Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 5 million square kilometres. The Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the sea, which forms a portion of the western North Pacific Ocean, it is bordered by the Philippine archipelago on the southwest. The sea has a diverse undersea relief; the floor is formed into a structural basin by a series of geologic faults and fracture zones. Island arcs, which are extended ridges protruding above the ocean surface due to plate tectonic activity in the area, enclose the Philippine Sea to the north and south; the Philippine archipelago, Ryukyu Islands, the Marianas are examples. Another prominent feature of the Philippine Sea is the presence of deep sea trenches, among them the Philippine Trench and the Mariana Trench, containing the deepest point on the planet; the Philippine Sea has the Philippines and Taiwan to the west, Japan to the north, the Marianas to the east and Palau to the south.
Adjacent seas include the Celebes Sea, separated by Mindanao and smaller islands to the south, the South China Sea, separated by Philippines, the East China Sea, separated by the Ryukyu Islands. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Philippine Sea as "that area of the North Pacific Ocean off the Eastern coasts of the Philippine Islands", bounded as follows: On the west. By the eastern limits of the East Indian Archipelago, South China Sea and East China Sea. On the north. By the southeast coast of Kyushu, the southern and eastern limits of the Inland Sea and the south coast of Honshu Island. On the east. By the ridge joining Japan to the Bonin and Ladrone Islands, all these being included in the Philippine Sea. On the south. By a line joining Guam, Yap and Halmahera Islands; the Philippine Sea Plate forms the floor of the Philippine Sea. It subducts under the Philippine Mobile Belt which carries most of the Philippine archipelago and eastern Taiwan. Between the two plates is the Philippine Trench.
The Philippine Sea has a marine territorial scope of over 679,800 square kilometres, an EEZ of 2.2 million km2. Attributed to an extensive vicariance and island integrations, the Philippines contains the highest number of marine species per unit area relative to the countries within the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago, has been identified as the epicenter of marine biodiversity. With its inclusion in the Coral Triangle, the Philippine Sea encompasses over 3,212 fish species, 486 coral species, 800 seaweed species, 820 benthic algae species, wherein the Verde Island Passage is dubbed as “the center of the center of marine fish biodiversity”. Within its territory, thirty-three endemic species of fish have been identified, including the blue-spotted angelfish and the sea catfish; the Philippine marine territory has become a breeding and feeding ground for endangered marine species, such as the whale shark, the dugong, the megamouth shark. The Coral Triangle, or the Indo-Malayan Triangle, is considered as the global center of marine biodiversity, its total oceanic area 2 million square kilometers.
It encompasses the tropical waters of Malaysia, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands. The Philippines is found at the apex of the Coral Triangle, taking up 300,000 square kilometres of the Coral Triangle, with the country's coral reef area in the Coral Triangle ranging from 10,750 square kilometres to 33,500 square kilometres, which has over 500 species of scleractinian or stony corals, 12 endemic coral species have been identified here as well; the Coral Triangle houses 75% of the world's coral species, estimated to be at around 600 different species, along with over 2000 different types of reef fish. It is home to six of the world's seven species of marine turtles, namely hawksbill, leatherback, green turtle, olive ridley, sea turtle. Up until now, there is no single explanation of the diversity found in the Coral Triangle, as most researchers have attributed the diversity to geological occurrences like plate tectonics, it helps in providing and supporting the livelihoods of 120 million people, is able to provide food to the Philippine coastal communities and millions more worldwide.
The whale shark tourism in the Coral Triangle helps provide a steady source of income for the community. Apart from the Philippines, the marine sources found in the Coral Triangle have high economic value across the globe. Countries surrounding the Coral Triangle help provide their locals with technical assistance and capability to build toward conservation and sustainability for food security, livelihoods and economic development. Climate change continuously affects the coastal ecosystem found in the Coral Triangle, as it contributes to rising sea levels and ocean acidification, thus endangering marine animals like fish and turtles; this has a negative effect on local livelihoods such as fishing and tourism. Corals are not able to adapt and survive if water will keep on warming, as this makes the corals absorb more carbon dioxide, altering pH balance making it acidic; the Philippine Sea hosts an exotic marine ecosyst
The Java Sea is an extensive shallow sea on the Sunda Shelf. It lies between the Indonesian islands of Borneo to the north, Java to the south, Sumatra to the west, Sulawesi to the east. Karimata Strait to its northwest links it to the South China Sea; the Java Sea covers the southern section of the 1,790,000 km2 Sunda Shelf. A shallow sea, it has a mean depth of 46 m, it measures about 1,600 km east-west by 380 km north-south and occupies a total surface area of 320,000 km2. It formed; the uniform flatness of the sea bottom and the presence of drainage channels indicate that the Sunda Shelf was once a stable, low-relief land area above which were left standing a few monadnocks. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Java Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago; the IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North. By the Southern limit of the South China Sea, the South coast of Borneo and the Southern limit of Makassar Strait. On the East. By the Western limit of Flores Sea.
On the South. By the Northern and Northwestern limits of Bali Sea, the North and West coasts of Java to Java Hoofd its Western point, thence a line to Vlakke Hoek the Southern extreme of Sumatra. On the West; the East coast of Sumatra between Vlakke Hoek and Lucipara Point. The Battle of the Java Sea from February to March 1942, was one of the costliest naval battles of World War II; the naval forces of the Netherlands, Britain and the United States were nearly destroyed trying to defend Java from Japanese attack. On 28 December 2014, Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 crashed into the Java Sea while en route to Singapore from Surabaya, Indonesia. All 162 passengers and crew were killed. On 29 October 2018, Lion Air Flight 610 crashed into the Java Sea shortly after takeoff from Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta heading towards Depati Amir Airport in Pangkal Pinang. All 189 passengers and crew on board are presumed dead; the southern section of the seafloor has long been recognized as geologically similar to northern Java, where oil fields occur and extend under the sea.
Prospects are favourable for oil fields in the waters off southeast Kalimantan. As the site of successful exploration for petroleum and natural gas, the Java Sea has become the basis of Indonesia's export program. Fishing is an important economic activity in the Java Sea. Over 3,000 species of marine life are found in the area. A number of national parks exist in the area such as Karimunjawa; the Thousand Islands are located north of the national capital Jakarta, are the city's only regency. The area around the Java Sea is a popular tourist destination. Scuba diving offers a chance to explore and photograph underwater caverns, coral and other marine life. Touwen, Jeroen Shipping and trade in the Java Sea region, 1870-1940: a collection of statistics on the major Java Sea ports ISBN 90-6718-162-5 "Java Sea a study on its economic impacts."
Madura Strait is a stretch of water that separates the Indonesian islands of Java and Madura, in the province of East Java. The islands of Kambing, Giliraja and Ketapang lie in the Strait; the Suramadu Bridge, the longest in Indonesia, spans the strait between Surabaya on Java and Bangkalan on Madura. In some old Western and old Indonesian sources, the strait appears as Surabaya Strait, but this name is not accepted in the official cartography; the Madura Strait is located in the east of the province of northern East Java in the southwest and east of the city of Surabaya. In this strait there are small islands, including Kambing Island, Giliraja Island, Genteng Island near the island of Madura, Ketapang Island in the coastal waters of Probolinggo Regency; as a maritime waterway, the Madura strait connects various seas along the Java sea, Bali sea, Bali strait. A remarkable story about the origin of the Madura Strait is contained in the Javanese historical poem of Nagarakertagama, dating from circa 1365.
According to the author of the poem, the strait between Java and Madura, which were a single island, was formed in year of 202 as a result of a powerful earthquake. This version does not have any scientific confirmation; the Madura Strait coastal community, like other coastal communities has coastal culture, one of its cultures, is when every specific date, based on the Islamic calendar, is held a tradition called Pethik Laut, in the form of releasing offerings carried together and released to middle of the beach. The majority of the people's livelihoods throughout the Madura Strait coastline are fishermen and salt farmers the strait coastal area is one of the largest salt producers in Indonesia; the Madura Strait is used as an object of tourism and transportation. One of power plant industries, namely PLTU Paiton, is located on the coast of the strait, namely in the Paiton sub-district, Probolinggo Regency and is one of the largest power plants on the island of Java. Tourism objects on the Madura Strait coast, including the famous ones are Kenjeran Beach in Surabaya, Bentar Beach in Probolinggo District, Pasir Putih Beach in Situbondo Regency.
Sea transportation facilities are ferry boats, which connect the Madura Strait on two lines, namely the connecting line Ujung Port with the Port of Kamal, the connecting line Kalianget Port with Pelabuhan Jangkar Other transportation facilities, namely the Suramadu Bridge is a means of land transportation connecting Java-Madura and has a large impact on the economy of the two islands
The Celebes Sea of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahassa Peninsula, on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia. It extends 420 miles north-south by 520 mi east-west and has a total surface area of 110,000 square miles, to a maximum depth of 20,300 feet; the sea opens southwest through the Makassar Strait into the Java Sea. The Celebes Sea is a piece of an ancient ocean basin that formed 42 million years ago in a locale removed from any landmass. By 20 million years ago, earth crust movement had moved the basin close enough to the Indonesian and Philippine volcanoes to receive emitted debris. By 10 million years ago the Celebes Sea was inundated with continental debris, including coal, shed from a growing young mountain on Borneo and the basin had docked against Eurasia; the border between the Celebes and the Sulu Sea is at the Sibutu-Basilan Ridge.
Strong ocean currents, deep sea trenches and seamounts, combined with active volcanic islands, result in complex oceanographic features. On 23 May 2013, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia signed an agreement to establish the boundary line that delimits the overlapping Exclusive Economic Zone between the two countries, it has been agreed that north of the boundary line will be under the jurisdiction of the Philippines and Indonesia be south of the boundary line. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Celebes Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago; the IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of Sulu Sea and the Southwest coast of Mindanao. On the East. A line from Tinaca Point, the Southern point of Mindanao, to the North point of pulau Sangihe Besar thence through the pulau-pulau Sangihe to Tanjung Puisan, the Northeast extreme of Celebes. On the South; the North coast of Celebes between tanjung Puisan and tanjung Binar and thence a line to Tanjung Mangkalihat in Borneo, the Northern limit of Makassar Strait.
On the West. The East coast of Borneo between Tanjung Mangkalihat and Tanjong Labian, the Southern limit of the Sulu Sea; the Celebes Sea is home to a wide variety of aquatic creatures. The tropical setting and warm clear waters permit it to harbor about 580 of the world's 793 species of reef-building corals, which grow as some of the most bio-diverse coral reefs in the world, an impressive array of marine life, including whales and dolphins, sea turtles, manta rays, eagle rays, barracuda and other reef and pelagic species. Tuna and yellowfin tuna are abundant. In addition to high abundance of fish caught in the Celebes sea, this sea yields other aquatic products like sea tang; the Celebes Sea is an important sea route for regional trade. The sea is popular for scuba diving and luxury ocean cruising; the Celebes Sea is underlain by an oceanic plate with a mid oceanic spreading in the center part. This place is subducted to the north. A number of seismic surveys and research drillings were done in this area to gather geological information.
The geology of Sulawesi Sea has been described in the Geology of Indonesia Wikibook. Bunaken Davao Gulf Maitum, Sarangani Minahassa Peninsula Moro Gulf Sangir Islands Sarangani Bay Talaud Islands Ocean Explorer - Public outreach site for explorations sponsored by the Office of Ocean Exploration. Exploring the Inner Space of the Celebes Sea 2007 - A rich collection of images and audio podcast. NOAA, Ocean Explorer YouTube Channel
The Banda Sea is a sea in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia, connected to the Pacific Ocean but surrounded by hundreds of islands, as well as the Halmahera and Ceram Seas. It is about 1000 km east to west, about 500 km north to south; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Banda Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago. The IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North The Southern limits of the Molukka Sea and the Western and Southern limits of the Ceram Sea. On the East. From Tg Borang, the Northern point of Noehoe Tjoet, through this island to its Southern point, thence a line to the Northeast point of Fordata, through this island and across to the Northeast point of Larat, Tanimbar Islands, down the East coast of Jamdena Island to its Southern point, thence through Anggarmasa to the North point of Selaroe and through this island to Tg Aro Oesoe its Southern point. On the South. A line from Tanjong Aro Oesoe, through Sermata to Tanjong Njadora the Southeast point of Lakov along the South coasts of Lakov and Leti Islands to Tanjong Toet Pateh, the West point of Leti, thence a line to Tanjong Sewirawa the Eastern extremity of Timor and along the North coast as far as longitude 125° East.
On the West. From a point on the North coast of Timor in 125° East up this meridian to Alor Island, thence round the East point and along the North coasts of the Alor, Pantar and Adoenara Islands and thence across the Northern end of Flores Strait to Tanjong Serbete the Eastern extreme of Flores, thence a line from its Northern point to Kalaotoa Island and through the chain of islands lying between it and the South point of Pulo Salayar, through this island and across the Strait to Tanjong Lassa, thence along the Southern limit of the Gulf of Boni and up the East coast of Celebes to Tanjong Botok. Islands bordering the Banda Sea include Sulawesi to the west, Ambon Island, Aru Islands, Barat Daya Islands, to the Tanimbar Islands, the Kai Islands and Timor in the East. Although the borders of the sea are hazardous to navigation, with many small rocky islands, the middle of the sea is open. Island groups within the sea include the Banda Islands. A number of islands in the Banda Sea are active volcanoes including Gunung Api and Manuk in the Banda Islands.
The Banda arc is famous for its 180° curvature and is, in Timor agreed to be the product of collision between a volcanic arc and the Australian continental margin. The Banda Sea occupies the main portion of the Banda Sea Plate; the southern margin of the sea consists of island arcs above subduction zones. To the east of the Sunda Trench is the Timor Trough which lies south of Timor, the Tanimbar Trough south of the Tanimbar Islands and the Aru Trough east of the Aru Islands; these trenches are the subduction zone of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Banda Sea Plate, where the Indo-Australian Plate moves northwards. Fore-arc sediments progressively carried northwards by the Indo-Australian Plate have been folded and faulted forming Timor island. To the northeast lies Seram Island which overlies the subduction of the Bird's Head Plate of West Papua. Earthquakes are frequent in the area, due to the confluence of three tectonic plates - Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates. 1938 Banda Sea earthquake 2006 Banda Sea earthquake The Banda Islands, Tanimbar Islands, Kai Islands and other smaller islands in the Banda Sea have been designated as the Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests ecoregion, the eastern end of the Wallacea biogeographical region containing a mixture of plant and animal species from both Asia and Australasia.
These islands are covered in intact rain forest and home to a number of endemic plants and animals including twenty-one birds, a high number for this small ecoregion. There are only twenty-two mammals on these islands including three endemics, the rare dusky pademelon and tomb bat, an endangered mouse-eared bat, the Kei myotis; the birdlife is threatened by egg collectors and more by cats and rodents that have been introduced to the islands. Yamdena in the Tanimbar Islands is an example of a large and unspoilt habitat and is a protected area; the base for visiting these islands is by plane or ship from Ambon Island to the north, the largest of the Maluku Islands. The Banda and Kei Islands, although remote, are visited by tourists for snorkelling and for their unspoilt beaches. Various cetacean species have been recorded including either or both blue and pygmy blue whales and Omura's whales. Ponder, H. W. In Javanese waters. Patrick D. Nunn Oceanic Islands Oxford, Great Britain, Blackwell
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The sea carries tremendous strategic importance. Huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed. According to International Hydrographic Organization Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, it is located south of China; the minute South China Sea Islands, collectively an archipelago, number in the hundreds. The sea and its uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries; these claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands and the sea. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, the name in most European languages is equivalent; this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea.
The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as "South China Sea". The Yizhoushu, a chronicle of the Western Zhou dynasty gives the first Chinese name for the South China Sea as Nanfang Hai, claiming that barbarians from that sea gave tributes of hawksbill sea turtles to the Zhou rulers; the Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period referred to the sea, but by the name Nan Hai in reference to the State of Chu's expeditions there. Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature. There are one for each of the four cardinal directions. During the Eastern Han dynasty, China's rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Northern Dynasties period. Usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was once called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham, after the maritime kingdom of Champa that flourished there before the sixteenth century; the majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the military acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941.
Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai "South China Sea". This was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling to 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the "South Sea", 南海 Nánhǎi, in Vietnam the "East Sea", Biển Đông. In Malaysia and the Philippines, it was long called the "South China Sea", with the part within Philippine territorial waters called the "Luzon Sea", Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, various Philippine government agencies started using the name "West Philippine Sea". A Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea. In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No. 29, mandating that all government agencies use the name "West Philippine Sea" to refer to the parts of the South China Sea within the Philippines' exclusive economic zone, including the Luzon Sea as well as the waters around and adjacent to the Kalayaan Island Group and Bajo de Masinloc, tasked the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority to use the name in official maps.
In July 2017, to assert its sovereignty, Indonesia renamed the northern reaches of its exclusive economic zone in the South China Sea as the "North Natuna Sea", located north of the Indonesian Natuna Islands, bordering the southern Vietnam exclusive economic zone, corresponding to the southern end of the South China Sea. The "Natuna Sea" is located south of Natuna Island within Indonesian territorial waters. Therefore, Indonesia has named two seas. States and territories with borders on the sea include: the People's Republic of China, Republic of China, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Jiulong, Mekong, Pahang and Pasig Rivers; the International Hydrographic Organization in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition, defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows: On the South. The Eastern