letters and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface.
Supplemental fonts have included alternate letters such as swashes and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs. Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way; these fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. The goal was to deliver t
History of plant systematics
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists. As a field of science, plant systematics came into being only early plant lore being treated as part of the study of medicine. Classification and description was driven by natural history and natural theology; until the advent of the theory of evolution, nearly all classification was based on the scala naturae. The professionalization of botany in the 18th and 19th century marked a shift toward more holistic classification methods based on evolutionary relationships; the Sushrut first classify plant in 4 categories on basis of flowering pattern structure and life span. Vanspataya Vruksha Virudh Aushodh तासां स्थावराश्चतुर्विधाः- वनस्पतयो, वृक्षा, वीरुध, ओषधय इति | तासु, अपुष्पाः फलवन्तो वनस्पतयः, पुष्पफलवन्तो वृक्षाः, प्रतानवत्यः स्तम्बिन्यश्च वीरुधः, फलपाकनिष्ठा ओषधय इति ||Sushrut Sutra 1/21|| <<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sushruta>> The peripatetic philosopher Theophrastus, as a student of Aristotle in Ancient Greece, wrote Historia Plantarum, the earliest surviving treatise on plants, where he listed the names of over 500 plant species.
He did not articulate a formal classification scheme, but relied on the common groupings of folk taxonomy combined with growth form: tree shrub. The De Materia Medica of Dioscorides was an important early compendium of plant descriptions, classifying plants chiefly by their medicinal effects. In the 16th century, works by Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonhart Fuchs helped to revive interest in natural history based on first-hand observation. With the influx of exotic species in the Age of Exploration, the number of known species expanded but most authors were far more interested in the medicinal properties of individual plants than an overarching classification system. Influential Renaissance books include those of Caspar Bauhin and Andrea Cesalpino. Bauhin described over 6000 plants, which he arranged into 12 books and 72 sections based on a wide range of common characteristics. Cesalpino based his system on the structure of the organs of fructification, using the Aristotelian technique of logical division.
In the late 17th century, the most influential classification schemes were those of English botanist and natural theologian John Ray and French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. Ray, who listed over 18,000 plant species in his works, is credited with establishing the monocot/dicot division and some of his groups — mustards, mints and grasses — stand today. Tournefort used an artificial system based on logical division, adopted in France and elsewhere in Europe up until Linnaeus; the book that had an enormous accelerating effect on the science of plant systematics was Species Plantarum by Linnaeus. It presented a complete list of the plant species known to Europe, ordered for the purpose of easy identification using the number and arrangement of the male and female sexual organs of the plants. Of the groups in this book, the highest rank that continues to be used today is the genus; the consistent use of binomial nomenclature along with a complete listing of all plants provided a huge stimulus for the field.
Although meticulous, the classification of Linnaeus served as an identification manual. It assumed that plant species were given by God and that what remained for humans was to recognise them and use them. Linnaeus was quite aware that the arrangement of species in the Species Plantarum was not a natural system, i.e. did not express relationships. However he did present some ideas of plant relationships elsewhere. Significant contributions to plant classification came from de Jussieu in 1789 and the early nineteenth century saw the start of work by de Candolle, culminating in the Prodromus. A major influence on plant systematics was the theory of evolution, resulting in the aim to group plants by their phylogenetic relationships. To this was added the interest in plant anatomy, aided by the use of the light microscope and the rise of chemistry, allowing the analysis of secondary metabolites; the strict use of epithets in botany, although regulated by international codes, is considered unpractical and outdated.
The notion of species, the fundamental classification unit, is up to subjective intuition and thus can not be well defined. As a result, estimate of the total number of existing "species" becomes a matter of preference. While scientists have agreed for some time that a functional and objective classification system must reflect actual evolutionary processes and genetic relationships, the technological means for creating such a system did not exist until recently. In the 1990s DNA technology saw immense progress, resulting in unprecedented accumulation of DNA sequence data from various genes present in compartments of plant cells. In 1998 a ground-breaking classification of the angiosperms consolidated molecular phylogenetics as the best available method. For the first time relatedness could be measured in real terms, namely similarity of the m
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Bryology is the branch of botany concerned with the scientific study of bryophytes. Bryologists are people who have an active interest in observing, classifying or researching bryophytes; the field is studied along with lichenology due to the similar appearance and ecological niche of the two organisms though bryophytes and lichens are not classified in the same kingdom. Bryophytes were first studied in detail in the 18th century; the German botanist Johann Jacob Dillenius was a professor at Oxford and in 1717 produced the work "Reproduction of the ferns and mosses." The beginning of bryology belongs to the work of Johannes Hedwig, who clarified the reproductive system of mosses and arranged a taxonomy. Areas of research include bryophyte taxonomy, bryophytes as bioindicators, DNA sequencing, the interdependency of bryophytes and other plant and animal species. Among other things, scientists have discovered parasitic bryophytes such as Cryptothallus and carnivorous liverworts such as Colura zoophaga and Pleurozia.
Centers of research in bryology include the University of Bonn in Germany, the University of Helsinki in Finland and the New York Botanical Garden. Miles Joseph Berkeley Elizabeth Gertrude Britton Margaret Sibella Brown Heinrich Christian Funck Robert Kaye Greville Wilhelm Theodor Gümbel Inez M. Haring Hiroshi Inoue Mary S. Taylor Carl Friedrich Warnstorf Meylania, Zeitschrift für Bryologie und Lichenologie Limprichtia, Zeitschrift der Bryologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutschlands Bryologie at the University of Bonn A Short History of Bryology International Association of Bryologists American Bryological and Lichenological Society British Bryological Society
Plant ecology is a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution and abundance of plants, the effects of environmental factors upon the abundance of plants, the interactions among and between plants and other organisms. Examples of these are the distribution of temperate deciduous forests in North America, the effects of drought or flooding upon plant survival, competition among desert plants for water, or effects of herds of grazing animals upon the composition of grasslands. A global overview of the Earth's major vegetation types is provided by O. W. Archibold, he recognizes 11 major vegetation types: tropical forests, tropical savannas, arid regions, Mediterranean ecosystems, temperate forest ecosystems, temperate grasslands, coniferous forests, terrestrial wetlands, freshwater ecosystems and coastal/marine systems. This breadth of topics shows the complexity of plant ecology, since it includes plants from floating single-celled algae up to large canopy forming trees. One feature that defines plants is photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is the process of a chemical reactions to create glucose and oxgyen, vital for plant life. One of the most important aspects of plant ecology is the role plants have played in creating the oxygenated atmosphere of earth, an event that occurred some 2 billion years ago, it can be dated by the deposition of banded iron formations, distinctive sedimentary rocks with large amounts of iron oxide. At the same time, plants began removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thereby initiating the process of controlling Earth's climate. A long term trend of the Earth has been toward increasing oxygen and decreasing carbon dioxide, many other events in the Earth's history, like the first movement of life onto land, are tied to this sequence of events. One of the early classic books on plant ecology was written by J. E. Weaver and F. E. Clements, it talks broadly about plant communities, the importance of forces like competition and processes like succession. Plant ecology can be divided by levels of organization including plant ecophysiology, plant population ecology, community ecology, ecosystem ecology, landscape ecology and biosphere ecology.
The study of plants and vegetation is complicated by their form. First, most plants are rooted in the soil, which makes it difficult to observe and measure nutrient uptake and species interactions. Second, plants reproduce vegetatively, asexually, in a way that makes it difficult to distinguish individual plants. Indeed, the concept of an individual is doubtful, since a tree may be regarded as a large collection of linked meristems. Hence, plant ecology and animal ecology have different styles of approach to problems that involve processes like reproduction and mutualism; some plant ecologists have placed considerable emphasis upon trying to treat plant populations as if they were animal populations, focusing on population ecology. Many other ecologists believe that while it is useful to draw upon population ecology to solve certain scientific problems, plants demand that ecologists work with multiple perspectives, appropriate to the problem, the scale and the situation. Plant ecology has its origin in the application of plant physiology to the questions raised by plant geographers.
Carl Ludwig Willdenow was one of the first to note that similar climates produced similar types of vegetation when they were located in different parts of the world. Willdenow's student, Alexander von Humboldt, used physiognomy to describe vegetation types and observed that the distribution vegetation types was based on environmental factors. Plant geographers who built upon Humboldt's work included Joakim Frederik Schouw, A. P. de Candolle, August Grisebach and Anton Kerner von Marilaun. Schouw's work, published in 1822, linked plant distributions to environmental factors and established the practice of naming plant associations by adding the suffix -etum to the name of the dominant species. Working from herbarium collections, De Candolle searched for general rules of plant distribution and settled on using temperature as well. Grisebach's two-volume work, Die Vegetation der Erde nach Ihrer Klimatischen Anordnung, published in 1872, saw plant geography reach its "ultimate form" as a descriptive field.
Starting in the 1870s, Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener, together with his students and colleagues, established the link between plant morphology and physiological adaptations, laying the groundwork for the first ecology textbooks, Eugenius Warming's Plantesamfund and Andreas Schimper's 1898 Pflanzengeographie auf Physiologischer Grundlage. Warming incorporated plant morphology, physiology taxonomy and biogeography into plant geography to create the field of plant ecology. Although more morphological than physiological, Schimper's has been considered the beginning of plant physiological ecology. Plant ecology was built around static ideas of plant distribution. Henry Chandler Cowles' studies of plant succession on the Lake Michigan sand dunes and Frederic Clements' 1916 monograph on the subject established it as a key element of plant ecology. Plant ecology developed within the wider discipline of ecology over the twentieth century. Inspired by Warming's Plantesamfund, Arthur Tansley set out to map British plant communities.
In 1904 he teamed up with William Gardner Smith and others involved in vegetation mapping to establish the Central Committee for the Survey and Study of British Vegetation shortened to British Vegetation Committee. In 1913, the British Vegetation Committee organised the British Ecological
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla; the calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished petals; when the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots. Although petals are the most conspicuous parts of animal-pollinated flowers, wind-pollinated species, such as the grasses, either have small petals or lack them entirely.
The role of the corolla in plant evolution has been studied extensively since Charles Darwin postulated a theory of the origin of elongated corollae and corolla tubes. A corolla of separate tepals is apopetalous. If the petals are free from one another in the corolla, the plant is choripetalous. In the case of fused tepals, the term is syntepalous; the corolla in some plants forms a tube. Petals can differ in different species; the number of petals in a flower may hold clues to a plant's classification. For example, flowers on eudicots most have four or five petals while flowers on monocots have three or six petals, although there are many exceptions to this rule; the petal whorl or corolla may be bilaterally symmetrical. If all of the petals are identical in size and shape, the flower is said to be regular or actinomorphic. Many flowers are termed irregular or zygomorphic. In irregular flowers, other floral parts may be modified from the regular form, but the petals show the greatest deviation from radial symmetry.
Examples of zygomorphic flowers may be seen in members of the pea family. In many plants of the aster family such as the sunflower, Helianthus annuus, the circumference of the flower head is composed of ray florets; each ray floret is anatomically an individual flower with a single large petal. Florets in the centre of the disc have no or reduced petals. In some plants such as Narcissus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a floral cup above the ovary, from which the petals proper extend. Petal consists of two parts: the upper, broad part, similar to leaf blade called the blade and the lower part, similar to leaf petiole, called the claw, separated from each other at the limb. Claws are developed in petals of some flowers such as Erysimum cheiri; the inception and further development of petals shows a great variety of patterns. Petals of different species of plants vary in colour or colour pattern, both in visible light and in ultraviolet; such patterns function as guides to pollinators, are variously known as nectar guides, pollen guides, floral guides.
The genetics behind the formation of petals, in accordance with the ABC model of flower development, are that sepals, petals and carpels are modified versions of each other. It appears that the mechanisms to form petals evolved few times, rather than evolving from stamens. Pollination is an important step in the sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is produced by the male organs of hermaphroditic flowers. Pollen does not move on its own and thus requires wind or animal pollinators to disperse the pollen to the stigma of the same or nearby flowers. However, pollinators are rather selective in determining the flowers; this develops competition between flowers and as a result flowers must provide incentives to appeal to pollinators. Petals play a major role in competing to attract pollinators. Henceforth pollination dispersal could occur and the survival of many species of flowers could prolong. Petals have various purposes depending on the type of plant. In general, petals operate to protect some parts of the flower and attract/repel specific pollinators.
This is where the positioning of the flower petals are located on the flower is the corolla e.g. the buttercup having shiny yellow flower petals which contain guidelines amongst the petals in aiding the pollinator towards the nectar. Pollinators have the ability to determine specific flowers. Using incentives flowers draw pollinators and set up a mutual relation between each other in which case the pollinators will remember to always guard and pollinate these flowers; the petals could produce different scents to allure desirable pollinators or repel undesirable pollinators. Some flowers will mimic the scents produced by materials such as decaying meat, to attract pollinators to them. Various colour traits are used by different petals that could attract pollinators that have poor smelling abilities, or that only come out at certain parts of the day; some flowers are able to change the colour
Phytogeography or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography, concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. Phytogeography is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras. Geobotany, by contrast, focuses on the geographic space's influence on plants. Phytogeography is part of a more general science known as biogeography. Phytogeographers are concerned with patterns and process in plant distribution. Most of the major questions and kinds of approaches taken to answer such questions are held in common between phyto- and zoogeographers. Phytogeography in wider sense encompasses four fields, according with the focused aspect, flora and origin, respectively: plant ecology. Historical plant geography Phytogeography is divided into two main branches: ecological phytogeography and historical phytogeography.
The former investigates the role of current day biotic and abiotic interactions in influencing plant distributions. The basic data elements of phytogeography are occurrence records with operational geographic units such as political units or geographical coordinates; these data are used to construct phytogeographic provinces and elements. The questions and approaches in phytogeography are shared with zoogeography, except zoogeography is concerned with animal distribution rather than plant distribution; the term phytogeography. How the term is applied by practicing scientists is apparent in the way periodicals use the term; the American Journal of Botany, a monthly primary research journal publishes a section titled "Systematics and Evolution." Topics covered in the American Journal of Botany's "Systematics and Phytogeography" section include phylogeography, distribution of genetic variation and, historical biogeography, general plant species distribution patterns. Biodiversity patterns are not covered.
Phytogeography has a long history. One of the subjects earliest proponents was Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, referred to as the "father of phytogeography". Von Humboldt advocated a quantitative approach to phytogeography that has characterized modern plant geography. Gross patterns of the distribution of plants became apparent early on in the study of plant geography. For example, Alfred Russel Wallace, co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, discussed the Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, a pattern observed in other organisms as well. Much research effort in plant geography has since been devoted to understanding this pattern and describing it in more detail. In 1890, the United States Congress passed an act that appropriated funds to send expeditions to discover the geographic distributions of plants in the United States; the first of these was The Death Valley Expedition, including Frederick Vernon Coville, Frederick Funston, Clinton Hart Merriam, others.
Research in plant geography has been directed to understanding the patterns of adaptation of species to the environment. This is done chiefly by describing geographical patterns of trait/environment relationships; these patterns termed ecogeographical rules when applied to plants represent another area of phytogeography. A new field termed macroecology has developed, which focuses on broad-scale patterns and phenomena in ecology. Macroecology focuses as much on other organisms as plants. Floristics is a study of the flora of some area. Traditional phytogeography concerns itself with floristics and floristic classification, see floristic province. Biogeography Botany Geobotanical prospecting Macroecology Species distribution Zoogeography Association Brown, James H.. "Chapter 1". Biogeography. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0878930736. Humbodlt, Alexander von. Essai sur la geographie des plantes. Accompagné d'un tableau physique des régions équinoxiales fondé sur des mesures exécutées, depuis le dixiéme degré de latitude boréale jusqu'au dixiéme degré de latitude australe, pendant les années 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803.
Paris: Schöll. Polunin, Nicholas. Introduction to Plant Geography and Some Related Sciences. McGraw-Hill. Wallace, Alfred R.. Tropical Nature, Other Essays. London: Macmillan. Clements, Frederic E.. "Plant Geography". Encyclopedia Americana. "Distribution of Plants". New International Encyclopedia. 1905