Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Lee Konitz is an American composer and alto saxophonist. He has performed in a wide range of jazz styles, including bebop, cool jazz, avant-garde jazz. Konitz's association with the cool jazz movement of the 1940s and 1950s includes participation in Miles Davis's Birth of the Cool sessions and his work with pianist Lennie Tristano, he was notable during this era as one of few alto saxophonists to retain a distinctive style when Charlie Parker exerted a massive influence. Like other students of Tristano, Konitz was noted for improvising long, melodic lines with the rhythmic interest coming from odd accents, or odd note groupings suggestive of the imposition of one time signature over another. Other saxophonists were influenced by Konitz, notably Paul Desmond and Art Pepper. Konitz was born on October 1927, in Chicago to Jewish parents of Austrian and Russian descent. At the age of eleven, Konitz received his first clarinet. However, he dropped the instrument in favor of the tenor saxophone, he moved from tenor to alto.
His greatest influences at the time were the swing big bands he and his brother listened to on the radio Benny Goodman. Hearing Goodman on the radio was, he improvised on the saxophone before learning to play standards. Konitz began his professional career in 1945 with the Teddy Powell band as a replacement for Charlie Ventura. A month the band broke up. Between 1945 and 1947, he worked intermittently with Jerry Wald. In 1946, he met pianist Lennie Tristano, the two worked together in a small cocktail bar, his next substantial work was with Claude Thornhill in 1947 with Gil Evans arranging and Gerry Mulligan as a composer. He participated with Miles Davis in a group that had a brief booking in September 1948 and another the following year, but he recorded in 1949 and 1950 the sides collected on the Birth of the Cool album; the presence of Konitz and other white musicians in the group angered some black jazz players because many were unemployed at the time, but Davis rebuffed their criticisms. Konitz has stated.
His debut as leader came in 1949 with sides collected on the album Subconscious-Lee.. He turned down an opportunity to work with Goodman in 1949. Parker lent him support on the day Konitz's child was born in Seattle, while he was stuck in New York City; the two were good friends, not the rivals some jazz critics made them out to be. In the early 1950s, Konitz recorded and toured with Stan Kenton's orchestra, but he continued to record as a leader. In 1961, he recorded Motion with Elvin Jones on Sonny Dallas on bass; this spontaneous session consisted of standards. The loose trio format aptly featured chromaticism. In 1967, Konitz recorded The Lee Konitz Duets in configurations that were unusual for the period; the recordings drew on nearly the entire history of jazz from Louis Armstrong's "Struttin' with Some Barbecue" with valve trombonist Marshall Brown to two free improvisation duos: one with a Duke Ellington associate, violinist Ray Nance, one with guitarist Jim Hall. Konitz contributed to the film score for Desperate Characters.
In 1981, he performed at the Woodstock Jazz Festival, held in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Creative Music Studio. Konitz has worked with Dave Brubeck, Ornette Coleman, Charles Mingus, Attila Zoller, Gerry Mulligan, Elvin Jones, he recorded trio dates with Brad Mehldau and Charlie Haden, released by Blue Note, as well as a live album recorded in 2009 at Birdland and released by ECM in 2011 with drummer Paul Motian. Konitz has become more experimental as he has grown older and has released a number of free jazz and avant-garde jazz albums, playing alongside many younger musicians, his album with Grace Kelly was given 4 1/2 stars by Michael Jackson in Down Beat magazine. He has had problems with his heart, he was scheduled to appear at Melbourne's Recital Centre in 2011 for the Melbourne International Jazz Festival, but he canceled due to illness. In August 2012 Konitz played to sell-out crowds at the Blue Note in Greenwich Village as part of Enfants Terribles, a collaboration with Bill Frisell, Gary Peacock, Joey Baron.
Days after his 87th birthday in 2014, he played three nights at Cafe Stritch in San Jose, with the Jeff Denson Trio, improvising on the old standards he favors. SOLOS: The Jazz Sessions Weightless – a recording session with Jakob Bro Public television series in the late 1950s with Warne Marsh, Billy Taylor, Bill Evans, Mundell Lowe and others. Hamilton and Konitz, Lee Konitz: Conversations on the Improviser's Art, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0472032178. Crafted out of numerous interviews between the author and his subject, the book describes Konitz's life and music. A 1985 interview Lee Konitz: 12 Memorable Duets by Thierry Quénum Lee Konitz Trio: Live at the Village Vanguard by NPR French documentary of Konitz and Dan Tepfer European tour Lee Konitz on IMDb
Hyman Paul Bley, CM was a Canadian pianist known for his contributions to the free jazz movement of the 1960s as well as his innovations and influence on trio playing and his early live performance on the Moog and Arp audio synthesizers. Bley was a long-time resident of the United States, his music has been described by Ben Ratliff of the New York Times as "deeply original and aesthetically aggressive". Bley's prolific output includes influential recordings from the 1950s through to his solo piano records of the 2000s. Bley was born in Montreal, Quebec, on November 10, 1932, his adoptive parents were Betty Marcovitch, an immigrant from Romania, Joe Bley, owner of an embroidery factory. However, in 1993 a relative from the New York branch of the Bley family walked into Sweet Basil in NYC and informed him that his father was his biological parent. At age five Bley studied violin. By eleven he received a junior diploma from the McGill Conservatory in Montreal. At thirteen he formed a band which played at summer resorts in Ste.
Agathe, Quebec. As a teenager he played with touring American bands, including Al Cowan's Tramp Band. In 1949, when Bley was starting his senior year of high school, Oscar Peterson asked Bley to fulfill his contract at the Alberta Lounge in Montreal; the next year Bley left Montreal for Juilliard. In 1951, on a return trip to Montreal, Bley organized the Jazz Workshop with a group of Montreal musicians. In 1953 Bley invited the bebop alto saxophonist and composer Charlie Parker to the Jazz Workshop, where he played and recorded with him; when Bley returned to New York City he hired Jackie McLean, Al Levitt and Doug Watkins to play an extended gig at the Copa City on Long Island. From the early 1950s until 1960 Paul did a series of trios with Peter Ind.. In 1953 the Shaw Agency booked Bley and his trio to tour with Lester Young, billed as "Lester Young and the Paul Bley Trio" in ads, he performed with tenor saxophonist Ben Webster at that time. He conducted for bassist Charles Mingus on the Charles Mingus and His Orchestra album.
Additionally, in 1953, Mingus produced the Introducing Paul Bley album for his label, Debut Records with Mingus on bass and drummer Art Blakey. In 1954 Bley received a call from Chet Baker inviting him to play opposite Baker's quintet at Jazz City in Hollywood, California for the month of March; this was followed by a tour with singer Dakota Staton. Down Beat Magazine interviewed Bley for its July 1955 issue; the prescient title of the article read, "PAUL BLEY, Jazz Is Just About Ready For Another Revolution". The article, reprinted in Down Beat's 50th Anniversary edition, quoted Bley as saying, "I'd like to write longer forms, I'd like to write music without a chordal center." Bley's trio with Hal Gaylor and Lennie McBrowne toured across the US in 1956, including a club in Juarez. Mexico; the tour culminated with an invitation to play a 1956 New Year's Eve gig at Lucile Ball and Desi Arnez's home in Palm Springs. During the evening, Bley collapsed on the bandstand with a bleeding ulcer and Lucy took him to the Palm Springs hospital where she proceeded to pay for all of his medical care.
Bley, who had met Karen Borg while she was working as a cigarette girl at Birdland in NYC, married her after she came out to meet him in Los Angeles, where she became Carla Bley. In 1957 Bley stayed in Los Angeles. By 1958 the original band, with vibe player, Dave Pike, evolved into a quintet with Bley hiring young avant garde musicians trumpet player Don Cherry, alto saxophonist Ornette Coleman, bassist Charlie Haden and drummer Billy Higgins. In the early 1960s Bley was part of a trio, with Giuffre on reeds, Steve Swallow on bass, its repertoire included compositions by Giuffre and his now ex-wife, composer Carla Bley. The group's music moved towards free jazz; the 1961 European tour of The Giuffre 3 shocked a public expecting Bebop, however the many recordings released from this tour have proven to be classics of free jazz. During the same period, Bley was touring and recording with tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins, which culminated with the RCA Victor album Sonny Meets Hawk! with tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins.
Bley's solo on "All The Things You Are" from this album has been called "the shot heard around the world" by Pat Metheny. In 1964 Bley was instrumental in the formation of the Jazz Composers Guild, a co-operative organization which brought together many free jazz musicians in New York: Bill Dixon, Roswell Rudd, Cecil Taylor, Archie Shepp, Carla Bley, Michael Mantler, Sun Ra, others; the guild organized weekly concerts and created a forum for the "October Revolution" of 1964. In the late 1960s, Bley pioneered the use of the Arp and Moog synthesizers, performing live before an audience for the first time at Philharmonic Hall in New York City on December 26, 1969; this "Bley-Peacock Synthesizer Show" performance, a group with singer/composer Annette Peacock, who had written much of his personal repertoire since 1964, was followed by her playing on the recordings Dual Unity and Improvisie. The latter was a French release of two extended improvisational tracks with Bley on synthesizers, Peacock's voice and keyboards, percussion by Dutch free jazz drummer Han Bennink, who had appeared on part of Dual Unity.
In 1972 Manfred Eicher released Bley's first solo piano recording, Open, to Love, on ECM Records.. Bley released the trio album, Paul Bley & Scorpio for Milestone Records in 1972 on which he plays two electric pianos and
Berklee College of Music
Berklee College of Music is a private music college in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world. Known for the study of jazz and modern American music, it offers college-level courses in a wide range of contemporary and historic styles, including rock, hip hop, salsa, heavy metal and bluegrass. Berklee alumni have won 294 Grammy Awards, more than any other colleges, 95 Latin Grammy Awards. Other notable accolades include 5 Tony Awards and 5 Academy Awards. Since 2012, Berklee College of Music has operated a campus in Valencia, Spain. In December 2015, Berklee College of Music and the Boston Conservatory agreed to a merger; the combined institution is known as Berklee, with the conservatory becoming The Boston Conservatory at Berklee. In 1945, composer, arranger and MIT graduate Lawrence Berk founded Schillinger House, the precursor to the Berklee School of Music, after quitting his job at Raytheon. Located at 284 Newbury St. in Boston's Back Bay, the school specialized in the Schillinger System of harmony and composition developed by Joseph Schillinger.
Berk had studied with Schillinger. Instrumental lessons and a few classes in traditional theory and arranging were offered. At the time of its founding all music schools focused on classical music, but Schillinger House offered training in jazz and commercial music for radio, theater and dancing. At first, most students were working professional musicians. Many students were former World War II service members who attended under the G. I. Bill. Initial enrollment was fewer than 50 students. In 1954, when the school's curriculum had expanded to include music education classes and more traditional music theory, Berk changed the name to Berklee School of Music, after his 12-year-old son Lee Eliot Berk, to reflect the broader scope of instruction. Lawrence Berk placed great emphasis on learning from practitioners, as opposed to academics, hired working musicians as faculty members. Several of the school's best-known musician-educators arrived after the school's name change. In 1956, trumpeter Herb Pomeroy joined the faculty and remained until his retirement in 1996.
Drummer Alan Dawson and saxophonist Charlie Mariano became faculty members in 1957. Reed player John LaPorta began teaching in 1962. Like many of Berk's ideas, this practice continues into the present. Although far more emphasis is placed on academic credentials among new faculty hires than in the past, experienced performers such as Gary Burton, Pat Metheny, Arif Mardin, Aydin Esen, Joe Lovano, Danilo Perez have served as faculty over the years. Another trend in the school's history began in the mid-1950s. During this period, the school began to attract international students in greater numbers. For example, Japanese pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi arrived in 1956. Multiple Grammy-winning producer Arif Mardin came from Turkey to study at the school in 1958. In 1957, Berklee initiated the first of many innovative applications of technology to music education with Jazz in the Classroom, a series of LP recordings of student work, accompanied by scores; these albums contain early examples of composing and performing by students who went on to prominent jazz careers, such as Gary Burton, John Abercrombie, John Scofield, Ernie Watts, Alan Broadbent, Sadao Watanabe, many others.
The series, which continued until 1980, was a precursor to subsequent Berklee-affiliated recording labels. These releases provided learning experiences not only for student composers and performers, but for students in newly created majors in music engineering and production, music business and management. Berklee awarded its first bachelor of music degrees in 1966. Members of the first graduating class to receive degrees included Alf Clausen, Stephen Gould and Michael Rendish. Gould taught film scoring at Berklee and is the Program Director for the Educational Leadership PhD program at Lesley University. During the 1960s, the Berklee curriculum began to reflect new developments in popular music, such the rise of rock and roll and funk, jazz-rock fusion. In 1962, Berklee offered the first college-level instrumental major for guitar; the guitar department had nine students, today it is the largest single instrumental major at the college. 1962: Guitarist Jack Petersen accepted an invitation by Lawrence Berk, founder of Berklee, to design and chair the first formal guitar curriculum at Berklee College of Music.
Berk discovered Petersen through his affiliation with the Stan Kenton Band Clinics. Trombonist Phil Wilson joined the faculty in 1965, his student ensemble, the Dues Band, helped introduce current popular music into the ensemble curriculum, as the Rainbow Band, performed world music and jazz fusions. In 1969, new courses in rock and popular music were added to the curriculum, the first offered at the college level; the first college course on jingle writing was offered in 1969. The school became Berklee College of Music in 1970 and bestowed its first honorary doctorate on Duke Ellington in 1971. Vibraphonist Gary Burton joined the faculty in 1971, helping to solidify the place of jazz-rock fusion in the curriculum; as Dean of Curriculum from 1985 to 1996, Burton led the development of several new majors, including music synthesis and songwriting, facilitated the school's transition to technology-based education. Curriculum innovations during the 1970s included the first college-level instrumental major in electric bass guitar in 1973, the first jazz-rock ensemble class in 1974.
In 1979, Berklee founder Lawrence Berk stepped down as president. The board of trustees appointed his son, Lee Eliot Berk, to
Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of about 73,400. It was the capital of the small Principality of Lippe from 1468 until 1918 and of the Free State of Lippe until 1947. Today it is the administrative center of the district of Lippe and of the Regierungsbezirk Detmold; the Church of Lippe has its central administration located in Detmold. The Reformed Redeemer Church is the preaching venue of the state superintendent of the Lippe church. About 5 kilometres to the southwest of Detmold is the Grotenburg hill with a prehistoric circular rampart and the Hermann monument; the monument commemorates the so-called Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, a battle in 9 AD which may or may not have been fought close to the present location of Detmold. In this encounter, Germanic tribes led by Hermann defeated Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus. Detmold was first mentioned as Theotmalli in 783, the year of a battle between the Saxons and Charlemagne's forces nearby.
This was an event in the Saxon Wars. In 1005 a Tietmelli or Theotmalli region is referred to in documents. In 1263, Bernard III of Lippe fortified the settlement at the crossing of the trade route from Paderborn to Lemgo over the Werre River with stone walls and granted it a municipal charter, its population was reported in 1305 as 305. Market rights granted in 1265 led to rapid economic development, its defenses were strengthened after severe damage had been inflicted on the town during the conflict with Soest in 1447. A major fire in 1547 destroyed more than 70 houses. In 1550, Detmold became the permanent residence of Count Simon III of Lippe; the counts were elevated to princes in 1789, Detmold remained the capital of the small Principality of Lippe until the end of the World War I in 1918, when all princely states in Germany were abolished. Today, Prince of Lippe is the owner of Detmold Castle. Street lighting was introduced with oil-fired lanterns. By 1835, the town had become the most populous with over 4,000 residents.
It grew to 12,000 in 1900 and over 30,000 in 1950. From 1919 to 1947, Detmold was the capital of the Free State of Lippe; when Lippe was incorporated into the new German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the town became the seat of the Lippe district, since 1972 it has been the seat of the district administration of Lippe. With the administrative reform of 1970, 25 nearby villages were incorporated into the city. Robert Wittje: 1903-1919 Emil Peters: 1920-1933 Hans Keller: 1933-1945 Alex Hofmann: 1945-1945 Richard Moes: 1945-1946 Wilhelm Sünkel: 1946-1946 Fritz Priester: 1946-1948 Helmut Starck: 1948-1949 Richard Moes: 1949-1952 Bruno Kirchhof: 1952-1964 Walter Bröker: 1964-1972 Friedrich Vogt: 1972-1989 Friedrich Brakemeier: 1989-2004 Rainer Heller: since 2004 Adlerwarte Berlebeck Donoper Teich Externsteine Fürstliches Residenzschloß, a Renaissance castle in the center of the town park Hasselbachteich Hermannsdenkmal Hochschule für Musik Detmold OWL University of Applied Sciences and Arts Landestheater Detmold, Detmolder Sommertheater Lippisches Landesmuseum LWL-Freilichtmuseum Detmold Martin Luther Church Vogelpark Heiligenkirchen The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts.
Gymnasium Leopoldinum, founded 1602 Stadtgymnasium Detmold, founded 1830 Christian-Dietrich-Grabbe-Gymnasium, founded 1925 Detmold is twinned with: Hasselt, Belgium Saint-Omer, France Savonlinna, Finland Zeitz, Germany Kalithea, Greece Notable people born in Detmold include: Friedrich Adolf Lampe, theologian Simon August, Count of Lippe-Detmold, Count of Lippe Leopold I, Prince of Lippe, Prince of Lippe Leopold Zunz, founder of Reform Judaism Leopold II, Prince of Lippe, Prince of Lippe Christian Dietrich Grabbe, alongside Georg Büchner the most important innovator of German-language drama in his time Ferdinand Freiligrath and author Leopold III, Prince of Lippe, Prince of Lippe Ferdinand Weerth Georg Weerth Gustav Wallis and South American traveler Joseph Plaut, spieler, elocutionist and regional poet Jürgen Stroop, German Nazi general of the SS, executed for war crimes Werner Buchholz, creator of the art word byte Manfred Fuhrmann, old philologist Hans-Ulrich Schmincke, volcanologist Heinz Burt, British musician and member of The Tornados Hans Ottomeyer, art historian, for 11 years curator of the German Historical Museum in Berlin Iris Berben, actress Peter Lampe, German theologian Detlef Grumbach, journalist and publisher Frank-Walter Steinmeier, foreign minister, Vice Chancellor, current President of Germany Manfred Ostermann, German local politician and former Landrat of Soltau-Fallingbostel Andreas Voßkuhle, president of the Bundesverfassungsgericht Ludger Beerbaum, jumping rider Wotan Wilke Möhring, actor Matthias Opdenhövel, German television presenter and journalist Sven Montgomery, Swiss-American cyclist Vera Ludwig, German poet Stefan Langemann, football
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus