The Mountaineers (club)
The Mountaineers is an alpine club serving the state of Washington. Founded in 1906, it is organized as an outdoor recreation and conservation 501 nonprofit, is based in Seattle, Washington; the Mountaineers host a wide range of outdoor activities alpine mountain climbing and hikes. The club hosts classes, training courses, social events; the club runs a publishing business, Mountaineers Books, which has several imprints and whose books are sold by major retailers. The famous manual, Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, is published by Mountaineers Books; the Mountaineers has 7 branches in Western Washington, 3 mountain lodges, 2 program centers, one in Magnuson Park in Seattle, one in Tacoma. All classes and trips are organized and led by volunteers, includes activities like hiking, scrambling, navigation skills, first aid, sailing and skiing, as well as community activities like film festivals and potlucks; the Mountaineers publishes books and guides on outdoor education and conservation.
There are no restrictions on. A Seattle-based part of the Mazamas, a Portland based group founded in 1894, The Mountaineers formed their own branch shortly after the 1906 Mazamas Mount Baker expedition and dubbed themselves "The Mountaineers" with 110 charter members—nearly half women; the club constitution was adopted in 1907 by a membership of 151. Among these original members were Henry Landes, Edmond S. Meany, the famous photographer Asahel Curtis, Seattle photographer and North Cascades guide Lawrence Denny Lindsley; the activities were local walks with the first trip being a hike through Fort Lawton to the West Point Lighthouse. The first mountain climbing trip was Mount Si. In 1907, 65 members made exploration of the Olympic Mountains; the next year a summit of Mount Baker was organized, followed by Mount Rainier in 1909. In 1915, a club outing became the first sizable group to hike around Mount Rainier and established the route that would become known as the Wonderland Trail; the club organizes thousands of trips per year, has a large library and historical archive, teaches instructional courses, advocates access and environmental causes.
From 1907 to 1995, new climbs in the Cascades were reported in the Mountaineers Annual. Since 2004, the Northwest Mountaineering Journal, hosted by the Mountaineers, has recorded this information. In the first 100 years since the club's founding it expanded to over 10,000 active members and expanded its offerings from a single annual alpine climb to over two dozen different types of activities occurring throughout the year including backpacking, folk dancing, rock climbing, snowshoeing and water sports; the organization provides a forum for members to organize their own trips and find partners for climbs. Many classes are offered beyond climbing skills including nature photography. Navigation, first aid. A thirty-hour wilderness first aid course called Mountaineering Oriented First Aid was produced by the organization; the organization is home to The Mountaineers Players which perform in the organization's Forest Theatre on the Kitsap Peninsula and The Mountaineers Books publishing which publishes outdoor related literature and guidebooks.
In 2008, the Mountaineers moved from Lower Queen Anne to an old naval building in Magnuson Park, now leased from the City of Seattle. The new facility features outdoor climbing walls, including an indoor ice climbing wall; the grounds feature native plants and a rock amphitheater for practicing scrambling and rugged hiking. The Mountaineers operates three rustic lodges in the mountains of Washington State, they are used as base-camps for activities and personal recreation trips. All have hostel-style sleeping accommodations, they can be rented for private functions, such as weddings, Meany Lodge has served as the filming location for a movie. Meany Lodge is ski area located near Stampede Pass with 3 rope tows and nordic, down hill, backcountry terrain. Baker Lodge is located adjacent to the Mt. Baker Ski Area Stevens Lodge is located adjacent to the Stevens Pass Ski Area The Mountaineers Library was founded in 1915; as of 2011 it subscribes to 40 periodicals. It specializes in studies on climbing, environmental studies, biographies of mountaineers, the history of exploratory mountaineering, natural history.
Mountaineers Books, based in Seattle, Washington, is the professional book publishing division of The Mountaineers. Mountaineers Books was informally started in 1955 when a volunteer committee was formed to create a mountaineering training text from the materials that the Club was using for its classes. According to The Mountaineers: A History, the committee was headed by member Harvey Manning, an accomplished climber who would go on to write more than 20 guidebooks during his association with the publishing business he helped found; the editorial committee created Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, which produced its ninth edition in 2017. The first edition of Freedom, as it is called, was published in April 1960; the Club's editorial committee remained a unit and began additional publishing projects focusing on both outdoor recreation—such as hiking and paddling—and on conservation topics—such as the preservation of wild places. Mountaineers Books has produced more than 1,000 titles since its foundation in 1960.
It shares the Club's 501 nonprofi
Golden Trout Wilderness
The Golden Trout Wilderness is a federally designated wilderness area in the Sierra Nevada, in Tulare County and Inyo County, California. It is located 40 miles east of Porterville, California within Inyo National Forest and Sequoia National Forest, it is 303,511 acres in size and was created by the US Congress in 1978 as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. The wilderness is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; the wilderness is named for and protects the habitat of California's state freshwater fish, the golden trout. Elevations range from about 680 feet to 12,900 feet. Within the wilderness are portions of the Kern Plateau, the Great Western Divide's southern extension, the main stem of the Kern River, the South Fork of the Kern and the Little Kern River; the wilderness area is bordered on the northeast and northwest by the high peaks of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Cirque Peak is the high point at 12,894 feet; the Kern Plateau is a large tableland with sprawling meadows, narrow grasslands along streams, forested ridgesand flats.
The centerpiece of the plateau is Kern Peak which has far-reaching vistas of the middle and upper Kern River drainage and much of the far southern Sierra, including Olancha Peak, the southern Kaweah Range, the mountains of the Mineral King area, the Dome Land Wilderness of the far southern Sierra. Located in both Sequoia and Inyo national forests, this 500,000-acre plateau had been the center of a battle between preservationists and multiple-use advocates. Before 1947, there was little incentive to develop the area, but that changed with the Secretary of Agriculture's plan to manage the area along multiple-use guidelines due to its proximity to population centers. In addition, there was an epidemic of insect damage in the commercial timber, estimated at 30 million board feet. A growing market for lumber added more pressure to develop the area and in 1956, a multiple-use management plan was completed that included a timber sale on the plateau. Wilderness advocates wanted to preserve the plateau, opposed the Forest Service plan at public meetings.
But, because no new facts were presented, the Forest Service went ahead with the timber sale which included building an access road. The sale contract contained special provisions to assure that the timber operators recognized them as they logged. A second road was constructed despite strong opposition from the Sierra Club, The Wilderness Society and the Kern Plateau Association; the Kern Plateau controversy in the 1950s deepened the chasm between the Forest Service and wilderness proponents. According to former Regional Forester Doug Leisz, "The Kern Plateau use controversy was the beginning of the preservationists vs. use fight which has since touched public lands over the entire country," although an argument can be made that the battle over the Hetch Hetchy Valley with John Muir was the beginning. Wildlife includes the large Monache deer herd, the sensitive Sierra Nevada red fox, pine martens and black bears; the golden trout is California's state fish The golden trout is related to two other rainbow trout subspecies found in this wilderness.
The Little Kern golden trout, found in the Little Kern River basin, the Kern River rainbow trout, found in the Kern River system. Together, these three trout form what is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Trout Complex"; the Little Kern golden trout is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Recreational activities include backpacking, horseback riding, day hiking, hunting, rock climbing, skiing and Off-roading. There are 379 miles of trail including the Pacific Crest Trail, which stays above 10,000 feet elevation for most of the 25-mile route through the Golden Trout Wilderness. There are historical sites such as the Tunnel Meadow and Casa Vieja guard stations, the 12-mile trail to Jordan Hot Springs along Ninemile Creek; the trail was built in 1861 by John Jordan for access to Olancha from Visalia. Past volcanic activity created the hot springs as well as Groundhog Cone and the Golden Trout Volcanic Field. Permits are required for all overnight use and there is a quota in effect for the Cottonwood Pass Trailhead.
Other restrictions include a ban on wood-fueled fires along the PCT between Cottonwood Pass to the Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness and at the Rocky Basin Lake area. Mount Whitney Fish Hatchery List of wilderness areas in California Silver Knapsack Trail Adkinson, Ron Wild Northern California; the Globe Pequot Press, 2001 Godfrey, Anthony The Ever-Changing View - A History of the National Forests in California USDA Forest Service Publishers, 2005 ISBN 1-59351-428-X Swedo, Suzanne Hiking California's Golden Trout Wilderness... The Globe Piquot Press 2004 ISBN 0-7627-2655-5 Golden Trout Wilderness.org: Golden Trout Wilderness — trails and trip routes Wilderness.net: Golden Trout Wilderness fact sheet US Fish and Wildlife Service: document on the Little Kern golden trout. Photo of Great Western Divide in the Golden Trout Wilderness. "Summitpost webpage on Cirque Peak". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-08-14.. Tom Harrison Maps topographic map
Tulare County, California
Tulare County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, its county seat is Visalia. The county is named for once the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. Drained for agricultural development, the site is now in Kings County, created in 1893 from the western portion of the larger Tulare County. Tulare County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located south of Fresno, spanning from the San Joaquin Valley east to the Sierra Nevada. Sequoia National Park is located in the county, as are part of Kings Canyon National Park, in its northeast corner, part of Mount Whitney, on its eastern border; as of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, up from 368,021 at the 2000 census. The land was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the eighteenth century, Spain established missions to colonize California and convert the American Indians to Christianity. Comandante Pedro Fages, while hunting for deserters in the Central Valley in 1772, discovered a great lake surrounded by marshes and filled with rushes.
It is from this lake. The root of the name Tulare is found in the Nahuatl word tullin, designating cattail or similar reeds. After Mexico achieved independence, it continued to rule California. After the Mexican Cession and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the area became part of the United States. Tulare County was soon formed from parts of Mariposa County only 4 years in 1852. There were two early attempts to split off a new Buena Vista County in 1855, Coso County in 1864, but both failed. Parts of the county's territory were given to Fresno County in 1856, to Kern County and to Inyo County in 1866 and to Kings County in 1893; the infectious disease Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is named after Tulare County. In 1908 Colonel Allen Allensworth and associates founded Allensworth as a black farming community, they intended to develop a place. It was the only community in California founded and governed by African Americans. While its first years were successful, the community encountered environmental problems from dropping water tables which caused it to fail.
Today the historic area is preserved as the Colonel Allensworth State Historic Park, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,839 square miles, of which 4,824 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Fresno County—north Inyo County—east Kern County—south Kings County—west Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge Giant Sequoia National Monument Inyo National Forest Kings Canyon National Park Pixley National Wildlife Refuge Sequoia National Forest Sequoia National Park Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, it was established in 1890 as the second U. S. national park, after Yellowstone. The park spans 404,051 acres. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 13,000 feet, the park contains among its natural resources the highest point in the contiguous 48 United States, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet above sea level; the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park.
Tulare County is a general law county under the California Constitution. That is, it does not have a county charter; the county is governed by a five-member Board of Supervisors. Supervisors are elected by districts for four-year terms. There are no term limits in effect; the Chairman and Vice-Chairman are elected annually by the Board of Supervisors from among its members. The Tulare County Sheriff provides court protection, county jail operation and detective functions in the unincorporated areas of the county. Incorporated towns have municipal police departments or contract with the Sheriff for their police operations. State Route 43 State Route 63 State Route 65 State Route 99 State Route 180 State Route 190 State Route 198 Tulare County Transit provides a countywide bus service linking the population centers. A connection to Delano in Kern County is operated; the cities of Tulare and Visalia have their own local bus services. Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages provide intercity bus service; the Porterville Municipal Airport located 3 nautical miles from Downtown Porterville has limited commercial passenger service with WestAir.
The airport offers general aviation to the public, it is home to Porterville Air Attack Base on the south part of the airport. The Visalia Municipal Airport is a city-owned airport for the city of California. Mefford Field is a city-owned general aviation airport located in Tulare; the nearest full operation commercial airports are Bakersfield's Meadows Field Airport to the South, Fresno's Fresno Yosemite International Airport to the North. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tulare County had a population of 442,179. The racial makeup of Tulare County was 265,618 White, 7,196 African American, 6,993 Native American, 15,176 Asian, 509 Pacific Islander, 128,263 from other races, 18,424 from two or more races. There were 268,065 people of Hispanic or Latino
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are cwm. A cirque may be a shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion; the concave shape of a glacial cirque is open on the downhill side, while the cupped section is steep. Cliff-like slopes, down which ice and glaciated debris combine and converge, form the three or more higher sides; the floor of the cirque ends up bowl-shaped as it is the complex convergence zone of combining ice flows from multiple directions and their accompanying rock burdens: hence it experiences somewhat greater erosion forces, is most overdeepened below the level of the cirque's low-side outlet and its down slope valley. If the cirque is subject to seasonal melting, the floor of the cirque most forms a tarn behind a dam which marks the downstream limit of the glacial overdeepening: the dam itself can be composed of moraine, glacial till, or a lip of the underlying bedrock; the fluvial cirque or makhtesh, found in karst landscapes, is formed by intermittent river flow cutting through layers of limestone and chalk leaving sheer cliffs.
A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant upper structures overlying materials which are more eroded. Glacial cirques are found amongst mountain ranges throughout the world. Situated high on a mountainside near the firn line, they are partially surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs; the highest cliff is called a headwall. The fourth side forms the lip, threshold or sill, the side at which the glacier flowed away from the cirque. Many glacial cirques contain tarns dammed by a bedrock threshold; when enough snow accumulates it can flow out the opening of the bowl and form valley glaciers which may be several kilometers long. Cirques form in conditions; these areas are sheltered from heat. The process of nivation follows, whereby a hollow in a slope may be enlarged by ice segregation weathering and glacial erosion. Ice segregation erodes the rock vertical rock face and causes it to disintegrate, which may result in an avalanche bringing down more snow and rock to add to the growing glacier.
This hollow may become large enough that glacial erosion intensifies. The enlarging of this open ended concavity creates a larger leeward deposition zone, furthering the process of glaciation. Debris in the ice may abrade the bed surface; the hollow may become a large bowl shape in the side of the mountain, with the headwall being weathered by ice segregation, as well as being eroded by plucking. The basin will become deeper as it continues to be eroded by ice abrasion. Should ice segregation and abrasion continue, the dimensions of the cirque will increase, but the proportion of the landform would remain the same. A bergschrund forms when the movement of the glacier separates the moving ice from the stationary ice forming a crevasse; the method of erosion of the headwall lying between the surface of the glacier and the cirque’s floor has been attributed to freeze-thaw mechanisms. The temperature within the bergschrund changes little, studies have shown that ice segregation may happen with only small changes in temperature.
Water that flows into the bergschrund can be cooled to freezing temperatures by the surrounding ice allowing freeze-thaw mechanisms to occur. If two adjacent cirques erode toward one another, an arête, or steep sided ridge, forms; when three or more cirques erode toward one another, a pyramidal peak is created. In some cases, this peak will be made accessible by one or more arêtes; the Matterhorn in the European Alps is an example of such a peak. Where cirques form one behind the other, a cirque stairway results as at the Zastler Loch in the Black Forest; as glaciers can only originate above the snowline, studying the location of present-day cirques provides information on past glaciation patterns and on climate change. Although a less common usage, the term cirque is used for amphitheatre-shaped, fluvial-erosion features. For example, an 200 square kilometres anticlinal erosion cirque is at 30°35′N 34°45′E on the southern boundary of the Negev highlands; this erosional cirque or makhtesh was formed by intermittent river flow in the Makhtesh Ramon cutting through layers of limestone and chalk, resulting in cirque walls with a sheer 200 metres drop.
The Cirque du Bout du Monde is another such a feature, created in karst terraine in the Burgundy region of the department of Côte-d'Or in France. Yet another type of fluvial erosion formed cirque is found on Réunion island, which includes the tallest volcanic structure in the Indian Ocean; the island consists of an active shield-volcano and an extinct eroded volcano. Three cirques have eroded there in a sequence of agglomerated, fragmented rock and volcanic breccia associated with pillow-lavas overlain by more coherent, solid lavas. A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai