2008 US Open – Men's Singles
Roger Federer was the four-time defending champion, defended his title. This was Federer's 5th consecutive US Open title after winning in the final 6–2, 7–5, 6–2 against Andy Murray of Great Britain, contesting his first major final, it was Federer's 13th Grand Slam title and his only successful title defence in majors that year, after losing the Australian Open and Wimbledon titles, now moved to second place on the all time men's singles Grand Slam wins list, passing Roy Emerson. Murray was attempting to become the first British player to win a Grand Slam title since Fred Perry in 1936, but lost to Federer in the final. Murray would win the title at this event four years later. Rafael Nadal had a chance to win Grand Slams on clay and hard courts in the same calendar year, after having won this year's French Open and Wimbledon, could have become the first man to win the French Open, Wimbledon and US Open since Rod Laver did it in 1969, but he lost to Murray in the semifinals; this was Juan Martín del Potro's first appearance as a seeded player in a Grand Slam.
He lost in the quarterfinals against Murray ending his 23 match winning streak. He would go on to win the title the following year. Another future champion, Marin Čilić, appeared in the main draw of the US Open for the first time. Association of Tennis Professionals – 2008 US Open Men's Singles draw
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon known as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, is regarded by many as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts. Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass; the tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the last Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by a week to begin in early July. Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions taking place. Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for Royal patronage.
Strawberries and cream is traditionally consumed at the tournament. In 2017, fans consumed 10,000 litres of cream; the tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts, except the advertisements of Rolex. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain; the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a private club founded on 23 July 1868 as "The All England Croquet Club". Its first ground was at Nursery Road off Worple Road, Wimbledon. In 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier as an outdoor version of court tennis and given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club. In spring 1877, the club was renamed "The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" and signalled its change of name by instituting the first Lawn Tennis Championship. A new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event.
Today's rules are similar except for details such as the height of the net and posts and the distance of the service line from the net. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemen's Singles was the only event held, it was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, from a field of 22. About 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final; the lawns at the ground were arranged so that the principal court was in the middle with the others arranged around it, hence the title "Centre Court". The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, although no longer a true description of its location. However, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more described; the opening of the new No. 1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description. By 1882, activity at the club was exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word "croquet" was dropped from the title.
However, for sentimental reasons it was restored in 1899. In 1884, the club added Gentlemen's Doubles competitions. Ladies' Doubles and Mixed Doubles events were added in 1913; until 1922, the reigning champion had to play only in the final, against whomever had won through to challenge him/her. As with the other three Major or Grand Slam events, Wimbledon was contested by top-ranked amateur players; this changed with the advent of the open era in 1968. No British man won the singles event at Wimbledon between Fred Perry in 1936 and Andy Murray in 2013, while no British woman has won since Virginia Wade in 1977, although Annabel Croft and Laura Robson won the Girls' Championship in 1984 and 2008 respectively; the Championship was first televised in 1937. Though properly called "The Championships, Wimbledon", depending on sources the event is known as "The All England Lawn Tennis Championships", "The Wimbledon Championships" or "Wimbledon". From 1912 to 1924, the tournament was recognized by the International Lawn Tennis Federation as the "World Grass Court Championships".
Wimbledon is considered the world's premier tennis tournament and the priority of the Club is to maintain its leadership. To that end a long-term plan was unveiled in 1993, intended to improve the quality of the event for spectators, players and neighbours. Stage one of the plan was completed for the 1997 championships and involved building the new No. 1 Court in Aorangi Park, a broadcast centre, two extra grass courts and a tunnel under the hill linking Church Road and Somerset Road. Stage two involved the removal of the old No. 1 Court complex to make way for the new Millennium Building, providing extensive facilities for players, press and members, the extension of the West Stand of the Centre Court with 728 extra seats. Stage three has been completed with the construction of an entrance building, club staff housing, museum and ticket office. A new retractable roof was built in time for the 2009 championships, marking the first time that rain did not stop play for a lengthy time on Centre Court.
The Club tested the new roof at an event called A Centre Court Celebration on Sunday, 17 May 2009, which featured exhibition matches involving Andre Agassi, Steffi Graf, Kim Clijsters and Tim Henman. The first Championship match to take place under the roof was the completion of the fourth round women's singles match between Dinara Safina and Amélie Mauresmo; the first match to be played in its entirety under the new roof took place between Andy Murray and Stanislas Wawrinka on 29 June 2009. Murray was involve
The Brisbane International established in 2009 is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts in Brisbane, Queensland. It is part of the ATP World Tour 250 series of the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour and of the WTA Premier tournaments of the Women's Tennis Association Tour, it is held annually in January at the Queensland Tennis Centre just before the first Grand Slam tournament of the season, the Australian Open as part of the Australian Open Series. It is owned by Tennis Australia. In 1997, the Corel WTA Tour created a new event –played on outdoor hardcourts– in Gold Coast, Queensland; the Tier III Gold Coast Classic was added the three preexisting tournaments of Auckland and Hobart, became one of the two events held in the first week of the women's calendar, parallel to the men's Adelaide tournament. Various players, among which Ai Sugiyama, Justine Henin, Patty Schnyder or Venus Williams found success over the years at the low tier tune-up event for the Australian Open.
The Gold Coast Classic became the Thalgo Australian Women's Hardcourts in 1998, took the sponsorship of Uncle Tobys in 2003, becoming Uncle Tobys Hardcourts, changed names again in 2006 to Mondial Australian Women's Hardcourts. Meanwhile, the ATP International Series Australian Hard Court Championships in Adelaide, which had evolved into the AAPT Championships in 1999, Next Generation Hardcourts in 2005, Next Generation Adelaide International in 2006 had become one of the three stops of the calendar's first week, alongside the Qatar Open of Doha and the Chennai Open of Chennai, India; as both the men's and the women's tour calendars were to undergo important changes from 2008 to 2009, with the WTA inaugurating its new roadmap of International and Premier tournaments, the ATP Tour becoming the ATP World Tour, with new Masters 1000, 500 and 250 events, it was decided in 2006 to merge the Next Generation Adelaide International and the Mondial Australian Women's Hardcourts into a larger ATP-WTA joint tournament in Brisbane, leading to the joint Medibank International Sydney, to the Australian Open.
Tennis Australia chief Steve Wood commented on the shift: "One of the reasons we are doing this is that there's a rise of more lucrative overseas tournaments in the lead-up to the Australian Open offering attractive alternatives to the top players looking to prepare for the first Grand Slam. So we wanted them to invest in having them continue to prepare here in Australia, on the road to the Australian Open." The first Brisbane International took place in Brisbane's newly built Tennyson Tennis Centre – and its Patrick Rafter-named Centre Court – in January 2009. In time for the 2012 event the tournament was promoted to a premier event on the WTA tour. In the men's singles Andy Murray holds the record for most titles with two and Murray concurrently holds the record for most consecutive titles. In the women's singles Victoria Azarenka and Serena Williams share the record for most titles with two. Australian Hard Court Championships – men's and women's tournament in various locations South Australian Championships – men's tournament in Adelaide Danone Australian Hardcourt Championships – women's tournament in Brisbane Official website ATP World Tour tournament profile WTA Tennis tournament profile
The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. The tournament is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events held each year, preceding the French Open and the US Open, it features women's singles. Prior to 1988 it was played on grass courts, but since two types of hardcourt surfaces have been used at Melbourne Park – green coloured Rebound Ace up to 2007 and, blue Plexicushion. First held in 1905 as the Australasian championships, the Australian Open has grown to become the largest annual sporting event in the Southern Hemisphere. Nicknamed "the happy slam" and referred to as the "Grand Slam of Asia/Pacific" the tournament is the highest attended Grand Slam event, with more than 780,000 people attending the 2019 edition, it was the first Grand Slam tournament to feature indoor play during wet weather or extreme heat with its three primary courts, the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne Arena and the refurbished Margaret Court Arena equipped with retractable roofs.
The Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, was first played at the Warehouseman's Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre; the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships. It became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities: Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Hastings. Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a major championship until 1924, by the International Lawn Tennis Federation at a 1923 meeting; the tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time. In 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city; the tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until its move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988.
The new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyong's capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an immediate success, with a 90 per cent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong; because of Australia's geographic remoteness few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century. In the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days; the first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946. Inside the country, many players could not travel easily; when the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, a distance of about 3,000 kilometres between the east and west coasts. In Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander; the first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments.
Before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – did not play this tournament. Brookes took part once and won in 1911, Wilding entered and won the competition twice, their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players. When the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country, it was a recurring problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice. Thus, many players had never played the Australian amateur or open championships: the Doherty brothers, William Larned, Maurice McLoughlin, Beals Wright, Bill Johnston, Bill Tilden, René Lacoste, Henri Cochet, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Ted Schroeder, Pancho Gonzales, Budge Patty, others, while Brookes, Ellsworth Vines, Jaroslav Drobný, came just once.
In the 1960s and 1970s, when travel was less difficult, leading players such as Manuel Santana, Jan Kodeš, Manuel Orantes, Ilie Năstase and Björn Borg came or not at all. Beginning in 1969, when the first Australian Open was held on the Milton Courts at Brisbane, the tournament was open to all players, including professionals who were not allowed to play the traditional circuit. Except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates and the low prize money. In 1970, George MacCall's National Tennis League, which employed Rod Laver, Ken Rosewall, Andrés Gimeno, Pancho Gonzales, Roy Emerson and Fred Stolle, prevented its players from entering the tournament because the guarantees were insufficient; the tournament was won by Arthur Ashe. In 1983, Ivan Lendl, John McEnroe and Mats Wilander entered the tournament. Wilander won the singles title and both his Davis Cup singles rubbers in the Swedish loss to Australia at Kooyong shortly after.
Following the 1983 Australia
Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel. The city has 34,000 inhabitants; the city is sometimes referred to by the German name Neuenburg, which has the same meaning. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire and under Prussian control from 1707 until 1848; the official language of Neuchâtel is French. Neuchâtel is a pilot of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural Cities programme; the oldest traces of humans in the municipal area are the remains of a Magdalenian hunting camp, dated to 13,000 BC. It was discovered in 1990 during construction of the A5 motorway at Monruz; the site was about 5 m below the main road. Around the fire pits carved bones were found. In addition to the flint and bone artifacts three tiny earrings from lignite were found; the earrings may have served as symbols of fertility and represent the oldest known art in Switzerland. This first camp was used by Cro-Magnons to hunt reindeer in the area. Azilian hunters had a camp at the same site at about 11,000 BC. Since the climate had changed, their prey was now wild boar.
During the 19th century, traces of some stilt houses were found in Le Cret near the red church. However, their location was not well documented and the site was lost. In 1999, during construction of the lower station of the funicular railway, which connects the railway station and university, the settlement was rediscovered, it was determined to be a Cortaillod culture village. According to dendrochronological studies, some of the piles were from 3571 BC. A Hallstatt grave was found in the forest of Les Cadolles. At Les Favarger a Gallo-Roman and at André Fontaine a small coin depot were discovered. In 1908, an excavation at the mouth of Serrière discovered Gallo-Roman baths from the 2nd and 3rd Centuries AD. One of the most important Merovingian cemeteries in the canton was discovered at Les Battieux in Serrières. In 1982, 38 graves dating from the 7th century were excavated many of which contained silver-inlaid or silver-plated belt buckles. In Serrières at the church of Saint-Jean, the remains of a 7th-century shrine were excavated.
In 1011, Rudolph III of Burgundy presented a Novum castellum or new castle on the lake shore to his wife Irmengarde. It was long assumed that this new castle replaced an older one, but nothing about its location or design is known. At the time of this gift Neuchâtel was the center of a newly created royal court, developed to complement the other royal estates which managed western estates of the Kings of Burgundy; the first counts of Neuchâtel were named shortly afterwards, in 1214 their domain was dubbed a city. For three centuries, the County of Neuchâtel flourished, in 1530, the people of Neuchâtel accepted the Reformation, their city and territory were proclaimed to be indivisible from on. Future rulers were required to seek investiture from the citizens. With increasing power and prestige, Neuchâtel was raised to the level of a principality at the beginning of the 17th century. On the death in 1707 Marie d'Orleans-Longueville, duchess de Nemours and Princess of Neuchâtel, the people had to choose her successor from among fifteen claimants.
They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people passed them over in favour of King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the Houses of Orange and Nassau. With the requisite stability assured, Neuchâtel entered its golden age, with commerce and industry and banking undergoing steady expansion. At the turn of the 19th century, the King of Prussia was defeated by Napoleon I and was forced to give up Neuchâtel in order to keep Hanover. Napoleon's field marshal, became Prince of Neuchâtel, building roads and restoring infrastructure, but never setting foot in his domain. After the fall of Napoleon, Frederick William III of Prussia reasserted his rights by proposing that Neuchâtel be linked with the other Swiss cantons. On September 12, 1814, Neuchâtel became the capital of the 21st canton, but remained a Prussian principality.
It took a bloodless revolution in the decades following for Neuchâtel to shake off its princely past and declare itself, on March 1, 1848, a republic within the Swiss Confederation. Neuchâtel has an area, as of 2009, of 18.1 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.84 km2 or 10.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9.74 km2 or 53.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.42 km2 or 35.5% is settled, 0.03 km2 or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 or 0.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 18.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.1%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 4.3%. Out of the forested land, 51.8% of the total land area is forested and 2.0% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land
2009 ATP World Tour
The Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour is the elite professional tennis circuit organised by the ATP. The 2009 ATP World Tour calendar comprises the Grand Slam tournaments, the ATP World Tour Masters 1000, the ATP World Tour 500 series, the ATP World Tour 250 series, the ATP World Team Championship, the Davis Cup, the ATP World Tour Finals. Included in the 2009 calendar is the Hopman Cup, which does not distribute ranking points, is organised by the ITF.2009 is remembered for being the year that saw Pete Sampras' Grand Slam singles record be beaten by Roger Federer, who won his 15th title at Wimbledon. Federer completed his Career Grand Slam at the French Open; the ATP reinstated the world tour to its name as the organisation rebranded itself as the ATP World Tour. ATP World Tour tournaments in 2009 are classified as ATP World Tour Masters 1000, ATP World Tour 500, ATP World Tour 250. Broadly speaking the Tennis Masters Series tournaments became the new Masters 1000 level and ATP International Series Gold and ATP International Series events became ATP 500 level and 250 level events.
The Masters 1000 includes tournaments at Indian Wells, Monte Carlo, Madrid, Toronto/Montreal, Cincinnati and Paris. The end-of-year event, the Tour Finals, moved to London. Hamburg has been displaced by the new clay court event at Madrid, a new combined men's and women's tournament, the indoor hard court event in Madrid was replaced by an outdoor hard court Masters tournament in Shanghai. From 2011, Rome and Cincinnati will be combined tournaments. Severe sanctions will be placed on top players skipping the Masters 1000 series events, unless medical proof is presented. Plans to eliminate Monte Carlo and Hamburg as Masters Series events led to controversy and protests from players as well as organisers. Hamburg and Monte Carlo filed lawsuits against the ATP, as a concession it was decided that Monte Carlo remains a Masters 1000 level event, with more prize money and 1000 ranking points, but it would no longer be a compulsory tournament for top-ranked players. Monte Carlo dropped its suit. Hamburg was "reserved" to become a 500 level event in the summer.
Hamburg did not accept this concession, but lost its suit. The 500 level includes tournaments at Rotterdam, Acapulco, Barcelona, Washington, Tokyo and Valencia; the ATP & ITF have declared that 2009 Davis Cup World Group and World Group Playoffs award a total of up to 500 points. Players accumulate points over the 4 rounds and the playoffs and these are counted as one of a player's four best results from the 500 level events. An additional 125 points are given to a player who wins the Davis Cup. Otherwise, the domain name of their website was changed to "www.atpworldtour.com". This is the complete schedule of events on the 2009 calendar, with player progression documented from the quarterfinals stage. Key These tables present the number of singles and mixed doubles titles won by each player and each nation during the season, within all the tournament categories of the 2009 ATP World Tour: the Grand Slam tournaments, the ATP World Tour Finals, the ATP World Tour Masters 1000, the ATP World Tour 500 series, the ATP World Tour 250 series.
The players/nations are sorted by: 1) total number of titles. The following players won their first main circuit title in singles, doubles, or mixed doubles: Marc López – Doha Rajeev Ram – Chennai, Newport Brian Dabul – Viña del Mar Tommy Haas – San José Marcel Granollers – Costa do Sauípe Łukasz Kubot – Casablanca Jan Hernych – Munich Ivo Minář – Munich Guillermo García-López – Kitzbühel Benjamin Becker –'s-Hertogenbosch Jérémy Chardy – Stuttgart Thomaz Bellucci – Gstaad Marco Chiudinelli – Gstaad Michael Lammer – Gstaad Travis Parrott – US Open Colin Fleming – Metz Ken Skupski – Metz The following players defended a main circuit title in singles, doubles, or mixed doubles: Fernando González – Viña del Mar Mark Knowles – Memphis Rafael Nadal – Monte Carlo, Barcelona Nicolás Almagro – Acapulco Michal Mertiňák – Acapulco, Umag Bob Bryan – French Open Daniel Nestor – Wimbledon Championships Nenad Zimonjić – Wimbledon Championships Juan Martín del Potro – Washington Robert Lindstedt – Washington Kevin Ullyett – Stockholm These are the ATP Rankings of the top twenty singles players, doubles players, the top ten doubles teams on the ATP Tour, at the end of the 2008 ATP Tour, of the 2009 season, with number of rankings points, number of tournaments played, year-end ranking in 2008, highest and lowest position during the season, number of spots gained or lost from the 2008 to the 2009 year-end rankings.
The 2008 year-end rankings include the number of points under the 2008 points system, doubled, as they were at the end of t
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde