Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia)
Santa Cruz, with an area of 370,621 km2, is the largest of the nine constituent departments of Bolivia occupying about one-third of the territory of the country. It is located in the eastern part of the country, sharing borders in the north and east with Brazil and with Paraguay in the south. In the 2012 census, it reported a population of 3,412,921; the capital is the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The department is one of the wealthiest departments in Bolivia, with huge reserves of natural gas. Besides, it has experienced the highest increase of economic growth during the last 50 years in Bolivia and South America. According to current Constitution, the highest authority in the department lies with the governor; the former figure of prefect was appointed by the President of the Republic till 2005, when the prefect for the first time was elected by popular vote to serve for a five-year term. In 2010 the first governor was elected according to the implementation of autonomy after a struggle for a decade by the people of Santa Cruz.
Santa Cruz has a Departmental Assembly, which derives but differs from the previous Departmental Council. It is a state legislature with limited legislation powers, being able to make laws in certain subjects in exclusivity and in some others in concurrence with the state legislative branch.. The department covers a vast expanse of territory in eastern Bolivia, much of it rainforests, extending from the Andes to the border with Brazil; the department's economy depends on agriculture, with sugar, cotton and rice being grown. The amount of land cultivated by modern farming techniques is increasing in the Santa Cruz area, where weather allows for two crops a year. In recent years, the discovery of natural gas in the department has led to plans for the development of a regional natural gas industry, to boost the local economy. Bolivia’s energy minister said two proposed liquefied petroleum gas plants may allow the country to boost supplies to Brazil and Argentina by 2010, easing a shortage of the fuel after a lack of investment reduced output.
The processing plants would be built in Santa Cruz and each would produce about 200 tons of liquefied petroleum gas a day. The plants would help turn a deficit of gas into a “surplus”. In July 2004, the people voted in a nationwide referendum to allow for regulated exportation of the gas; the department hosts El Mutún, the world's second largest iron ore reserve and largest magnesium deposits are located there. Located in the Germán Busch Province in the Santa Cruz Department of Bolivia, near Puerto Suárez, El Mutún extends across the border into Brazil, where it is called the Serrania de Jacadigo. Known as the "Serrania Mutún", it has an area of about 75 square kilometers, its estimated reserves are about 40.205 billion tons of iron ore of 50% iron in hematite and magnetite form, in lesser quantities in siderite and manganese minerals. This can be compared with an estimate of the total world reserves of iron ore: 800 billion tons of crude ore containing more than 230 billion tons of iron. Santa Cruz Department covers a wide and diverse area.
In the west lies a series of temperate Sub-Andean ranges and valleys while to the north and south lies two different lowlands areas. To the northeast lies the flat Llanos Chiquitanos areas and beyond these the Serranías Chiquitanas ranges. In the far east the departments have small parts of the huge Pantanal wetland; the first settlers of Santa Cruz were Spaniards that accompanied Ñuflo de Chávez, as well as Guarani, some Flemings, Portuguese and Italians working for the Spanish crown. Among the first settlers there were Sephardic Jews converted to Christianity who were persecuted by the Inquisition in Spain. Santa Cruz has a multicultural population: 60% are Castizos with both Mestizo and European ascendants, 30% are Natives 10% are Whites of European descent, of whom about a quarter are so-called "Russian" Mennonites of German tradition and descent. At 416 meters above sea level, it is warm and tropical most of the year. Winters are short and last only 2–3 months but can get cold suddenly. "Surazos" can drop the temperature by as much as 30 degrees overnight.
This extreme cold lasts only a few days at a time and the beautiful, sub-tropical Santa Cruz is pleasant throughout most of the year. Here the climate varies by geographical zone: temperate to cold in the western sierras and warm to hot and humid as one descends into the extensive plains; the Department of Santa Cruz is divided into 15 provinces. During the stages of the Chaco war between Paraguay and Bolivia, as the Paraguayan army approached Santa Cruz department, local nationalists backed by a Paraguay-based independence movement sought to create a separate independent state in Santa Cruz department. A referendum on autonomy was held in Santa Cruz department in 2008. Eastern departments in Bolivia, including Santa Cruz, have majority of the natural gas reserves. Bolivian president Evo Morales is planning to introduce legislation to tackle the poverty in the country using tax revenues from richer departments like Santa Cruz. Additionally, Morales's attempts to change the constitution were opposed by the opposition governors who run five of Bolivia's nine regions.
85.6 percent voted in favour of autonomy, because the referendum was illegal, Evo morales started prosecuting people that were supporters of colonialism and serfdom. Kaa-Iya del Gran
El Fuerte de Samaipata
El Fuerte de Samaipata or Fort Samaipata known as "El Fuerte", is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Florida Province, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. It is situated in the eastern foothills of the Bolivian Andes and is a popular tourist destination for Bolivians and foreigners alike, it is served by the nearby town of Samaipata. The archaeological site at El Fuerte is unique as it encompasses buildings of three different cultures: Chanè, Spanish. Although called a fort, Samaipata had a religious and residential function, its construction was begun by the Chané, a pre-Inca people of Arawak origin. There are ruins of an Inca plaza and residences, dating from the late 15th and early 16th centuries as the Inca empire expanded eastward from the Andes highlands into the sub-tropical foothills. Chané, Spanish all suffered raids from Guarani warriors who settled in the region; the Guarani occupied the Samaipata area. The Guaranis dominated the region well into the Spanish colonial period.
The Spaniards built a settlement at Samaipata fort, there are remains of buildings of typical Arab Andalusian architecture. The Spaniards soon abandoned the fort and moved to a nearby valley, establishing the town of Samaipata in 1618; the site of Samaipata was occupied as a ritual and residential area about 300 CE by the Chané of the Mojocoyas period. They began shaping the great rock, the ceremonial center of the Samaipata ruin. According to a 17th-century Spanish chronicler, Diego Felipe de Alcaya, the Incas late in the reign of Tupac Yupanqui, began the incorporation of the Samaipata area into the empire. A relative of Yupanqui's named Guacane led an Inca army to the area and with elaborate gifts persuaded the local leader, whose title was Grigota, his 50,000 subjects to submit to Inca rule. Guacane established his capital at Samaipata or Sabay Pata on a mountain top at an elevation of 1,900 metres. Samaipata means "the heights of rest" in the Quechua language spoken by the Inca. Samaipata was an Inca administrative and religious center.
As with other Inca administrative centers on the frontiers of the empire, Samaipata was protected by outlying fortresses. One has been located about 50 kilometres to the east called La Fortaleza; the ruins of the fort are on a mountaintop overlooking the lowlands around the present-day city of Santa Cruz. Another fortress. Location unknown, called Guanacopampa protected a mine at Saypurú or Caypurum, location unknown; the Samaipata area was one of the most easternmost areas of the Inca Empire. According to Alcaya's account and Grigota were killed in an attack by the Eastern Bolivian Guaraní people called Chiriguanos by the Spanish; the Chiriguanos were advancing from the lowlands into the Andes foothills. A counterattack by the Incas failed to dispossess the Chiriguanos who remained to settle in Samaipata and its vicinity. An Inca building destroyed by fire at Samaipata gives credence to this story; the date of the war is uncertain, although many authorities date the beginning of Chiriguano attacks on the Inca's eastern frontiers to the 1520s.
The Spanish, along with Inca supporters, may have used Samaipata as a fortress and base camp as early as the 1570s, but formal Spanish settlement began in 1615 while the Chiriguanos were still threatening. A Spanish house is among the ruins; the Samaipata archaeological site of about 20 hectares is divided into two parts: a ceremonial sector and an administrative/residential sector. Some of the construction of the Inca were built on earlier structures of the Chané; the ceremonial sector is in the northern part of the site. It is about 220 metres by 60 metres and consists of a large rock saddle completely covered with carvings of both Inca and pre-Inca origin; the carvings include a variety of geometric and animal figures, walls and long canal-like carvings called "the spine of the serpent" or "el cascabel". Although not the most visually spectacular, the most important part of the ceremonial sector is the "coro de los sacerdotes" at the highest point of the rock; this consists of 18 niches used as seats for individuals, carved into the rock.
At the bottom of the rock are 21 carved rectangular niches which may have served as residences for priests or for the storage of ceremonial items. Other niches and alcoves are scattered around the ruin; the residential and administrative center makes up the southern part of the site. Samaipata may have been an Incan provincial capital and has all the infrastructure associated with that status; the most prominent feature is a large trapezoidal plaza about 100 metres on each side bordered on the south by a "kallanka," a rectangular building typical of Inca cities and symbolizing Incan political power. The kallanka, 70 metres in length and 16 metres wide was used for public gatherings and housing visitors and soldiers; the kallanka at Samaipata is the second largest in Bolivia, but construction was interrupted as the drainage canal and thatched roof were not completed. In this sector is the Acllahuasi, a nunnery for the sequestered women called Aclla, who were chosen to weave textiles, become wives of Inca nobles, participate in ceremonies, and, on occasion, be sacrificed in religious ceremonies.
The existence of an Acllahuasi was typical of important Inca settlements. Due to damage caused by visitors walking on the symbols cut into the rock and by erosion caused by water, the inner area is cordoned off to prevent more damage; however mos
José Miguel de Velasco Province
José Miguel de Velasco or Velasco is a province in the Santa Cruz department of Bolivia. Its capital is San Ignacio de Velasco; the province is named after the Bolivian president José Miguel de Velasco Franco. It was created by law on October 1880, during the presidency of Narciso Campero; until its creation it was integrated into Chiquitos Province. Velasco is located between the major Bolivian city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and the Brazilian border. An unpaved highway connects the province with the city of Santa Cruz to the west and Brazil to the east. José Miguel de Velasco Province is divided into three municipalities which are further subdivided into cantons. Velasco features a mestizo culture, blending the culture of the Spanish conquistadors and missionaries with those of the indigenous peoples. Spanish is the most used language in public, though indigenous languages, such as Chiquitano, are used. Due to the proximity of the province to Brazil, Portuguese speakers can be found merchants in the city of San Ignacio.
There is a small presence of descendants of post-World War II German immigrants. San Ignacio de Velasco San Miguel de Velasco San Rafael de Velasco Santa Ana de Velasco Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos Laguna Bellavista Map of the José Miguel de Velasco Province
Obispo Santistevan Province
Obispo Santistevan is one of the fifteen provinces of the Bolivian Santa Cruz department and is situated in the department's western parts. The province was founded on 2 December 1941, its name honors Obispo Santistevan, famous supporter of the building of Santa Cruz Cathedral. Obispo Santistevan Province is located between 16° 02' and 17° 24' South and between 63° 02' and 64° 15' West, it extends over a length of 280 km from Northwest to Southeast, up to 45 km from West to East. The province's border to the neighbouring provinces in the East and Northeast is formed by Río Grande; the province is situated in the Bolivian lowlands and borders Ichilo Province in the Northwest, Sara Province in the Southwest, Ignacio Warnes Province in the Southeast, Ñuflo de Chávez Province in the East, Guarayos Province in the Northeast. The population of Obispo Santistevan Province has increased by 75% over the recent two decades: 1992: 104,660 inhabitants 2001: 142,786 inhabitants 2005: 161,307 inhabitants 2010: 176,107 inhabitants 44.7% of the population are younger than 15 years old.
98.2% of the population speak Spanish, 27.6% speak Quechua, 1.9% Aymara, 1.2 speak Guaraní. 35.5% of the population have no access to electricity, 34.2% have no sanitary facilities. 86.5% of the population are Catholics, 9.8% are Protestants. The province comprises three municipios: Mineros Municipality - 45,853 inhabitants Montero Municipipality - 80,341 inhabitants General Saavedra Municipality - 16,592 inhabitants General map of province Detailed map of province towns and rivers Population data Social data
Laguna Volcán is a lake in the Florida Province of the Santa Cruz Department in Bolivia. Its surface area is 0.059 km². It is a lake in the crater of an extinct volcano near Bermejo. There is vehicular access through a cleft in the crater wall. A footpath encircles the lake
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit