SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Florida Panhandle

The Florida Panhandle is the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Florida, is a strip of land 200 miles long and 50 to 100 miles wide, lying between Alabama on the north and the west, Georgia on the north, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Its eastern boundary is arbitrarily defined; as is the case with the other eight U. S. states that have panhandles, the geographic meaning of the term is elastic. References to the Florida Panhandle always include the ten counties west of the Apalachicola River, a natural geographic boundary, the historic dividing line between the British colonies of West Florida and East Florida; these western counties lie in the Central Time Zone, while the rest of the state is in the Eastern Time Zone. References to the Panhandle may include some or all of eight counties east of the Apalachicola known as the Big Bend region, along the curve of Apalachee Bay. Like North Central Florida, the Panhandle is more similar in culture and climate to the Deep South than to South Florida in the lower peninsula, being known for its conservative politics and "piney woods."The largest city in the Panhandle is Tallahassee, the state capital, population 188,107.

However, the largest population grouping is the Pensacola Metropolitan Area with a population of 494,883. The total population of the Panhandle, as of the 2010 Census, was 1,407,925, just under 7.5% of Florida's total population as recorded in the same census. Emerald Coast, a term coined in 1983, refers in general to the beaches and coastal resorts from Pensacola to Port St. Joe, but is sometimes used to refer, by extension, to the Panhandle as a whole west of the Apalachicola. Earlier designations include "Playground of the Gulfcoast" and the "Miracle Strip" for the area between Fort Walton Beach and Panama City. Coastal regions of the following counties are included when referring to the Emerald Coast: Okaloosa County Santa Rosa County Walton CountyCoastal portions of Escambia County that lie on the western edge, coastal portions of Bay County that lie on the eastern edge, are regularly included when referring to the Emerald Coast, but with somewhat less regularity than the three aforementioned counties listed above.

However, the agency providing water and garbage collection services to unincorporated Escambia County, headquartered in Pensacola, is called the Emerald Coast Utility Authority. The Forgotten Coast is a trademarked term coined in the early 1990s used to refer to the coastal portion of the Florida Panhandle extending from Mexico Beach or southeastern Bay County on the Gulf of Mexico to St. Marks on Apalachee Bay, it is not considered a part of the Emerald Coast, which lies directly adjacent to the west. Coastal regions of the following counties are included when referring to the Forgotten Coast: Gulf County Franklin County Wakulla County Small portions of Bay County The Apalachicola River is the largest river of the Panhandle, it is formed by the junction of several rivers, including the Chattahoochee and the Flint, where the boundaries of Alabama and Florida meet. From there, it flows southward to the town of Apalachicola. Major estuaries include, from west to east: Perdido Bay, fed by the Perdido River, which forms the western boundary of Florida.

Pensacola Bay, a deepwater port, is formed by the joining of East bays. The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, completed in 1949, traverses the lower Panhandle by means of bays, lagoons and man-made canals; the barrier islands of Perdido Key and Santa Rosa Island extend from the Pandhandle's western extremity to Fort Walton Beach. Throughout the 19th century, the Panhandle was sparsely populated, dotted in places with small farming communities, none of which had as many as a thousand residents. Many Panhandle residents had, in fact, had relatives there, it was natural for West Floridians to feel that they had more in common with their nearby neighbors in Alabama than with the residents of the peninsula, hundreds of miles away. In 1821, Pensacola was the only city in West Florida, with a population estimated to be about 3,000. In the 1850 census, the enumerated population of Pensacola was 2,164. During the course of the century, proposals for ceding the Florida counties west of the Apalachicola River to Alabama were raised: In 1811, while Florida was still a Spanish possession, American residents sent a petition to Congress asking to be incorporated into the Mississippi Territory, which at that time included present-day Alabama.

In 1819, the constitutional convention of Alabama asked Congress to include West Florida in their new state. In 1822, only a year after the U. S. acquired the entire Florida territory from Spain, residents of West Florida sent a petition to the U. S. House of Representatives asking that their section be annexed to Alabama, Alabama Senator John Williams Walker promoted the idea. In 1826, the Pensacola Gazette published a number of letters advocating annexation to Alabama, though the

Battle of Borgo

The Battle of Borgo was a battle between Corsican and French forces over control of the town of Borgo on 8 October 1768. In October 1768, Pasquale Paoli tried to recapture U Borgu, where a French force of 700 men under De Ludre was entrenched awaiting reinforcements. During this time. Pasquale Paoli ordered his entire force to march on Borgo, whilst Clément Paoli kept a watch on Pascal's rear to prevent Grand-maison from descending from Oletta, where he had taken refuge; the main roads between Bastia and Borgo were kept under surveillance by the Corsicans. The Marquis De Chauvelin learned of the fate awaiting his countrymen and sent Grand-maison towards Borgo. De Marbeuf and Chauvelin left Bastia with 3,000 men to join the force in Borgo. De Ludre and his 700 men entrenched themselves in Borgo awaiting the assault. Paoli inspired his troops by telling them "Patriots, recall the Corsican Vespers, when on this spot you destroyed the French; the honour of the fatherland and public liberty today need all your valour.

Europe is watching you.". Battle lasted ten hours. Grand-maison tried in vain to defeat his men. Marbeuf and Chauvelin thought it best to retreat and De Ludre surrendered. 600 were dead, 1000 wounded and 600 taken prisoner, whilst 3 bronze cannon, 6 other cannon, a mortar, 1,700 fusils and other munitions were captured by the Corsicans. Louis XV of France was surprised by the defeat and thought of making no further armed attempts to incorporate Corsica into France, but the Duc De Choiseul made every effort to continue the war and repair the damage the defeat had done to his reputation. Di Pasquale, J. C.. Les fils de la liberté: les fils de Pasquale Paoli. Édilivre, Éd. Aparis. P. 193. ISBN 9782917135600. Retrieved 2015-11-09

Thomas Stone National Historic Site

The Thomas Stone National Historic Site known as Haberdeventure or the Thomas Stone House, is a United States National Historic Site located about 25 miles south of Washington D. C. in Charles County, Maryland. The site was established to protect the home and property of Thomas Stone, one of the 56 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, his home and estate were owned by the Stone family until 1936. Stone purchased Haberdeventure in 1770 and began construction of a new home in 1771. Stone's original plan was to build a small, modest home for him, his wife Margaret, their two daughters but before the house was completed, his father died and five of his younger brothers and sisters came to live with him at Haberdeventure creating the need for larger living quarters. During the 1780s, the Haberdeventure plantation supported about 25 to 35 people, including a number of slaves. By the time of Stone's death in 1787, Haberdeventure had increased in size from 442 acres to 1,077 acres.

Stone was buried in the family cemetery adjacent to his home. Descendants of Thomas Stone continued to own Haberdeventure until 1936; the house was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1971. The property was owned until 1977 when a fire damaged the central section of the house. Haberdeventure was authorized as a National Historic Site a year in 1978 and was purchased by the National Park Service in 1981. Restoration efforts on the historic structures began at this time but the house was not opened to the public until 1997. Today, a visitor center located at the site has exhibits on the Declaration of Independence and the life of Thomas Stone. Guided tours of Haberdeventure are offered. In 2008, the Thomas Stone National Historic Site ranked 344th among 360 sites where the National Park Service tracks attendance with 5,720 visitors. List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland National Register of Historic Places listings in Charles County, Maryland National Park Service: Thomas Stone National Historic Site Haberdeventure, Charles County, including undated photo, at Maryland Historical Trust Historic American Buildings Survey No.

MD-470, "Haber de Venture, Rose Hill Road, La Plata vicinity, Charles County, MD", 10 photos, 14 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material HABS No. MD-470-A, "Haber de Venture, Main Barn", 1 photo, 5 measured drawings, 1 photo caption page HABS No. MD-470-B, "Haber de Venture, Corn Crib", 3 measured drawings HABS No. MD-470-C, "Haber de Venture, Tenant House", 2 measured drawings HABS No. MD-470-D, "Haber de Venture, Wagon House", 2 photos, 1 measured drawing, 1 photo caption page