United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
Richard Lynn Scott is an American businessman and politician, serving as the junior United States senator from Florida since 2019. He served as the 45th governor of Florida from 2011 to 2019. Scott, is a graduate of both University of Missouri, Kansas City and Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law. In 1987, after serving in the United States Navy and becoming a law firm partner, he co-founded Columbia Hospital Corporation. Columbia merged with another corporation to form Columbia/HCA, which became the largest private for-profit health care company in the United States. Scott was pressured to resign as chief executive of Columbia/HCA in 1997. During his tenure as chief executive, the company defrauded Medicare and other federal programs; the Department of Justice fined the company $1.7 billion in what was at the time the largest health care fraud settlement in U. S. history. Scott was never charged with any crime. Following his departure from Columbia/HCA, Scott became a venture capitalist and pursued other business interests.
Scott ran for Governor of Florida in 2010. He defeated Bill McCollum in the vigorously contested Republican primary election narrowly defeated Democratic nominee Alex Sink in the general election, spending $75 million of his own money in the process. Scott was re-elected in 2014. Scott was barred by term limits from running for re-election in 2018. In 2017, a Democratic activist and lawyer, Donald Hinkle, filed a lawsuit, claiming Scott had not disclosed sufficient information about his wealth and holdings, may have underestimated his net worth. Scott appealed to a three-judge panel of the First Circuit Court of Appeal; the appeals court granted what is known as a “writ of prohibition” barring the circuit judge from taking any further action in the case. The five-page ruling agreed with Scott’s argument that only the Commission on Ethics “has constitutional authority to investigate Mr. Hinkle’s complaint.”On April 9, 2018, Scott announced his candidacy in the 2018 United States Senate election in Florida, vying for the seat held by incumbent Democrat Bill Nelson.
A machine recount of the race was completed on November 15 and a manual recount was completed on November 18, confirming Scott's lead. On November 18, Nelson conceded and Scott was declared the winner. Scott took office on January 2019, after his term as governor expired. Rick Scott was born Richard Lynn Myers in Bloomington, Illinois on December 1, 1952. Scott never met his biological father, Gordon William Myers, described by Scott's mother, Esther J. Scott, as an abusive alcoholic. Scott's parents divorced in his infancy. In 1954, his mother married Orba George Scott Jr. a truck driver. Orba adopted young "Rick", who became known as Richard Lynn Scott. Scott was raised in North Kansas City, the second of five children, his family struggled financially. Penney, among other jobs. Scott graduated from North Kansas City High School in 1970, he attended one year of community college and enlisted in the United States Navy in 1970. Scott served on the USS Glover as a radar technician. On April 20, 1972, Scott aged 19, married his high school sweetheart, Frances Annette Holland, 20 years old.
The couple has six grandsons. The couple are founding members of Naples Community Church. Scott attended college on the GI Bill, graduating from the University of Missouri–Kansas City with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree, he earned a Juris Doctor degree by working his way through Southern Methodist University. He was licensed by the Texas Bar to practice law on November 6, 1978. Scott made his first foray into business while working his way through college and law school buying and reviving a failing doughnut shop by adding workplace delivery instead of relying on foot traffic, he bought and revived another doughnut shop. Following his graduation from law school, Scott worked as an attorney at the law firm of Johnson & Swanson in Dallas, Texas. In 1988, Scott and Richard Rainwater, a financier from Fort Worth, each put up $125,000 in working capital in their new company, Columbia Hospital Corporation, borrowed the remaining money needed to purchase two struggling hospitals in El Paso for $60 million.
They acquired a neighboring hospital and shut it down. Within a year, the remaining two were doing much better. By the end of 1989, Columbia Hospital Corporation owned four hospitals with a total of 833 beds. In 1992, Columbia made a stock purchase of Basic American Medical, which owned eight hospitals in southwestern Florida. In September 1993, Columbia did another stock purchase, worth $3.4 billion, of Galen Healthcare, spun off by Humana Inc. several months earlier. At the time, Galen had 90 hospitals. After the purchase, Galen stockholders had 82 percent of the stock in the combined company, with Scott still running the company. In April 1987, Scott made his first attempt to buy the Hospital Corporation of America. While still a partner at Johnson & Swanson, Scott formed the HCA Acquisition Company with two former executives of Republic Health Corporation, Charles Miller and Richard Ragsdale. With financing from Citicorp conditional on acquisition of HCA, the proposed holding company offered $3.85 billion for 80 million shares at $47 each, intending to assume an additional $1.2 billion in debt, for a total $5 billion deal.
However, HCA declined the offer, th
Florida's 3rd congressional district
The Third Congressional District of Florida is an electoral district of the United States House of Representatives located in the U. S. state of Florida. It presently comprises a large section of northernmost Florida, including the entire counties of Alachua, Putnam and Union, along with the majority of Marion county; the cities of Gainesville and Palatka are in the district as well as part of Ocala. Some Jacksonville suburbs such as Middleburg, Green Cove Springs, Orange Park are in the district. Redistricting in Florida, effective for the 2012 federal elections, radically altered the nature of the 3rd District. From 1993 through 2012 the district called the 3rd District comprised an different territory similar to the 5th District as of 2013; the present territory of the new 3rd District, as of the 2012 elections, is made up of parts of the former 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th districts, though it is geographically similar to the pre-2013 6th district. The former 3rd District was an intentionally gerrymandered territory designed to unite disparate areas of northeastern Florida with significant African-American populations into a black-majority district, was overwhelmingly Democratic in voting patterns.
The new 3rd District has a majority white population in rural areas and small towns. The only cities of any size in the district are Ocala; the new 3rd District is represented by Republican Ted Yoho, elected on November 6, 2012, taking office on January 3, 2013. The old 3rd District was represented from 1993 through 2012 by Corrine Brown, elected to the similar new 5th District in the November 2012 elections; the old 3rd district was a gerrymandered congressional district. The district included portions of Alachua, Duval, Marion, Putnam and Volusia counties. While Florida has had at least three congressional districts since the 1900 U. S. Census, the 1993–2012 3rd Congressional District dates to reapportionment done by the Florida Legislature after the 1990 U. S. Census; because Florida has a large population of African Americans, but not a large enough concentration anywhere in the state to configure a congressional district with a majority, there were several attempts to create a few gerrymandered districts which were certain to elect an African American candidate.
This created an odd coalition of black Republicans who supported such districts. This effort was opposed by many white Democrats, but this idea won the support of the state legislature and this district was created as a result; the 1993–2012 3rd Congressional District was geographically diverse. Starting from the southern part of the district, it included the Pine Hills area of the Orlando-Kissimmee Metropolitan Area with small pockets of African-American neighborhoods in the cities of Sanford, Gainesville and the larger African American communities of Jacksonville. Connecting these areas were regions which are sparsely populated—either expansive rural areas or narrow strips which are only a few miles wide. Barack Obama received 73% of the vote in this district in the 2008 Presidential election; as of January 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Florida's 3rd congressional district, living at this time. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Rep. Corrine Brown's official House of Representatives website
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Marco Antonio Rubio is an American attorney and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Florida. A Republican, Rubio served as Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Rubio unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 2016, winning presidential primaries in the State of Minnesota, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Rubio is a Cuban American from Florida. After serving as a city commissioner for West Miami in the 1990s, he was elected to represent the 111th district in the Florida House of Representatives in 2000. Subsequently, he was elected Speaker of the Florida House, was Speaker for two years beginning in November 2006. Upon leaving the Florida legislature in 2008 due to term limits, Rubio taught at Florida International University. Rubio ran for the United States Senate in 2010. In April 2015, Rubio announced that he would forego seeking re-election to the Senate to run for president, he suspended his campaign for president on March 15, 2016, after losing the Florida Republican primary to the eventual winner of the presidential election, Donald Trump.
On June 22, 2016, Rubio reversed his decision not to seek re-election to the Senate. Marco Antonio Rubio was born in Miami, the second son and third child of Mario Rubio Reina and Oriales Rubio, his parents were Cubans who immigrated to the United States in 1956, prior to the rise of Fidel Castro in January 1959. His mother made at least four return trips to Cuba after Castro's takeover, including a month-long trip in 1961. Neither of Rubio's parents was a U. S. citizen at the time of Rubio's birth, but his parents applied for U. S. citizenship and were naturalized in 1975. Some relatives of Rubio's were admitted to the U. S. as refugees. Rubio's maternal grandfather, Pedro Victor Garcia, immigrated to the U. S. in 1956, but returned to Cuba to find work in 1959. When he fled communist Cuba and returned to the U. S. in 1962 without a visa, he was detained as an undocumented immigrant and an immigration judge ordered him to be deported. Immigration officials had a change of heart that day, the deportation order was not enforced, Garcia was given a legal status of "parolee" that allowed him to stay in the U.
S. Garcia re-applied for permanent resident status in 1966 following passage of the Cuban Adjustment Act, at which point his residency was approved. Rubio enjoyed a close relationship with his grandfather during his childhood. Rubio has three siblings: older brother Mario, older sister Barbara, younger sister Veronica. Growing up, his family was Roman Catholic, though from age 8 to age 11 he and his family attended The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints while living in Las Vegas. During those years in Nevada, his father worked as a bartender at Sam's Town Hotel and his mother as a housekeeper at the Imperial Palace Hotel and Casino, he received his first communion as a Catholic in 1984 before moving back to Miami with his family a year later. He was confirmed and married in the Catholic Church. Rubio attended South Miami Senior High School, graduating in 1989, he attended Tarkio College in Missouri for one year on a football scholarship before enrolling at Santa Fe Community College in Gainesville, Florida.
He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the University of Florida in 1993 and his J. D. degree cum laude from the University of Miami School of Law in 1996. Rubio has said, he paid off those loans in 2012. While studying law, Rubio interned for U. S. Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, he worked on Republican Senator Bob Dole's 1996 presidential campaign. In April 1998, two years after finishing law school, Rubio was elected to a seat as City Commissioner for West Miami, he became a member of the Florida House of Representatives in early 2000. In late 1999, a special election was called to fill the seat for the 111th House District in the Florida House of Representatives, representing Miami; the seat had been held by Representative Carlos Valdes, who had run for and won an open Florida State Senate seat. It was considered a safe Republican seat, so Rubio's main challenge was to win the GOP nomination, he campaigned as early childhood education. Rubio placed second in the Republican primary on December 14, 1999, but won the run-off election for the Republican nomination, defeating Angel Zayon by just 64 votes.
He defeated Democrat Anastasia Garcia with 72% of the vote in a January 25, 2000 special election. In November 2000, Rubio won. In 2002, he won re-election to a second full term unopposed. In 2004, he won re-election to a third full term with 66% of the vote. In 2006, he won re-election to a fourth full term unopposed. Rubio spent nine years in the Florida House of Representatives. Since the Florida legislative session lasted only 60 days, he was able to spend about half of each year in Miami, where he worked first at a law firm that specialized in land use and zoning, starting in 2004, took a position with Broad and Cassel, a Miami law and lobbying firm, though state law precluded him from engaging in lobbying or introducing legislation on behalf of the firm's clients. At the time Rubio took his seat in the legislature in Tallahassee in January 2000, voters in Florida had approved a constitutional amendment on term limits; this created openings for new legislative leaders due to many senior incumbents having to retire.
According to an ar
Florida's 1st congressional district
Florida's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Florida, covering the state's western Panhandle. It includes all of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Walton counties and portions of Holmes county; the district is anchored in Pensacola and includes the large military bedroom communities and tourist destinations of Navarre and Fort Walton Beach and stretches along the Emerald Coast. The district, as ranked by the Cook Partisan Voting Index, is the most Republican district in Florida and the 15th most in the United States; the district is represented by Republican Matt Gaetz. The district encompasses the western part of the Florida Panhandle, in the extreme western portion of the state, stretching from Pensacola and the Alabama border east to include Walton and Washington counties. Most of the territory now in the 1st District had been the 3rd District from 1903 to 1963, it cast aside its Democratic roots far sooner than most of the other areas of the state. It has not supported a Democrat for President since John F. Kennedy in 1960.
In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the district by such a large margin that it nearly pushed Florida's electoral votes into the Republican column. It has continued to vote for Republicans by wide margins, with the only exception being 1976, where Gerald Ford won a narrow 50-49 victory over Jimmy Carter. Nonetheless, it continued to elect conservative Democrats at the state and local level. Well into the 1980s, the district's congressmen and state lawmakers only faced "sacrificial lamb" Republican challengers on the occasions they faced any opposition at all; as late as 1992, for instance, Bob Graham carried the district with 54 percent of the vote--more than double Bill Clinton's total in the district. This changed with the Republican Revolution of 1994; that year, Joe Scarborough became the first Republican to represent the Panhandle since Reconstruction. This change was more a result of eight-term conservative Democrat Earl Hutto retiring than of a Republican upsurge, it had been taken for granted that Hutto would be succeeded by a Republican once he retired when he was nearly defeated in 1990 and 1992.
Republicans swept most of the district's seats in the legislature. Since the district has become arguably the most Republican district in Florida, with Republicans dominating every level of government. No Democratic candidate for the seat has tallied more than 40 percent of the vote since Hutto's retirement. John McCain received 67% of the vote in this district in 2008; the district's conservative bent is not limited to the national level. It rejects Democrats at the state level as well. By the turn of the millennium, there were no elected Democrats left above the county level; the area comprising the 1st District has maintained a large military presence since John Quincy Adams persuaded Spain to sell Florida to the United States in 1819, in part to gain a deepwater port at Pensacola. The U. S. Air Force has a large presence in Eglin Air Force Base, economically important to the district. Under 14,000 people are employed at the base, one of the largest air bases in the world and has 100,000 square miles of airspace stretching over the Gulf of Mexico to the Florida Keys.
Hurlburt Field is an auxiliary field at Eglin AFB and is the location of the Air Force Special Operations Command. Eglin AFB spreads over three counties. Pensacola Naval Air Station was the first Navy base devoted to the specific purpose of aviation, is the home of the Blue Angels. Saufley Field, used for training, is north of Pensacola NAS. A large number of veterans who retire relocate to this district. Tourism in Navarre, Pensacola Beach, Destin, is a major economic activity; the 1st gives its incumbents long tenures in Washington. As of January 2018, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Florida's 1st congressional district who are living at this time. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Constitution Party (United States)
The Constitution Party known as the U. S. Taxpayers' Party, is a national political party in the United States; the idea that the principles and intents of the U. S. Constitution remain. Founding members included 2016 presidential candidate Darrell Castle and former acting Office of Economic Opportunity Director Howard Phillips; the party platform is based on originalist interpretations of the Constitution and shaped by principles it finds set forth in the Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights and the Bible. There are "7 Guiding Principles" for Constitution Party platforms. Throughout these principles and accompanying platform items are direct quotes from early U. S. founders and political figures, the U. S. Constitution, the Federalist Papers, the U. S. Declaration of Independence, among others; the party applies these quotes as evidence of their views of the Constitution and how the U. S. is founded on Christian principles while maintaining their support of the No Religious Test Clause. As of March 2018, the Constitution Party has 25 members elected to city council seats and other municipal offices across the United States.
In terms of registered members, the party ranks fifth among national parties in the United States. The party was founded as the U. S. Taxpayers' Party by Howard Phillips in 1991. Phillips was the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections; the party's name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999, but some state affiliate parties are known under different names. The party absorbed the American Independent Party, founded for George Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign; the Constitution Party claims to be the "philosophical home" of the Tea Party. The Constitution Party candidate, former congressman Tom Tancredo, came in second place with 617,030 votes in the 2010 Colorado gubernatorial election with 36.4% of the vote, ahead of Republican Dan Maes with 11.1%. In 2006, Rick Jore, of the recently disaffiliated Constitution Party of Montana, was elected to the Montana House of Representatives with 56.2% of the vote, defeating Democrat Jeanne Windham. The following table displays select Constitution Party state affiliate parties and organizations.
All affiliates state in their platforms support for strict adherence to the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution. Many specifically add their home state constitutions to the mix. In January 2013, Oregon re-affiliated with the national party; the Constitution Party of Montana re-affiliated with the national party in 2011. According to the party website, since November 2012, the Alaskan Independence Party has not been an affiliate; the Nebraska state affiliate of the Constitution Party is called the Nebraska Party. The party had candidates for statewide offices placed on ballots from 2002 to 2008; the stated mission of the Nebraska Party is "to restore economic prosperity to all Nebraskans, to restore the Christian Principles of our Forefathers, to get the Government back in the hands of the people. The Nebraska Party is founded on the principles of the Democrat-Republican Party, established in the early 1800s by Thomas Jefferson; the Democrat-Republican Party, now the Nebraska Party, represents the people, the working people, family farmers, small business and, of course, our senior citizens".
The Constitution Party branches in North Carolina and several other states adhere to what they proclaim as the "Seven Essential Core Values". These core values are defined as "the Sanctity of Life, Religious Freedom, Traditional Family, Private Property Rights, Pro-Second Amendment, National Sovereignty, Anti-Socialism"; the party claims to be the state's only 100% Pro-Life political party. The origins of the state party can be traced to October 2000, when founding member Brenda Donnellan and activists from Wood County served as plaintiffs in Phillips v Hechler, civ 6:00-894; this litigation resulted in a November 3, 2000, ruling against Secretary of State Ken Hechler, forcing him to allow Constitution Party presidential nominee, Howard Phillips, to run as a declared write-in candidate without paying a filing fee. The 1964 Constitution Party presidential nominee, Joseph B. Lightburn, was a neighbor of Donnellan's in Jane Lew. Lightburn served as National Committeeman for the Constitution Party of West Virginia, but the original party had long been defunct.
There was no connection between the two. Because the Constitution Party is not a major party in the state, its voters are permitted to vote in the primary but must take the initiative to ask for either a Republican or Democratic party ballot in lieu of the standard non-partisan ballot; because in many states the party has not yet attained ballot qualification status, voters in those states registering with it must check an "Other Party" or "Other" box on the voter registration form and write the word "Constitution" on the line. Voter registration status can be checked on at the Secretary of State's website. In early 2006, Christopher H. Hansen, the gubernatorial candidate of Independent American Party of Nevada, candidates in Colorado and Idaho, publicly expressed support for allowing abortions in the cases of rape and for those performed to save the life of the mother, a contrary view to the official Nevada platform. At the party's April 2008 national convention in Tampa, the assembly voted not to disaffiliate Nevada, citing that affiliate's official position on the issue and the national party's policy against dictating the internal affairs of any affiliate.
They made it more difficult to introduce a disaffiliatio