Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
Santa Maria del Carmine is a church of the Carmelite Order, in the Oltrarno district of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. It is famous as the location of the Brancacci Chapel housing outstanding Renaissance frescoes by Masaccio and Masolino da Panicale finished by Filippino Lippi; the church, dedicated to the Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo, was built from 1268 as part of Carmelite convent, still existing today. Of the original edifice only some Romanesque-Gothic remains can be seen on the sides; the complex was enlarged a first time in 1328 and again in 1464, when the capitular hall and the refectory added, though the church maintained the Latin Cross, one nave plan. Renovated in the Baroque style in the 16th–17th centuries, it was damaged by a fire in 1771 and rebuilt internally in the Rococo style in 1782; the façade, like in many Florentine churches, remained unfinished. The fire did not touch the sacristy: therefore have survived the Stories of St. Cecilia attributed to Lippo d'Andrea and the marble monument of Pier Soderini by Benedetto da Rovezzano.
The vault of the nave has a quadratura fresco by Domenico Stagi. The Brancacci Chapel survived the fire, was saved by the subsequent restoration by the intervention of a Florentine noblewoman, opposed to the covering of the frescoes; the Chapel is home to the famous frescoes by Masaccio and Masolino, considered the first masterwork of the Italian Renaissance. Masaccio's master Masolino, commissioned by a wealthy merchant, Felice Brancacci, began work on the chapel in 1425 and was soon joined in the project by his pupil, Masaccio; the scenes by Masolino are St Peter Healing a Lame Man and Raising Tabitha from the Dead, St Peter Preaching, Adam and Eve. Those by Masaccio are The Tribute Money, St Peter Healing with his Shadow, The Crucifixion of St Peter, The Baptism of the Neophytes, The Expulsion from Paradise, their treatment of figures in believable space made the frescoes among the most important to have come out of the Early Renaissance. The cycle was finished by Filippino Lippi; the elaborated Italian Rococo ceiling is from one of the most important 18th century artists in the city, Giovanni Domenico Ferretti.
The Corsini, one of the richest families in Florence during the 17th–18th centuries, had this chapel built in 1675-1683, to hold the remains of an ancestral member of the family, St Andrea Corsini, who became a Carmelite friar and the Bishop of Fiesole, and, canonized in 1629. The architect Pier Francesco Silvani choose for it the Baroque style popular in Rome; the altar has a marble bas-relief depicting the Glory of St Andrea Corsini, sculpted by Foggini, above a God the Father sculpted by Carlo Marcellini. On the sides of the altar are two more Foggini marble bas-reliefs: one depicts Sant'Andrea descends girded with sword to lead the Florentines to victory during the Battle of Anghiari and the other recalls a Miraculous vision of the Virgin by a young Sant'Andrea; the small dome was frescoed by Giordano in 1682. The frescoes suffered in the great church fire, were restored by Stefano Fabbrini; the convent suffered in its history from numerous disasters, from the 1771 fire to the 1966 River Arno flood.
Most of the artworks are therefore fragmentary: these include the Bestowal of the Carmelite Rule by Filippo Lippi and the Last Supper by Alessandro Allori, remains of works from other chapels by Pietro Nelli and Gherardo Starnina. The second refectory is decorated with the Supper in Simon the Pharisee's house by Giovanni Battista Vanni. Neri Corsini Holy Places in Tuscany
The Brancacci Chapel is a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, central Italy. It is sometimes called the "Sistine Chapel of the early Renaissance" for its painting cycle, among the most famous and influential of the period. Construction of the chapel was commissioned by Felice Brancacci and begun in 1386. Public access is gained via the neighbouring convent, designed by Brunelleschi; the church and the chapel are treated as separate places to visit and as such have different opening times and it is quite difficult to see the rest of the church from the chapel. The patron of the pictorial decoration was Felice Brancacci, descendant of Pietro, who had served as the Florentine ambassador to Cairo until 1423. Upon his return to Florence, he hired Masolino da Panicale to paint his chapel. Masolino's associate, 21-year-old Masaccio, 18 years younger than Masolino, but during painting Masolino left to Hungary, where he was painter to the king, the commission was given to Masaccio.
By the time Masolino returned. However, Masaccio was called to Rome before he could finish the chapel, died in Rome at the age of 27. Portions of the chapel were completed by Filippino Lippi. During the Baroque period some of the paintings were seen as unfashionable and a tomb was placed in front of them. In his frescos, Masaccio carries out a radical break from the medieval pictorial tradition, by adhering to the new Renaissance perspectival conception of space, thus and light create deep spaces where volumetrically constructed figures move in a individualised human dimension. Masaccio therefore continues on Giotto's path, detaching himself from a symbolic vision of man and propounding a greater realistic painting; the cycle from the life of Saint Peter was commissioned as patron saint from Pietro Brancacci, the original owner of the chapel. The paintings are explained below in their narrative order. By Masolino da Panicale. In contrast with Masaccio's Expulsion, this is a innocent raffiguration.
The cycle begins with this painting by Masolino, placed on the higher rectangle of the arch delimiting the Chapel, within the pillar thickness. This scene and the opposite one are the premises to the story narrated in the frescos, showing the moment in which man severed his friendship with God reconciled by Christ with Peter's mediation; the painting shows Adam standing near Eve: they look at each other with measured postures, as she prepares to bite on the apple, just offered to her by the serpent near her arm around the tree. The snake has a head with thick blond hair, much idealised; the scene is aulic in its presentation, with gestures and style conveying tones of late International Gothic. Light, which models the figures without sharp angles, is embracing. Masaccio's masterpiece Expulsion from the Garden of Eden is the first fresco on the upper part of the chapel, on the left wall, just at the left of the Tribute Money, it is famous for unprecedented emotional realism. It contrasts with Masolino's delicate and decorative image of Adam and Eve before the fall, painted on the opposite wall.
It presents a dramatic intensity, with an armed angel who hovers over Adam and Eve indicating the way out of the Garden of Eden: the crying fornicators leave at their backs the gates of Paradise. This work represents a neat separation from the past International Gothic style. Gestures are eloquent enough: on exiting Paradise's Gates, from where some divine rays are shooting forward, Adam covers his face in desperation and guilt; the bodies' dynamism Adam's, gives an unprecedented passion to the figures planted on ground and projecting shadows from the violent light modelling them. Many are the details which increase the emotional drama: Adam's damp and sticky hair, the angel's posture, foreshortened as if diving down from above. Eve's position is from that of Venus Pudica; the foliage covering the couple's nudities was removed during a restoration in 1990. By Masolino. In the left lunette, destroyed in 1746-48, Masolino had painted the Calling of Peter and Andrew, or Vocation, known thanks to some indications by past witnesses such as Vasari and Baldinucci.
Roberto Longhi first identified an image of this lost fresco in a drawing, which does not conform to the lunette's upper curvature, but appears today as a probable hypothesis. In this scene, Masolino had divided his composition into two expanses, of sky; the opposite lunette housed the fresco of the Navicella, a traditional title for the scene where Christ, walking on water, rescues Peter from the surging waves of a storm and pulls him aboard the boat. This lunette again proposed a marine setting, on balance with the opposite scene and thus creating a sort of parable of Creation: from the skies of the Evangelists in the vault, to the seas of the upper register, to the lands and towns of the middle and lower registers like in Genesis. In a way, the viewer's sight shifts from Paradise to the terrene world in a consequential manner. Sources attribute this lunette to Masolino, but considering the alternating turns taken by the two artists on the scaffoldi
Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore, is the cathedral of Florence, Italy. It was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to a design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was structurally completed by 1436, with the dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi; the exterior of the basilica is faced with polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink, bordered by white, has an elaborate 19th-century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris. The cathedral complex, in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Giotto's Campanile; these three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major tourist attraction of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy's largest churches, until the development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world, it remains the largest brick dome constructed. The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is Giuseppe Betori.
Santa Maria del Fiore was built on the site of Florence's second cathedral dedicated to Saint Reparata. The ancient structure, founded in the early 5th century and having undergone many repairs, was crumbling with age, according to the 14th-century Nuova Cronica of Giovanni Villani, was no longer large enough to serve the growing population of the city. Other major Tuscan cities had undertaken ambitious reconstructions of their cathedrals during the Late Medieval period, such as Pisa and Siena where the enormous proposed extensions were never completed; the new church was designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and approved by city council in 1294. Di Cambio was architect of the church of Santa Croce and the Palazzo Vecchio, he designed three wide naves ending under the octagonal dome, with the middle nave covering the area of Santa Reparata. The first stone was laid on 9 September 1296, by Cardinal Valeriana, the first papal legate sent to Florence; the building of this vast project was to last 140 years.
After Arnolfo died in 1310, work on the cathedral slowed for thirty years. When the relics of Saint Zenobius were discovered in 1330 in Santa Reparata, the project gained a new impetus. In 1331, the Arte della Lana, the guild of wool merchants, took over patronage for the construction of the cathedral and in 1334 appointed Giotto to oversee the work. Assisted by Andrea Pisano, Giotto continued di Cambio's design, his major accomplishment was the building of the campanile. When Giotto died on 8 January 1337, Andrea Pisano continued the building until work was halted due to the Black Death in 1348. In 1349, work resumed on the cathedral under a series of architects, starting with Francesco Talenti, who finished the campanile and enlarged the overall project to include the apse and the side chapels. In 1359, Talenti was succeeded by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini who divided the center nave in four square bays. Other architects were Giovanni d'Ambrogio, Neri di Fioravante and Andrea Orcagna. By 1375, the old church Santa Reparata was pulled down.
The nave was finished by 1380, by 1418, only the dome remained incomplete. On 18 August 1418, the Arte della Lana announced an architectural design competition for erecting Neri's dome; the two main competitors were two master goldsmiths, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi, the latter of whom was supported by Cosimo de Medici. Ghiberti had been the winner of a competition for a pair of bronze doors for the Baptistery in 1401 and lifelong competition between the two remained sharp. Brunelleschi received the commission. Ghiberti, appointed coadjutator, drew a salary equal to Brunelleschi's and, though neither was awarded the announced prize of 200 florins, was promised equal credit, although he spent most of his time on other projects; when Brunelleschi became ill, or feigned illness, the project was in the hands of Ghiberti. But Ghiberti soon had to admit. In 1423, Brunelleschi took over sole responsibility. Work started on the dome in 1420 and was completed in 1436; the cathedral was consecrated by Pope Eugene IV on 25 March 1436.
It was the first'octagonal' dome in history to be built without a temporary wooden supporting frame. It was one of the most impressive projects of the Renaissance. During the consecration in 1436, Guillaume Dufay's motet Nuper rosarum flores was performed; the structure of this motet was influenced by the structure of the dome. The decoration of the exterior of the cathedral, begun in the 14th century, was not completed until 1887, when the polychrome marble façade was completed with the design of Emilio De Fabris; the floor of the church was relaid in marble tiles in the 16th century. The exterior walls are faced in alternate vertical and horizontal bands of polychrome marble from Carrara, Siena, Lavenza and a few other places; these marble bands had to repeat the existing bands on the walls of the earlier adjacent baptistery the Battistero di San Giovanni and Giotto's Bell Tower. There are two side doors: the Doors of the Canonici and the Door of the Mandorla with sculptures by Nanni di Banco and Jacopo della Quercia.
The six side windows, notable for their delicate tracery and ornaments, are separated by pilasters. Only the four windows closest
San Miniato al Monte
San Miniato al Monte is a basilica in Florence, central Italy, standing atop one of the highest points in the city. It has been described as one of the finest Romanesque structures in Tuscany and one of the most scenic churches in Italy. There is an adjoining Olivetan monastery, seen to the right of the basilica when ascending the stairs. St. Miniato or Minas was an Armenian prince serving in the Roman army under Emperor Decius, he was denounced as a Christian after becoming a hermit and was brought before the Emperor, camped outside the gates of Florence. The Emperor ordered him to be thrown to beasts in the Amphitheatre where a panther was called upon him but refused to devour him. Beheaded in the presence of the Emperor, he is alleged to have picked up his head, crossed the Arno and walked up the hill of Mons Fiorentinus to his hermitage. A shrine was erected at this spot and there was a chapel there by the 8th century. Construction of the present church was begun in 1013 by Bishop Alibrando and it was endowed by the Emperor Henry II.
The adjoining monastery began as a Benedictine community passed to the Cluniacs and in 1373 to the Olivetans, who still run it. The monks make famous liqueurs and herbal teas, which they sell from a shop next to the church; the interior exhibits the early feature of a choir raised on a platform above the large crypt. It has changed little; the patterned pavement dates from 1207. The centre of the nave is dominated by the beautiful freestanding Cappella del Crocefisso, designed by Michelozzo in 1448, it housed the miraculous crucifix now in Santa Trìnita and is decorated with panels long thought to be painted by Agnolo Gaddi. The terracotta decoration of the vault is by Luca della Robbia; the mosaic of Christ between the Virgin and St Minias was made in 1297. The crypt is the oldest part of the church and the high altar contains the bones of St Minias himself. In the vaults are frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi; the raised choir and presbytery contain a magnificent Romanesque pulpit and screen made in 1207.
The apse is dominated by a great mosaic dating from 1297, which depicts the same subject as that on the façade and is by the same unknown artist. The crucifix above the high altar is attributed to Luca della Robbia; the sacristy is decorated with a great fresco cycle on the Life of St Benedict by Spinello Aretino. The Cappella del Cardinale del Portogallo to the left of the nave, "one of the most magnificent funerary monuments of the Italian Renaissance", was built in 1473 as a memorial to Cardinal James of Lusitania, who died in Florence, to which he was Portuguese ambassador, in 1459, it is the only tomb in the church. The chapel is a collaboration of outstanding artists of Florence: it was designed by Brunelleschi's associate, Antonio Manetti, finished after his death by Antonio Rossellino; the tomb was made by Bernardo Rossellino. The chapel decoration is by Alesso Baldovinetti and Piero del Pollaiuolo, Luca della Robbia; the geometrically patterned marble façade was begun in about 1090, although the upper parts date from the 12th century or financed by the Florentine Arte di Calimala, who were responsible for the church’s upkeep from 1288.
The eagle which crowns the façade was their symbol. The campanile was replaced in 1523, although it was never finished. During the siege of Florence in 1530 it was used as an artillery post by the defenders and Michelangelo had it wrapped in mattresses to protect it from enemy fire. Adjacent to the church is the fine cloister, planned as early as 1426 and built from 1443 to mid-1450s, it was designed by Bernardo and Antonio Rosselino, financed by the Arte della Mercantia of Florence, the fortified bishop’s palace, built in 1295 and used as a barracks and a hospital. The whole complex is surrounded by defensive walls built hastily by Michelangelo during the siege and in 1553 expanded into a true fortress by Cosimo I de' Medici; the walls now enclose a large ornate monumental cemetery, the Porte Sante, laid out in 1854. Buried there are Carlo Collodi, creator of Pinocchio; the basilica served as an important setting in Brian de Palma's 1976 film Obsession. On 16 June 2012, it was the venue for the religious wedding of Dutch royal Princess Carolina of Bourbon-Parma with businessman Albert Brenninkmeijer.
Romanesque architecture The Church of San Miniato al Monte San Miniato al Monte The Sacristy of the Basilica Paradoxplace San Miniato Photo Page The Museums of Florence - San Miniato al Monte
Museo Nazionale di San Marco
Museo Nazionale di San Marco is an art museum housed in the monumental section of the medieval Dominican friary dedicated to St Mark, situated on the present-day Piazza San Marco, in Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. The museum, a masterpiece in its own right by the fifteenth-century architect Michelozzo, is a building of first historical importance for the city, contains the most extensive collection in the world of the works of Fra Angelico, who spent several years of his life as a member of the Dominican community here; the works are both paintings on wood and frescoes. The museum contains other works by artists such as Fra Bartolomeo, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Alesso Baldovinetti, Jacopo Vignali, Bernardino Poccetti and Giovanni Antonio Sogliani. San Marco is famous as the seat of Girolamo Savonarola's discourses during his short spiritual rule in Florence in the late 15th century; the Museum is situated in the oldest part of the monastery occupying about half the total space. The building has expanded over time, now taking up a whole block, part of it is still occupied by friars today.
The oldest section of the building, built over the medieval Sylvestrian monastery, was constructed by the architect Michelozzo at the specific request of Cosimo il Vecchio de' Medici and his expense, to house the reformed Dominicans of Fiesole, an order at that time led by Antonino Pierozzi. Over about ten years Michelozzo completed an modern and functional monasterial building project which contributed to the glorification of Medicean patronage. Michelozzo made use of the pre-existent wall structures of the Sylvestrian monastery complex which date back to the end of 13th century. Michelozzo ably linked together the ground floor rooms around a harmoniously-proportionated cloister and raised the levels of these buildings to create the dormitories on the first floor with a large number of cells to suit an expanding monastery; the cloister is behind the church and it introduces the visitor to the sight of the splendidly poised architecture of the monastery, a typical example of a measured and orderly Florentine Renaissance architecture.
The sight of St. Dominic worship the Crucifix, painted by Fra Angelico opposite the entrance is uplifting; this was the only painted image decorating the white cloister. The appearance of the cloister was changed during the 17th century, when the monks of San Marco decided to celebrate the figure of St. Antonino by commissioning the most famous Florentine painters of the time to paint a cycle of lunettes depicting Scenes from the life of St. Antonino; the large room, which can be entered from the right side of the cloister, occupies all the part of the building onto Piazza San Marco and existed in the Middle Ages when the monastery was inhabited by the Sylvestrian monks. When the monastery was rebuilt in the 15th century, Michelozzo covered the whole area with cross vaults and raised the building to construct the second friars' dormitory. Inside there was a Pilgrims'Hospice, alluded to in the fresco painted by Fra Angelico on the second door, Christ the pilgrim welcomed by Dominicans. Today it is the home of all of Angelico's panel painting, coming from the churches and monasteries of Florence.
This room, known as the “Lavabo” Room due to the ancient function for which it was equipped, is accessible from the cloister and is in front of the Large Refectory, next to the kitchen. Monastery rules imposed the ritual purification of the hands before eating. Above the entrance door is a badly deteriorated fresco by Fra Angelico depicting Christ in Pietà, alluding to the Resurrection awaiting those who nourished by him. Today the room contains works presenting the artistic activity of the second great painter who lived in San Marco at the beginning of the 16th century: Fra Bartolomeo, he kept a painting studio in San Marco until his death in 1517. Basing his work on the preliminaries of rational 15th century classicism, Fra Bartolomeo developed a style of art, freer in its use of colour space and design and inspired the young Raphael. Another door into a room used in the past as the monastery’s kitchen, located in an area containing all of the service rooms, in the vicinity of the “Spesa” Cloister.
Today it contains an important collection of painting by Fra Bartolomeo. The external appearance, with exposed stone walls and a doorway flanked by large windows, reveals that it belongs to the 14th century part of the monastery; the room is dominated by Fra Angelico’s large Crucifixion. This fresco has a rather unreal appearance, due to the state of repair of the background painted blue and now grey and red, because the pigment has fallen and it can be seen in its preparatory state, As if in a collective reflection on the event of the Crucifixion, there appear in the painting not only historical figures but the founders of the religious orders. On the upper floor are the friars'Dormitories, they consist of three corridors surrounding the cloister on three sides, overlooked by 44 cells frescoed by Fra Angelico between 1439 and 1443. The Annunciation is one of the three frescoes painted outside the cells by Fra Angelico before which the friars recited a common prayer at the times and in the ways prescribed by the Dominican Rule.
In each cell is a fresco concerning the ‘’Life and Passion of Christ’’, for the exclusive contemplation of the friar occupying the cell. Savonarola’s cells were not frescoed because they held clothing; this cycle of frescoes, unique in the world, is considered to be the work of Fran Angelico, although he was helped by assistants. First Corridors Cells To the left of the Annunciation is the
Santa Maria Novella
Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, situated just across from the main railway station named after it. Chronologically, it is the first great basilica in Florence, is the city's principal Dominican church; the church, the adjoining cloister, chapter house contain a multiplicity of art treasures and funerary monuments. Famous are frescoes by masters of Gothic and early Renaissance, they were financed by the most important Florentine families, who ensured themselves funerary chapels on consecrated ground. This church was called Novella because it was built on the site of the 9th-century oratory of Santa Maria delle Vigne; when the site was assigned to the Dominican Order in 1221, they decided to build a new church and adjoining cloister. The church was designed by Fra Sisto Fiorentino and Fra Ristoro da Campi. Building began in the mid-13th century, was finished about 1360 under the supervision of Friar Iacopo Talenti with the completion of the Romanesque-Gothic bell tower and sacristy.
At that time, only the lower part of the Tuscan gothic façade was finished. The three portals are spanned by round arches, while the rest of the lower part of the facade is spanned by blind arches, separated by pilasters, with below Gothic pointed arches, striped in green and white, capping tombs of the nobility; this same design continues in the adjoining wall around the old churchyard. The church was consecrated in 1420. On a commission from Giovanni di Paolo Rucellai, a local textile merchant, Leon Battista Alberti designed the upper part of the inlaid green marble of Prato called "serpentino" and white marble façade of the church, he was famous as the architect of the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini, but more for his seminal treatise on architecture De Re Aedificatoria, based on the book De Architectura of the classical Roman writer Vitruvius. Alberti had designed the façade for the Rucellai Palace in Florence. Alberti attempted to bring the ideals of humanist architecture and classically inspired detailing to bear on the design, while creating harmony with the existing medieval part of the façade.
His contribution consists of a broad frieze decorated with squares, the full upper part, including the four white-green pilasters and a round window, crowned by a pediment with the Dominican solar emblem, flanked on both sides by enormous S-curved volutes. The four columns with Corinthian capitals on the lower part of the façade were added; the pediment and the frieze are inspired by antiquity, but the S-curved scrolls in the upper part are new and without precedent in antiquity. The scrolls, found in churches all over Italy, all draw their origins from the design of this church; the frieze below the pediment carries the name of the patron: IOHANES ORICELLARIUS PAU F AN SAL MCCCCLXX. The vast interior is based on a basilica plan, designed as a Latin cross, is divided into a nave, two aisles with stained-glass windows and a short transept; the large nave gives an impression of austerity. There is a trompe l'oeil effect by which towards the apse the nave seems longer than its actual length; the slender compound piers between the nave and the aisles are progressively closer the deeper the observer moves into the nave.
The ceiling in the vault consists of pointed arches with the four diagonal buttresses in black and white. The interior contains Corinthian columns that were inspired by Greek and Roman classical models; the stained-glass windows date from the 14th and 15th century, such as 15th century Madonna and Child and St. John and St. Philip, both in the Filippo Strozzi Chapel; some have been replaced. The one on the façade, a depiction of the Coronation of Mary, dates from the 14th century, is based on a design of Andrea di Bonaiuto da Firenze; the pulpit, commissioned by the Rucellai family in 1443, was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi and executed by his adopted son Andrea Calvalcanti. This pulpit has a particular historical significance, since it was from this pulpit that the first verbal attack was made on Galileo Galilei, leading to his indictment; the Holy Trinity, situated halfway along the left aisle, is a pioneering early Renaissance work of Masaccio, showing his new ideas about perspective and mathematical proportions.
Its meaning for the art of painting can be compared to the importance of Brunelleschi for architecture and Donatello for sculpture. The patrons were members of the Lenzi family, here depicted kneeling; the cadaver tomb below carries in Latin the epigram: "I was once what you are, what I am you will become". Of particular note in the right aisle is the Tomba della Beata Villana, a monument by Bernardo Rossellino executed in 1451. In the same aisle, are located tombs of bishops of Fiesole, one by Tino di Camaino and another by Nino Pisano; the Filippo Strozzi Chapel is situated on the right side of the main altar. The series of frescoes by Filippino Lippi depict the lives of Apostle Philip and the Apostle Saint James the Great and were completed in 1502. On the right wall is the fresco St Philip Driving the Dragon from the Temple of Hieropolis and in the lunette above it, the Crucifixion of St Philip. On the left wall is the fresco St John the Evangelist Resuscitating Druisana and in the lunette above it The Torture of St John the Evangelist.
Adam, Noah and Jacob are represented on the ribbed vault. Behind the altar is the tomb of Filippo Strozzi with a sculpture by Benedetto da Maiano; the bronze crucifix on the
Studiolo of Francesco I
The Studiolo is a small painting-encrusted barrel-vaulted room in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. It was commissioned by Grand Duke of Tuscany, it was completed for the duke from 1570-1572, by teams of artists under the supervision of Giorgio Vasari and the scholars Giovanni Batista Adriani and Vincenzo Borghini. This small room was part-office, part-laboratory, part-hiding place, part-cabinet of curiosities. Here the prince tinkered with alchemy and kept his collection of small, unusual or rare objects; the walls and ceiling were decorated with paintings showing a similar variety of subjects, some showing exotic forms of industry and others mythology. The inset paintings are now all, they are rather larger than what is meant by the term cabinet painting. The late-Mannerist decorative program of paintings and sculpture was based on items encompassed by the collection; the object collection itself was stored in ~ 20 cabinets. In the center is a fresco of Prometheus receiving jewels from nature, commenting on the interplay of divine and humanity, the goal of both artistic and scientific interests.
The walls were covered with 34 paintings representing mythologic or religious subjects, or representing trades. The arrangement was such that paintings were somehow related to their neighbors, emblematic of the objects in the cabinets below; the arrangement we see today is somewhat speculative. For example, Tommaso d'Antonio Manzuoli's Diamond Mines hangs above the Maso de Sanfriano's Fall of Icarus; the painting by Giovanni Battista Naldini of the House of the Dreams emphasized the relationship with the adjacent bedroom of the Prince. The Studiolo is arrayed and visible through an arched opening and lacks cabinets, which fails to recreate the claustrophobic feel of the original. In addition a portrait of Francesco's mother, Eleonora of Toledo by Bronzino, kept vigil. While the Studiolo employed many of the best of contemporary Florentine painters, their work in this room, for most, does not represent their best efforts; the room itself is now more interesting as an example of an eccentric monarch.
The pseudo-allegiance to the sciences couple with the sense that they illuminated the educated monarch, suggest a prescient hint of the encyclopedic philosophy of Enlightenment. However, Francesco was a poor representative of the inquisitive mind. Not long after the death of the Grand Duke, it was neglected and dismantled by 1590, only to be reconstructed in the twentieth century as a Renaissance oddity within the medieval palace. Http://www.artic.edu/aic/exhibitions/medici/themes.html https://web.archive.org/web/20060305135411/http://www.italica.rai.it/rinascimento/parole_chiave/schede/studiolo.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20040829205611/http://www.museoragazzi.it/MuseoRagazzi/db36cedt.nsf/pages/fr_studiolo https://web.archive.org/web/20051113175416/http://mypage.bluewin.ch/schupposc/studio.htm For excellent photos see http://www.abaxjp.com/gw04-studiolo/gw04-studiolo.html Media related to Studiolo di Francesco I at Wikimedia Commons