Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist, and lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree and her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and sponsors an annual Helen Keller Day. A prolific author, Keller was well-traveled and outspoken in her convictions, a member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for womens suffrage, labor rights, socialism and other similar causes. She was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8,2015. Helen proved to the world that people could all learn to communicate. She taught that people are capable of doing things that hearing people can do. She is one of the most famous people in history. Helen Adams Keller was born on June 27,1880, in Tuscumbia and her family lived on a homestead, Ivy Green, that Helens grandfather had built decades earlier.
She had two siblings, Mildred Campbell and Phillip Brooks Keller, and two older half-brothers from her fathers prior marriage and William Simpson Keller. Her father, Arthur H. Keller, spent many years as an editor for the Tuscumbia North Alabamian and her paternal grandmother was the second cousin of Robert E. Lee. Her mother, Kate Adams, was the daughter of Charles W. Adams, though originally from Massachusetts, Charles Adams fought for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, earning the rank of colonel. Her paternal lineage was traced to Casper Keller, a native of Switzerland, one of Helens Swiss ancestors was the first teacher for the deaf in Zurich. Keller reflected on this coincidence in her first autobiography, stating there is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors. Helen Keller was born with the ability to see and hear, at 19 months old, she contracted an illness described by doctors as an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain, which might have been scarlet fever or meningitis.
The illness left her deaf and blind. Even though blind and deaf, Helen Keller had passed through many obstacles and she learned how to tell which person was walking by from the vibrations their footsteps would make. The sex and age of the person could be identified by how strong, julian Chisolm, an eye, ear and throat specialist in Baltimore, for advice. Chisholm referred the Kellers to Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with children at the time
Philanthropy means etymologically, the love of humanity, in the sense of caring, nourishing and enhancing what it means to be human. In this meaning, it both the benefactor in their identifying and exercising their values, and the beneficiary in their receipt. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist, Philanthropy has distinguishing features from charity, not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa, though there is a recognized degree of overlap in practice. The literal, classical definitions and understandings of the term philanthropy derive from its origins in the Greek φιλανθρωπία, the most conventional modern definition is private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life. This combines the social scientific aspect developed in the century with the humanistic tradition. These distinctions have been analyzed by Olivier Zunz, and others, instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa.
The difference commonly cited is that charity relieves the pains of social problems, the first use of the noun form philanthrôpía came shortly thereafter, in the early Platonic dialogue Euthyphro. Socrates is reported to have said that his out of his thoughts freely to his listeners was his philanthrôpía. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings and this Classically synonymous troika, of philanthropy, the humanities, and liberal education, declined with the replacement of the classical world by Christianity. During the Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, who is largely credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with goodness, which correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, in the 1700s, an influential lexical figurehead by the name of Samuel Johnson simply defined philanthropy as love of mankind, good nature.
This definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the love of humanity. However, it was Noah Webster who would more accurately reflect the usage in American English. The precise meaning of philanthropy is still a matter of some contention, there are some working definitions to which the community associated with the field of philanthropic studies most commonly subscribes. The Greeks adopted the love of humanity as an ideal, whose goal was excellence —the fullest self-development, of a body and spirit. The Platonic Academys philosophical dictionary defined Philanthropy as a state of well-educated habits stemming from love of humanity, just as Prometheus human-empowering gifts rebelled against the tyranny of Zeus, philanthropic was associated with freedom and democracy. Both Socrates and the laws of Athens were described as philanthropic and democratic, gradually there emerged a non-religious agricultural infrastructure based on peasant farming organized into manors, which were, in turn, organized for law and order by feudalism.
Francis Bacon in 1592 wrote in a letter that his vast contemplative ends expressed his philanthropic, Henry Cockeram, in his English dictionary, cited philanthropy as a synonym for humanity—thus reaffirming the Classical formulation
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database that is similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the placed on the Compact Disc Database. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become an open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their works, and the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, and these entries are maintained by volunteer editors who follow community written style guidelines. Recorded works can store information about the date and country. As of 26 July 2016, MusicBrainz contained information about roughly 1.1 million artists,1.6 million releases, end-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC. As with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge for maintaining and reviewing the data, besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint.
A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this, in 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatables patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching. This feature attracted many users and allowed the database to grow quickly, however, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions. This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, tRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND, some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought. The Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský, while AcoustID and Chromaprint are not officially MusicBrainz projects, they are closely tied with each other and both are open source.
Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second, additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns. The AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity, since 2003, MusicBrainzs core data are in the public domain, and additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL, the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, in December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye
Richard Watson Gilder
Richard Watson Gilder was an American poet and editor. Gilder was born on February 8,1844 at Bordentown, New Jersey and he was the son of Jane Gilder and the Rev. William Henry Gilder, and educated at his fathers seminary in Flushing, Queens. There he learned to set type and published the St. Thomas Register, Gilder studied law at Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, he enlisted in the states Emergency Volunteer Militia as a private in Landis Philadelphia Battery at the time of the Robert E. Lees 1863 invasion of Pennsylvania. After the Confederates were defeated in the Battle of Gettysburg, the death of his father, while serving as chaplain of the Fortieth New York Volunteers, obliged him to give up the study of the law. A little later, he became a reporter on the Newark Advertiser, with Newton Crane, he founded the Newark Register. In 1870, he became editor of Hours at Home, a magazine published by Scribners. It merged with Scribners Monthly, which was edited by J. G. Holland, when Holland died in 1881, Gilder became editor.
In November 1881, the monthly was renamed as The Century Magazine, gilders assistant editor at Century was Sophia Bledsoe Herrick. Gilder took an active interest in all affairs, especially those which tend towards reform and good government. He was one of the founders of the Society of American Architects, of the Authors Club and he was a founder of the Anti-Spoils League and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. He was a friend of George MacDonald, Scottish poet, author. They collaborated in various such as MacDonalds American lecture tour in the 1870s. Gilder received the degree of LL. D. from Dickinson College in 1883, Gilder was a member of the Simplified Spelling Board. He was a leader in the organization of the Citizens Union, a founder and the first president of the Kindergarten Association, Gilder was chairman of the first Tenement House Commission in New York City. On 3 June 1874, Gilder married a daughter of Commodore George Coleman De Kay and she was a talented painter and a founder of the Art Students League and Society of American Artists.
She modeled for, and was a love of. Gilder and de Kay were the models for the characters Thomas and Augusta Hudson in Wallace Stegners Pulitzer-prize winning novel and their son, Rodman de Kay Gilder, became an author and married Louise Comfort Tiffany, a daughter of Louis Comfort Tiffany
Alice Roosevelt Longworth
Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth was an American writer and prominent socialite. She was the eldest child of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Alice led an unconventional and controversial life. She temporarily became a Democrat during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, Alice Lee Roosevelt was born in the Roosevelt family home at 6 West 57th St. in New York City. Her mother, Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, was a Boston banking heiress and her father, was a New York State Assemblyman. As an Oyster Bay Roosevelt, Alice is a descendant of the Schuyler family, two days after her birth, in the same house, her mother died of undiagnosed kidney failure. Eleven hours earlier that day, Theodores mother Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch had died of typhoid fever, Theodore was rendered so distraught by his wifes death that he could not bear to think about her. He almost never spoke of her again, would not allow her to be mentioned in his presence, his daughter Alice was called Baby Lee instead of her name.
She continued this practice late in life, often preferring to be called Mrs. L rather than Alice, seeking solace, Theodore retreated from his life in New York and headed west, where he spent two years traveling and living on his ranch in North Dakota. He left his infant daughter in the care of his sister Anna, There are letters to Bamie that reveal Theodores concern for his daughter. In one 1884 letter, he wrote, I hope Mousiekins will be very cunning, Bamie had a significant influence on young Alice, who would speak of her admiringly, If auntie Bye had been a man, she would have been president. Bamie took her into her care, moving Alice into her book-filled Manhattan house. After Theodores marriage to Edith Kermit Carow, Alice was raised by her father and stepmother and Ediths five children were Theodore III, Ethel and Quentin. They remained married until his death in January 1919, during much of Alices childhood, Bamie was a remote figure who eventually married and moved to London for a time.
But later, as Alice became more independent and came into conflict with her father and stepmother, Aunt Bye provided needed structure, late in life, she said of her Aunt Bye, There is always someone in every family who keeps it together. In ours, it was Auntie Bye, Edith once angrily told her that if Alice Hathaway Lee had lived, she would have bored Theodore to death. Alice, frequently spoiled with gifts, matured into young womanhood and, in the course, when her father was Governor of New York, he and his wife proposed that Alice attend a conservative school for girls in New York City. Pulling out all the stops, Alice wrote, If you send me I will humiliate you, I will do something that will shame you. In years, Alice expressed admiration for her stepmothers sense of humor, when her father took office in 1901 following the assassination of President William McKinley, Jr. Alice was known as a rule-breaker in an era when women were under great pressure to conform
Germantown is an area in Northwest Philadelphia. Founded by German Quaker and Mennonite families in 1683 as an independent borough, the area, which is about six miles northwest from the city center, now consists of two neighborhoods and East Germantown. Today the area rich in historic sites and buildings from the colonial era. Germantown stretches for two miles along Germantown Avenue northwest from Windrim and Roberts Avenues. Today, the part of the former borough is the neighborhood known simply as Germantown. The neighborhood of Mount Airy lies to the northwest and West Oak Lane to the northeast, Logan to the east, Nicetown–Tioga to the south, and East Falls to the southwest. The majority of Germantown is covered by the 19144 zip code, Germantown was founded on October 6,1683, by German settlers, thirteen Quaker and Mennonite families from Krefeld. Today the founding day of Germantown is remembered as German-American Day, francis Daniel Pastorius was the first bailiff. Jacob Telner, Derick Isacks op den Graeff and his brother Abraham Isacks op den Graeff, Reynier Tyson and they had authority to hold the general court of the corporation of Germantowne, to make laws for the government of the settlement, and to hold a court of record.
This court went into operation in 1690, and continued its services for sixteen years, sometimes, to distinguish Germantown from the upper portion of German township, outside the borough, the township portion was called Upper Germantown. In 1688, five years after its founding, Germantown became the birthplace of the movement in America. The petition was based upon the Bibles Golden Rule, Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. In 1723, Germantown became the site of the first Church of the Brethren congregation in the New World, when Philadelphia was occupied by the British during the American Revolutionary War, British units were housed in Germantown. In the Battle of Germantown, on October 4,1777, during the battle, a party of citizens fired on the British troops, as they marched up the avenue, and mortally wounded British Brigadier General Agnew. The Americans withdrew after firing on one another in the confusion of the battle, the battle is sometimes considered a victory by Americans.
During his presidency, George Washington and his family lodged at the Deshler-Morris House in Germantown to escape the city, the first bank of the United States was located here during his administration. Germantown proper, and the adjacent German Township, were incorporated into the City of Philadelphia in 1854 by the Act of Consolidation, italians began settling Germantown in 1880, and comprised an active and vibrant part of the community. The significant changes occurred in Philadelphias demographics at the start of the 20th century caused major shifts in Germantowns ethnic makeup as well
Theodore Dwight Weld
Theodore Dwight Weld was one of the architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years from 1830 through 1844, playing a role as writer, editor and organizer. He is best known for his co-authorship of the authoritative compendium American Slavery As It Is, Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, harriet Beecher Stowe partly based Uncle Tom’s Cabin on Welds text and it is regarded as second only to that work in its influence on the antislavery movement. Weld remained dedicated to the abolitionist movement until slavery was ended by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. After a doctor urged him to travel, he started an itinerant lecture series on mnemonics, in 1825 Weld moved with his family to Pompey, New York in upstate New York. While there, he would spend two weeks at a time traveling about lecturing on the virtues of labor, temperance. At age 28 he was hired by moral reform philanthropists Lewis Tappan, weld’s report to the Tappans as a manual labor agent reveals he traveled 4,575 miles,2,630 miles by boat and stagecoach,1800 miles on horseback,145 miles on foot.
En route, he made 236 public addresses, during his time as a manual labor agent, Weld scouted land and found the location for, recruited the faculty for, became a student at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati in 1833. The group pledged to help the 1500 free blacks in Cincinnati, Weld became one of the leaders of the antislavery movement, working with the Tappan brothers, New York philanthropists James G. Birney and Gamaliel Bailey, and the Grimké sisters. Weld was influenced to join the abolitionist movement by retired British army officer Charles Stuart at Western Reserve College, in 1836 Weld discontinued lecturing when he lost his voice, and was appointed editor of its books and pamphlets by the American Anti-slavery Society. In 1836-1840 Weld worked as the editor of The Emancipator, in June 1840 the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London denied seats to Lucretia Mott and other women, mobilizing them to fight for womens rights, causing the U. S. S. Presidential candidate this year and 1844, who founded the National Anti-Slavery Society.
In 1841-1843 Weld traveled to Washington, D. C, as Weld used pen names for all of his writings, he is not as well known as many other 19th century abolitionists. In 1854 Weld established a school of the Raritan Bay Union at Eagleswood in Perth Amboy, the school accepted students of all races and sexes. In 1864 he moved to Hyde Park, where he helped open another school in Lexington, Weld had charge of Conversation and English Literature. Weld was the son of Ludovicus Weld and Elizabeth Clark Weld and his brother Ezra Greenleaf Weld, a famous daguerreotype photographer was involved with the abolitionist movement. A member of the Weld Family of New England, Weld shares an ancestry with William Weld, Tuesday Weld. This branch of the family never achieved the wealth of their Boston-based kin, robert H. Abzug, Passionate Liberator, Theodore Dwight Weld & the Dilemma of Reform. New York, Oxford University Press,1980, with an Introduction by William G. McLoughlin
Agnes Repplier was an American essayist. She was born in Philadelphia in 1855 or 1858, of French and German extraction, Repplier was reputedly expelled from two schools for independent behaviour and illiterate until the age of ten. Despite this, she one of Americas chief representatives of the discursive essay, displaying wide reading. Her writings contain literary criticism as well as comments on contemporary life and these characteristics were already apparent in the first essay which she contributed to the Atlantic Monthly, entitled “Children and Present. ”Reppliers earliest national publications appeared in 1881 in Catholic World. Although she did write several biographies and some fiction, early in her career she decided to concentrate on essays and she was awarded honorary degrees by the University of Pennsylvania, Notre Dame and Columbia University. Repplier was a devout Catholic, and had a conservatives outlook on the issues of the day and she was an advocate of feminism and opponent of American neutrality during World War One, though an opponent of radicals and activists.
Living and dying in Philadelphia, she spent time in Europe. Edward Wagenknecht described her, in 1946, as our dean of essayists, The Place and the People The Fireside Sphinx In Our Convent Days The Cat Germany and Democracy The Promise of the Bell, Christmas in Philadelphia To Think of Tea. William White, M. D. Agnes Repplier, American Essayist, The force of Character, American Austen, The Forgotten Writing of Agnes Repplier, see Michael Dirda on American Austen, The Forgotten Writing of Agnes Repplier, The Washington Post. The Essays of Agnes Repplier, Modern Age, Vol.5, Philadelphia & London, J. B. Lippincott Company, pp. 21–26. Miss Repplier of Philadelphia, The Catholic World, Vol.173, redressing the Balance, American Women’s Literary Humor from Colonial Times to the 1980s. The Era of Good Intentions, A Survey of American Catholics Writing between the Years 1889–1915, University of Notre Dame. org Essays by Agnes Repplier at Quotidiana
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1805 and is the first and oldest art museum, the academys museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, and other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow and it opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were on display. The first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810, in 1876, former Academy student Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to what it remains today.
From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions from which significant acquisitions were made, harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution. Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, and Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is represented in the collection. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academys gold medal, rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, and some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuarts work acquired. The annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown, mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building almost unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns.
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and his unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, and his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour, during World War I, Academy students were actively involved in war work. About sixty percent of the men enlisted or entered Government service. A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned Captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive training in the United States. Realizing the rise in interest of women, this period between the mid-19th and early 20th century shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists
Platinum prints, called platinotypes, are photographic prints made by a monochrome printing process. The platinum tones range from black, to reddish brown. Unlike the silver print process, platinum lies on the paper surface, as a result, since no gelatin emulsion is used, the final platinum image is absolutely matte with a deposit of platinum absorbed slightly into the paper. Platinum prints are the most durable of all photographic processes, the platinum group metals are very stable against chemical reactions that might degrade the print—even more stable than gold. It is estimated that an image, properly made, can last thousands of years. A very delicate, large tonal range, not being coated with gelatin, the prints do not exhibit the tendency to curl. The darkest possible tones in the prints are lighter than silver-based prints, recent studies have attributed this to an optical illusion produced by the gelatin coating on RC and fiber-based papers. However, platinotypes that have been waxed or varnished will produce images that appear to have greater D-max than silver prints, a greatly decreased susceptibility to deterioration compared to silver-based prints due to the inherent stability of the process and because they are commonly printed on 100% rag papers.
Many practitioners have abandoned platinum and only use palladium, sodium chloroplatinate, in contrast to potassium chlorate, does not cause grain. This formula is generally referred to as the Na2 method and this somewhat misleading abbreviation was coined by Richard Sullivan of Bostick & Sullivan, one of the principal suppliers of chemistry and printing supplies, who popularized the process. The first person to have recorded observing the action of light rays on platinum was Ferdinand Gehlen of Germany in 1830, through experimenting, he eventually found that ferric oxalate was a highly-effective enhancer. The combination of two metals remains the basis of the platinotype process in use today. In 1832 Englishmen Sir John Herschel and Robert Hunt conducted their own experiments, in 1844, in his book Researches on Light, Hunt recorded the first known description of anyone employing platinum to make a photographic print. However, although he tried several different combinations of chemicals with platinum, all of his prints faded after several months.
By the early 1850s, other more reliable photographic processes, such as salt and those scientists who had previously conducted research on platinum lost interest in the process as other methods became more commercially viable. The only major advances in platinum research reported during that decade were made independently by C. J. Burnett, in 1859 Burnett published an article in the British Journal of Photography describing his use of sodium chloroplatinate as a fixing agent. His modification of the printing process resulted in prints that were permanent enough that he could exhibit them in public. That same year Clark exhibited prints made using a different process