Telenești is a district in central Moldova, with the administrative center at Telenești. The oldest recorded settlements of the district are: Banești, Peciste and Telenești, mentioned in 1437. At the time, the landowners had the right to sell their estate, in parts or entirely. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the region's economy developed, resulting in a significant increase in population. In 1812, after the Treaty of Bucharest, Bessarabia was occupied by the Russian Empire, an intense process of russification of the native population followed. In 1918, as a result of the fall of the Russian Empire, Bessarabia was united with Romania, the Romanian government enacted a land reform. Telenești became the center of a plasă of Orhei County, along with 45 villages; the plasă capital had a post office with telegraph and telephone. The Romanian land reform made the peasants owners of a plot of land, the previous owners were compensated. After the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty, Bessarabia was occupied by the Soviet Union.
In 1991, the district became a part of independent Moldova, in 1999 it was dissolved, its territory was included in Orhei County, until 2003, when it was reestablished as an administrative unit of Moldova. Telenești district is located in central part of the Republic of Moldova. Does neighborhood in north Soldanesti and Florești districts, in northeast Rezina District, in southeast Orhei District, Calarași and Ungheni districts in south and northwest Singerei District; the landscape is broken by an intense process of sliding. In northwestern of district stretching branches of Plateau of Nistru and the south Central Moldavian Plateau. District basement contains deposits of limestone, stone in places Căzănești, Ordășei, Pistruieni and sand for construction to Verejeni, Telenești. District climate is temperate continental. July average temperature °C, for January -4 °C. Annual precipitation 500–600 mm. Average wind speed is 2–5 m/s. Rich and varied fauna is represented by red deer, wild boar, wolves, rabbits.
Of birds there are: jays, starlings, gulls, hawks and others. Flora features Moldovian codri of trees: oak, lime, maple, acacia and others. Plants: knotweed, wormwood and others. District is located in the Nistru river basin; the main river crossing district is Raut, with its tributaries Ciuluc de Mijloc. Most lakes are artificial; the largest lake is Lake Verejeni built on Ciuluicul Mare. Localities: 54 Administrative center: Telenesti Cities: Telenesti Villages: 23 Commons: 30 1 January 2012 the district population was 73,900 of which 11.0% urban and 89.0% rural population. Births: 858 Deaths: 998 Growth Rate: -140 Christians - 99.0% Orthodox Christians - 98.0% Protestant - 1.0% Baptists - 0.4% Seventh-day Adventists - 0.4% Evangelicals - 0.2% Other 0.8% No Religion 0.2% The total number of businesses that makes up 25,604 active agents. 62 970 ha agricultural land. Perennial plantations occupy 5800 ha, including 2.900 ha of vineyards. Main crops: cereals, sunflower, grape, in orchards: apple, peach and more.
For the 2010-2011 school year, the district education network consists of units: 34 preschools are employed - 2530 children, 25 secondary schools and secondary schools where they study - 8121 students, seven high schools - 808 pupils, a school hospitalized children with disabilities - 119 children a school - boarding school for orphans with - 85 children and a vocational school with 163 students. A large majority of district support right-wing parties. PCRM has never achieved victory in the last three elections is in a constant fall. AEI has a good support in the district. During the last three elections AEI had an increase of 72.0% Cultural sector of the district is represented by the activity: 44 cultural centers, 47 libraries, school district music with branches in the district, a school of fine arts - with 150 children, 4 museums. Working in district: District hospital, centers of family doctors, a unit of health centers - 5 units, 33 offices of family doctors, pharmacies - 1 unit and branches - 31 units and private extra - 10 units.
Andrei Năstase The official site of the district Results of parliamentary elections 2005
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, by total population the seventh-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term'Ukrainians' to all its citizens; the people of Ukraine have been known as "Rusyns" and "Cossacks", among others. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people; the ethnonym Ukrainians became accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia, the territories of northern Ukraine and Belarus were known as Rus', continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus'. People of these territories were called Rus or Rusyns; the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the notion of Ukraine as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being.
However, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only and the people of Ukraine continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians became more known by the Russian regional name, Little Russians, with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity; this official name did not spread among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians/Ruthenian. With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneyida in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language, with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the notion of a Ukrainian language came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer.
The appellation Ukrainians came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s. The modern name ukrayintsi derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term. According to the traditional theory, it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "nash rodnoi kraj", the other "edge, border", had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc. According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country"; the name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country". In the last three centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.
Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine. The largest population of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine lives in Russia where about 1.9 million Russian citizens identify as Ukrainian, while millions of others have some Ukrainian ancestry. The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities: Ukrainian, "Cossack". 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known as "Green Ukraine". According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of 2.4 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Moldova, Italy, Uzbekistan, the Czech Republic and Romania. There are large Ukrainian communities in such countries as Latvia, France, Paraguay, the UK, Slovakia, Austria and the former Yugoslavia; the Ukrainian diaspora is present in more than one hundred and twenty countries of the world. The number of Ukrainians in Poland amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011. Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine.
More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2 – 1.3 million in 2016. In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians were forced by the Tsarist autocracy to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World seeking work and better economic opportunities. Today
Florești, is the capital city and industrial and commercial center of Floreşti District of Moldova. It is located on the river Răut; the name comes from the Romanian word floare. The old name of the settlement was Rădiul Florilor, a derivative from the Romanian word for "flower"; the city is located on the river Răut, a tributary of the Dniester. Florești is governed by the City Council and the City Mayor, both elected once every four years; the current mayor is Iurie Ţap. Saul Perlmutter Vitalie Ciobanu Nicolae Timofti
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, their effect; the strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Saturn. Winds have various aspects. Wind is a great source of transportation for seeds and small birds. In meteorology, winds are referred to according to their strength, the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high-speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale and hurricane. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth.
The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, the rotation of the planet. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, provided a power source for mechanical work and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft; when winds become strong and human-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, by erosion. Dust from large deserts can be moved great distances from its source region by the prevailing winds.
Wind affects the spread of wildfires. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations; when combined with cold temperatures, wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as defensive strategies. Wind is caused by differences in the atmospheric pressure; when a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. On a rotating planet, air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except on the equator. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns are the differential heating between the equator and the poles and the rotation of the planet. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower. Surface friction causes winds to blow more inward into low-pressure areas.
Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds; the geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes; the thermal wind is the difference in the geostrophic wind between two levels in the atmosphere. It exists only in an atmosphere with horizontal temperature gradients; the ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but includes centrifugal force. Wind direction is expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south.
Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind. At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, can be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most using rotating cups or propellers; when a high measurement frequency is needed, wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube, exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, used
The wildcat is a species complex comprising two small wild cat species, the European wildcat and the African wildcat. The European wildcat inhabits forests in Europe and the Caucasus, while the African wildcat inhabits semi-arid landscapes and steppes in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, into western India and western China; the wildcat species differ in fur pattern and size: the European wildcat has long fur and a bushy tail with a rounded tip. The wildcat and the other members of the cat family had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago; the European wildcat evolved during the Cromerian Stage about 866,000 to 478,000 years ago. The silvestris and lybica lineages diverged about 173,000 years ago; the wildcat has been categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2002, since it is distributed, the global population is considered stable and exceeding 20,000 mature individuals. However, in some range countries both wildcat species are considered threatened by introgressive hybridisation with the domestic cat and transmission of diseases.
Localized threats include being hit by vehicles, persecution. The association of African wildcats and humans appears to have developed along with the establishment of settlements during the Neolithic Revolution, when rodents in grain stores of early farmers attracted wildcats; this association led to it being tamed and domesticated: the domestic cat is the direct descendant of the African wildcat. It was one of the revered cats in ancient Egypt; the European wildcat has been the subject of literature. Felis silvestris was the scientific name used in 1777 by Johann von Schreber when he described the European wildcat based on descriptions and names proposed by earlier naturalists such as Mathurin Jacques Brisson, Ulisse Aldrovandi and Conrad Gessner. Felis lybica was the name proposed in 1780 by Georg Forster, who described an African wildcat from Gafsa on the Barbary Coast. In subsequent decades, several naturalists and explorers described 40 wildcat specimens collected in European and Asian range countries.
In the 1940s, the taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock reviewed the collection of wildcat skins and skulls in the Natural History Museum and designated seven F. silvestris subspecies from Europe to Asia Minor, 25 F. lybica subspecies from Africa, West to Central Asia. Pocock differentiated the: Forest wildcat subspecies Steppe wildcat subspecies: is distinguished from the forest wildcat by being smaller, with comparatively lighter fur colour, longer and more sharply-pointed tails; the domestic cat is thought to have derived from this group. Bush wildcat subspecies: is distinguished from the steppe wildcat by paler fur, well-developed spot patterns and bands. In 2005, 22 subspecies were recognized by the authors of Mammal Species of the World, who allocated subspecies in line with Pocock's assessment. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force revised the taxonomy of the Felidae, recognized the following as valid taxa: The wildcat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago.
Felis species diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago. The European wildcat diverged from Felis about 1.09 to 1.4 million years ago. The European wildcat's direct ancestor was Felis lunensis, which lived in Europe in the late Pliocene and Villafranchian periods. Fossil remains indicate that the transition from lunensis to silvestris was completed by the Holstein interglacial about 340,000 to 325,000 years ago. Craniological differences between the European and African wildcats indicate that the wildcat migrated during the Late Pleistocene from Europe into the Middle East, giving rise to the steppe wildcat phenotype. Phylogenetic research revealed that the lybica lineage diverged from the silvestris lineage about 173,00 years ago; the wildcat has pointed ears, which are broad at the base. Its whiskers are white, number reach 5 -- 8 cm in length on the muzzle. Whiskers are present on the inner surface of the paw and measure 3–4 cm, its eyes are large, with yellowish-green irises. The eyelashes range from 5–6 cm in length, can number six to eight per side.
The European wildcat has a greater skull volume than the domestic cat, a ratio known as Schauenberg's index. Further, its skull is more spherical in shape than that of the jungle leopard cat, its dentition is smaller and weaker than the jungle cat's. Both wildcat species are larger than the domestic cat; the European wildcat has longer legs and a more robust build compared to the domestic cat. The tail is long, slightly exceeds one-half of the animal's body length; the species size varies according to Bergmann's rule, with the largest specimens occurring in cool, northern areas of Europe and Asia such as Mongolia and Siberia. Males measure 43–91 cm in head to body length, 23–40 cm in tail length, weigh 5–8 kg. Females are smaller, measuring 40–77 cm in body length and 18–35 cm in tail length, weighing 3–5 kg. Both sexes have two thoracic and two abdominal teats. Both sexes have pre-anal glands, consisting of moderately sized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anal opening. Large-sized sebaceous and scent glands extend along the full length o
War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries and militias. It is characterized by extreme violence, aggression and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers of wars in general. Total war is warfare, not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties; the scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", -logy, meaning "the study of". While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances; the English word war derives from the 11th century Old English words wyrre and werre, from Old French werre, in turn from the Frankish *werra deriving from the Proto-Germanic *werzō'mixture, confusion'. The word is related to the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, the German verwirren, meaning “to confuse”, “to perplex”, “to bring into confusion”.
War must entail some degree of confrontation using weapons and other military technology and equipment by armed forces employing military tactics and operational art within a broad military strategy subject to military logistics. Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, to reduce it to a military science. Modern military science considers several factors before a national defence policy is created to allow a war to commence: the environment in the area of combat operations, the posture national forces will adopt on the commencement of a war, the type of warfare troops will be engaged in. Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between belligerents of drastically different levels of military capability and/or size. Biological warfare, or germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria and fungi. Chemical warfare involves the use of weaponized chemicals in combat. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, resulted in over a million estimated casualties, including more than 100,000 civilians.
Civil war is a war between forces belonging to political entity. Conventional warfare is declared war between states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or see limited deployment. Cyberwarfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's information systems. Insurgency is a rebellion against authority, when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, may be opposed by measures to protect the population, by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents' claims against the incumbent regime. Information warfare is the application of destructive force on a large scale against information assets and systems, against the computers and networks that support the four critical infrastructures. Nuclear warfare is warfare in which nuclear weapons are the primary, or a major, method of achieving capitulation.
Total war is warfare by any means possible, disregarding the laws of war, placing no limits on legitimate military targets, using weapons and tactics resulting in significant civilian casualties, or demanding a war effort requiring significant sacrifices by the friendly civilian population. Unconventional warfare, the opposite of conventional warfare, is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence, capitulation, or clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict. War of aggression is a war for gain rather than self-defense. War of liberation, Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence; the term is used in conjunction with wars against foreign powers to establish separate sovereign states for the rebelling nationality. From a different point of view, these wars are called insurgencies, rebellions, or wars of independence; the earliest recorded evidence of war belongs to the Mesolithic cemetery Site 117, determined to be 14,000 years old.
About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death. Since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe; the advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare. According to Conway W. Henderson, "One source claims that 14,500 wars have taken place between 3500 BC and the late 20th century, costing 3.5 billion lives, leaving only 300 years of peace." An unfavorable review of this estimate mentions the following regarding one of the proponents of this estimate: "In addition feeling that the war casualties figure was improbably high, he changed "approximately 3,640,000,000 human beings have been killed by war or the diseases produced by war" to "approximately 1,240,000,000 human beings...&c."" The lower figure is more plausible, but could be on the high side, considering that the 100 deadliest acts of mass violence between 480 BCE and 2002 CE claimed about 455 million human lives in total.
Primitive warfare is estimated to have accounted for 15