In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection. Interchanges are always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway or a limited-access divided highway, though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets. Note: The descriptions of interchanges apply to countries where vehicles drive on the right side of the road. For left-side driving, layout of the junctions is the only left/right is reversed. A freeway junction or highway interchange or motorway junction is a type of road junction linking one controlled-access highway to another, to other roads, or to a rest area or motorway service area. In the UK, most junctions are numbered sequentially. In the US, interchanges are either numbered by interchange number. A highway ramp or slip road is a short section of road that allows vehicles to enter or exit a controlled-access highway.
A directional ramp tends toward the desired direction of travel: A ramp that makes a left turn exits from the left side of the roadway. Left directional ramps are uncommon, as the left lane is reserved for high-speed through traffic. Ramps for a right turn are always right directional ramps. A non-directional ramp goes opposite to the desired direction of travel. Many loop ramps are non-directional. A semi-directional ramp exits in a direction opposite from the desired direction of travel turns toward the desired direction. Many flyover ramps are semi-directional. A U-turn ramp leaves the road in one direction, turns over or under it, rejoins in the opposite direction. Weaving is an undesirable situation where traffic veering right and left must cross paths within a limited distance, to merge with traffic on the through lane; the German Autobahn system has Autobahn-to-Autobahn interchanges of two types: a four-way interchange, the Autobahnkreuz, where two motorways cross. Some on-ramps have a ramp meter, a dedicated mid-ramp traffic light that controls the flow of entering vehicles.
A complete interchange has enough ramps to provide access from any direction of any road in the junction to any direction of any other road in the junction. A complete interchange between a freeway and another road requires at least four ramps. Complete interchanges between two freeways have at least eight ramps, as having fewer would reduce capacity and increase weaving. Using U-turns, the number for two freeways can be reduced to six, by making cars that want to turn left either pass by the other road first make a U-turn and turn right, or turn right first and make a U-turn. Depending on the interchange type and the connectivity offered other numbers of ramps may be used. For example, if a highway interchanges with a highway containing a collector/express system, additional ramps can be used to link the interchanging highway with the collector and express lanes respectively. For highways with high-occupancy vehicle lanes, ramps can be used to service these carriageways directly, thereby increasing the number of ramps used.
An incomplete interchange has at least one or more missing ramps that prevent access to at least one direction of another road in the junction from any other road in the junction. A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level, four-way interchange where all turns across opposing traffic are handled by non-directional loop ramps. Assuming right-handed traffic, to go left vehicles first cross over or under the target route bear right onto a curved ramp that turns 270 degrees, merging onto the target route from the right, crossing the route just departed; these loop ramps produce the namesake cloverleaf shape. Two major advantages of cloverleaves are that they require only one bridge which makes such junctions inexpensive as long as land is plentiful, that they do not require any traffic signals to operate. However, weaving is a major shortcoming of cloverleaves, as the four total offramps and onramps are present, merge on the main routes; the capacity of this design is comparatively low. Cloverleaves use a considerable area of land, are more found along older highways, in rural areas and within cities with low population densities.
A variant design separates all turning traffic into a parallel carriageway to minimize the problem of weaving. Collector and distributor roads are similar, but are separated from the main carriageway by a divider, such as a guard rail or Jersey barrier. A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby a semi-directional left turn and a directional right turn are both available. Access to both turns is provided by a single offramp. Assuming right-handed driving, in order to cross over incoming traffic and go left, vehicles first exit onto an off-ramp from the rightmost lane. After demerging from right-turning traffic, they complete their left turn by crossing both highways on a flyover ramp or underpass; the penultimate step is a merge with the right-turn on-ramp traffic from the opposite quadrant of the interchange. An onramp merges both streams o
Patrick Air Force Base
Patrick Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation located between Satellite Beach and Cocoa Beach, in Brevard County, Florida, in the United States. It was named in honor of Major General Mason Patrick, USAAC. An Air Force Space Command base, it is home to the 45th Space Wing. In addition to its "host wing" responsibilities at Patrick AFB, the 45 SW controls and operates Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and the Eastern Range, it was opened and operated from 1940 to 1947 as Naval Air Station Banana River, a U. S. Navy airfield, it was deactivated as a naval installation in 1947 and placed in caretaker status until it was transferred to the Air Force in late 1948. Additional tenant activities at Patrick AFB include the 920th Rescue Wing, the Air Force Technical Applications Center and the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Total employment is 10,400. There are 13,099 military, civilian employees and contractors on base; the base had a resident population of 1,222 at the 2010 census.
The base administers the Malabar Annex, located in Palm Bay. The host wing for Patrick AFB is the 45th Space Wing, whose Airmen manage all launches of uncrewed rockets at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station 12 miles to the north; these rockets include satellites for the US military, to include the National Reconnaissance Office and the National Security Agency, as well as scientific payload launches in support of NASA, weather satellite launches in support of NOAA, payloads in support of international customers such as the European Space Agency, commercial payloads for various corporate communications entities. Units and individuals from the 45 SW have deployed abroad during wartime, most notably during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi FreedomThe Air Force Technical Applications Center is a tenant command headquartered at Patrick AFB. An activity of the Air Force Intelligence and Reconnaissance Agency, AFTAC is now a subordinate unit of 25th Air Force and the Air Combat Command. AFTAC is the sole Department of Defense agency operating and maintaining a global network of nuclear event detection sensors.
The 920th Rescue Wing, part of Air Force Reserve Command, is another tenant command headquartered at Patrick AFB and is the installation's only military flying unit. An Air Combat Command -gained combat search and rescue organization, the 920 RQW is the only rescue wing in the Air Force Reserve, operating the HC-130P/N "King" variant of the C-130 Hercules and HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter, ready for worldwide deployment. In addition to its CSAR mission, the wing participates in civilian rescue operations, ranging from rescue support for NASA crewed spaceflight operations, to augmentative support to U. S. Coast Guard search and rescue operations, to Defense Support to Civil Authorities in the wake of major disasters. Most notable is the 920th's role in crewed spaceflight support to NASA, providing Eastern Range monitoring and having provided search and rescue support for space shuttle launches originating from Kennedy Space Center. Additional operations have included searching the Caribbean for downed aircraft, as well as retrieving critically ill sailors and passengers from ships hundreds of miles out in the Atlantic at night and/or in bad weather.
Because the USAF HH-60 can refuel in flight from the USAF HC-130, MC-130, or USMC KC-130, it possesses a much greater range and mission radius versus similar military helicopters lacking such capability. The 920 RQW is a full participant in the Air Force's Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force operating concept. Under this concept, the bulk of the wing deployed to Iraq in 2003 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Subsequent AEF deployments have included Djibouti and Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Adjacent to the 920 RQW's facilities is the NASA Flight Operations Facility, which provides support for NASA's permanently based UH-1H helicopters supporting KSC and transient NASA fixed-wing aircraft such as the T-38 Talon; the U. S. State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Air Wing helps foreign countries combat drugs and narcotics criminals; the Bureau operates a fleet of aircraft former USAF and USMC OV-10 and former USAF C-27 aircraft at Patrick AFB to help detect and interdict the drug trade in Bolivia, Colombia and Afghanistan.
Authorized by the Naval Expansion Act of 1938, Naval Air Station Banana River was commissioned on 1 October 1940 as a subordinate base of the Naval Air Operational Training Command at NAS Jacksonville, Florida. The Navy bought 1,900 acres of scrub land south of Cocoa Beach. With the advent of war with Japan and Germany in December 1941, the Navy began anti-submarine patrols along the Florida coast using PBY Catalina and PBM Mariner seaplanes based at this facility. PBMs returned to training duty in March 1942. Landing strips were constructed in 1943, thereby allowing for concurrent operation of shore based aircraft. Officers of the Free French Naval Air Service trained in PBMs at NAS Banana River at this time. Various military related activities took place at NAS Banana River, including maritime patrol aviation operations against German U-Boats, air search and rescue operations, patrol bomber bombardier training, seaplane pilot training, communications research. Other activities included a blimp squadron detachment, an Aviation Navigation Training School, an experimental training unit termed Project Baker, a confidential program that developed and tested instrument land
The Banana River is a 31-mile-long lagoon that lies between Cape Canaveral and Merritt Island in Brevard County, Florida in the United States. It is part of the Indian River Lagoon system, connects at its south end to the Indian River, it has an outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via a lock into Port Canaveral. The lagoon includes salt marshes, mangrove swamps, seagrass beds, drift algae, oyster bars, tidal flats, spoil islands, providing habitats for many marine species; these are brackish waters mixed of fresh water. Commercial and recreational activities in the lagoon generate more than US$800 million annually for the local economy; the Banana River was a continuous waterway that separated Merritt Island from Cape Canaveral. In 1964, the Crawlerway was built at Kennedy Space Center, connecting Merritt Island to Cape Canaveral and dividing the Banana River into northern and southern lagoons; the river contains dolphins and stingrays. Canaveral Barge Canal "About the Banana River Aquatic Preserve". Dept.state.fl.us
Eau Gallie Causeway
The Eau Gallie Causeway connects Eau Gallie, with SR A1A near Indian Harbour Beach, across the Indian River Lagoon. Located within the Melbourne city limits, the causeway consists of a main bridge crossing over the Intracoastal Waterway and a relief bridge; the bridge is a key link in Eau Gallie Boulevard, of which the causeway is a part. In 1925, construction began on the first wooden bridge across the Indian River Lagoon. On February 22, 1926, George Washington's Birthday, the bridge opened to traffic; the bridge connected to a sand trail. At this time, there was no railing on the bridge for a year after its construction. There are no records. In 1944 a 200 feet section of the bridge burned. On February 22, 1955, George Washington's Birthday, a new multimillion-dollar concrete bridge was dedicated to Dr. William Jackson Creel; the second Eau Gallie Causeway featured a swing span drawbridge. The third bridge, a high-rise causeway, was completed in 1988. Just north of the bridge, the Indian River Lagoon splits to form the Banana River Lagoon east of the southern tip of Merritt Island, Florida.
Its southern tip has been known locally as Dragon's Point since 1971 when a green dragon was built there. However, in 2002 most of the dragon was nearly destroyed. From 1945 until 1971, State Road 3 extended from Merritt Island to Melbourne over both Mathers Bridge and the Eau Gallie Causeway. Melbourne Bicentennial Book. July 4, 1976. Noreda B. McKemy and Elaine Murray Stone. Library of Congress: 76-020298 Road Trip to Florida
U.S. Route 192
U. S. Route 192 is an east–west route of the United States Numbered Highway system in central Florida, it runs 75.04 miles from U. S. Route 27 in Four Corners, Lake County, east past Walt Disney World and through Kissimmee, St. Cloud and Melbourne, to end at State Road A1A in Indialantic, one block from the Atlantic Ocean, it crosses its "parent", U. S. Route 92, in Kissimmee; the U. S. Route is assigned the following unsigned State Road numbers: The full length of State Road 530, 18.41 miles from US 27 to Main Street in Kissimmee The southernmost part of State Road 500, 56.62 miles from Kissimmee to IndialanticUS 192 is a major tourist strip in the area around the Walt Disney World Resort and features numerous timeshare and other resorts. In the late 1990s, the Osceola Parkway opened, providing a tolled alternate between Walt Disney World and Kissimmee. For most of its route, US 192 is the Irlo Bronson Memorial Highway, named after former state representative and cattleman Irlo O. Bronson, Sr..
It is known as Space Coast Parkway, as it leads to the Space Coast. US 192 begins at a trumpet interchange on U. S. Route 27 in Lake County, just north of the Polk County line, it heads east as a four-to-six lane divided highway. Soon after entering Orange County, County Road 545 heads north, serving the far western areas of the county. An old alignment of US 192 is present to the north between the county line and CR 545. After spending under two miles in Orange County, US 192 crosses the line into Osceola County, continuing to parallel it, it intersects with State Road 429 before curving southeast away from the county line. In that area, the density of tourist attractions increases. An old alignment is present on the north side between the curve away from the county line and Sherberth Road, near where it curves back east. Sherberth Road is the westernmost public access to Walt Disney World, intersecting the Osceola Parkway west of Disney's Animal Kingdom. Just east of it is an intersection with County Road 545.
Near the crossing of Reedy Creek, US 192 enters the Reedy Creek Improvement District, although the highway remains under state ownership, unlike other roads in the RCID. Both sides of the road are owned by Disney and kept empty, so US 192 has a short freeway section through Walt Disney World. An interchange provides access to World Drive, the main north–south road in Walt Disney World, US 192 crosses Interstate 4, the end of Disney property; the north side again is filled with tourist attractions, while the south side is at first part of Celebration, Disney's planned community. Celebration Avenue heads south to an interchange with State Road 417, which crosses US 192 with no direct access. Just east of that crossing, US 192 crosses Bonnet Creek, the east end of Celebration, International Drive heads north. An intersection with Poinciana Boulevard provides access to the Osceola Parkway to the north and Poinciana to the south, State Road 535 heads north soon after. SR 535, US 192 to the east, is part of the old Kissimmee-Vineland Road, built parallel to the Florida Midland Railroad.
Just after crossing SR 535, US 192 turns southeast onto the alignment of the old Kissimmee-Vineland Road. Another old alignment - Old Vineland Road - is present in this section, rejoining as US 192 turns back east towards downtown Kissimmee. After the road crosses Shingle Creek, it becomes Kissimmee's Vine Street, a major east–west road passing north of downtown. Close to downtown, US 192 crosses John Young Parkway; this is a major north–south road from Kissimmee north to Orlando, built as an alternate to the Orange Blossom Trail. To the south, since ca. 2000, John Young Parkway carries U. S. Route 17/92 southwest out of Kissimmee. US 17, US 92 and SR 600 run concurrent with US 192 and SR 530 for 3⁄4 mile to Main Street, which heads south into downtown Kissimmee and north to Orlando as the Orange Blossom Trail; this carries US 17, US 92 and SR 600 to the north, carried them south until ca. 2000. To the north on Main Street is U. S. Route 441. SR 530 ends at the intersection of Main Street. Several miles from downtown Kissimmee, US 192 turns southeast.
The road intersects Fortune Road before an interchange with Florida's Turnpike. This interchange, consisting of a connector road between US 192 and a trumpet interchange at the Turnpike, once served all movements. A new northbound offramp was built several miles to the east, where US 192 crosses the Turnpike, when the Turnpike north of SR 60 changed from a ticket system to a barrier toll system. After crossing the Turnpike, US 192 turns back east; the original alignment between Kissimmee and St. Cloud, which paralleled the St. Cloud and Sugar Belt Railway, began at Main Street and Drury Avenue in downtown Kissimmee, heading east on Drury Avenue and Neptune Road, crossin
Florida State Highway System
The State Highway System of the U. S. state of Florida comprises the roads maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation or a toll authority. The components are referred to as state roads, abbreviated SR. State Roads are always numbered. Odd numbered roads run north-south, numbered roads run east-west. One- and two-digit numbers run in order from 2 in the north to 94 in the south, A1A in the east to 97 in the west; the major cross-state roads end in 0 and 5. Most routes of the form X00 are major diagonal routes. Other three-digit numbers are placed in horizontal bands based on the first digit: Three-digit numbers increase from east to west across the band; when the grid was first laid out in 1945, the rules were perfectly followed. However, over the years, as routes have been added, there has not always been room to follow the grid. Placements such as 112, 752, 602 are the most notable violations of the grid system; the Pensacola area has a collection of these "misplaced" street numbers. When FDOT added route numbers to a collection of Miami-Dade County streets in 1980, most of them received 9## designations regardless of the band that they occupied.
Every section of U. S. Highway and Interstate Highway has a State Road number assigned to it unsigned. In addition to some named toll roads some minor State Roads are unsigned. Prior to the 1945 renumbering, State Roads were given numbers in the order they were added to the system; the 1945 renumbering removed many roads that were never built and added some that had not existed prior to 1945. In 1955, the Florida Department of Transportation slowed down the addition of new state roads and began to classify roads into primary and local roads. Primary roads would continue to be state-maintained, while Secondary roads would have an S before the number, would only be state-maintained during a construction project. Local roads would be removed from the system. In 1977, FDOT changed the division of roads into state/county/local. Most secondary roads and some primary roads were given to the counties, a new state road was taken over; the secondary signs had the S changed to C and a small COUNTY sticker added to the bottom.
As signs grew old, they were replaced with the standard MUTCD county road pentagon. While this occurred throughout the State of Florida, the part of the state south of SR 70 was hit hard by the transition from State to County control and maintenance. In the early 1980s several state roads were renumbered; the trend seems to have been reversed since 2002 as new state road designations have been added as a result of construction of new highways, most notably in the Jacksonville and the Tampa-St. Petersburg metropolitan areas. While most state roads are contiguous, there is a relative handful of routes that have interruptions in their designations; the most famous of the set is SR A1A, which exists in seven separate pieces along the Atlantic coast from Fernandina Beach to Key West. State Road 2 has two sections separated by the State of Georgia; the western segment extends westward from Georgia 91 as it crosses the Chattahoochee River and has its western terminus at SR 81 near Sweet Gum Head. State Road 5 temporarily ends leaving Lake Worth, FL as its segment in West Palm Beach was relinquished to the city in the mid 2000s.
The route resumes at US 1's junction with Belvedere Road, where it runs concurrent with US 1 northbound. State Road 15 has two sections bridged by County Road 15 and US 192/441. SR 15 is only signed in Palm Beach County. For most of its route, SR 15 is an administrative FDOT designation for US 441 south of Holopaw, US 17 between Orlando and Jacksonville, US 1/23 north of Jacksonville; the two separate sections of SR 17 formed when US 27 was rerouted in Highlands County, where it passes through Avon Park and Sebring, in Polk County, from Haines City to Frostproof. Signed Alternate US 27, it is now signed as just SR 17. State Road 25 cosigns with US routes throughout most of its length, but departs and travels on its own road in Lake and Marion counties. However, all but less than half a mile of this road has been relinquished to the counties, interrupting SR 25. State Road 30 is gapped by Bay County Road 30 on Front Beach Road west of the Panama City Beach limits to the road's westbound cosign with US 98.
Three sections of State Road 44 exist. Two are connected in Lake County by US 441 and County Road 44; the third is isolated over the Halifax River in New Smyrna Beach due to a route relinquishment to the city. Trailblazers exist down the former route to direct motorists to the continuation of SR 44. State Road 54 has a gap in eastern Pasco County, between the western terminus of State Road 56 and Bruce B. Downs Boulevard in Wesley Chapel, it contains a former segment between 301 in Zephyrhills and US 98 in Polk County. There are two separate s
U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U. S. Highway 1 in Florida runs 545 miles along the state's east coast– from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne –and south of Folkston. US 1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926; the road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. From its national southern terminus in Key West, US 1 carries the Overseas Highway– the Keys main highway –north to the mainland, entering South Florida. From South Florida to Jacksonville, US 1 runs close to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway east of Interstate 95 and west of State Road A1A, running parallel with both roads. North of Jacksonville, US 1 curves inland towards the St. Mary's River as it enters Georgia; as is the case with all Florida roads with national designations, the entirety of US 1 has a hidden FDOT designation: SR 5 from Whitehead Street / Fleming Street in Key West to US 1 Alternate/US 17 in Jacksonville with one exception: SR 805 from Federal Highway in Lantana to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach.
SR 15 from the I-95 interchange in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne. Among other designations, US 1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed including one in Rockledge and Fort Lauderdale. US 1 begins at the Monroe County courthouse at the intersection of Whitehead and Fleming Streets, Key West, it proceeds south as Whitehead Street, a two-laned street, until the intersection with Truman Avenue, which takes it east through central Key West. Truman Avenue becomes North Roosevelt Boulevard about a mile east, remains so until leaving the island; the road follows the northern shore of this section of Key West after curving southward, it meets State Road A1A head-on at a T-intersection before continuing east. This intersection marks the southern terminus of the Overseas Highway, which US 1 is known by between here and mainland Florida. After crossing to Stock Island and forming the boundary between the eponymous district and incorporated Key West, US 1 proceeds through unincorporated Monroe County on Boca Chica Key, past the Naval Air Station Key West, Rockland Key, where the Overseas Highway drops down to a two-laned road.
It crosses East Rockland Key, Big Coppitt Key, Saddlebunch Keys, Sugarloaf Key, Park Key, Cudjoe Key, Summerland Key, Ramrod Key, Middle Torch Key, Little Torch Key, Big Pine Key, Scout Key, Spanish Harbor Key. The highway expands to four lanes as it crosses the Bahia Honda Bridge reduces to two lanes as it traverses Bahia Honda Key, Ohio Key, Missouri Key, Little Duck Key. After Little Duck Key, US 1 enters Knight's Key, Boot Key, Key Vaca and the town of Marathon via the Seven Mile Bridge, thus leaving the lower Keys. US 1 runs through Marathon as a four-laned road. After Key Vaca, the road becomes two-laned once more and runs through Fat Deer Key, where it forms the northern boundary of the city of Key Colony Beach, it continues wholly in Marathon through Long Point Key, Crawl Key and Grassy Key. The road crosses to Little Conch Key and Conch Key, both part of the Duck Key district. US 1 crosses to and traverses Long Key, unincorporated except for the city of Layton, which the highway passes through.
The road reaches Craig Key, the village of Islamorada including Lower Matecumbe Key, Tea Table Key, Upper Matecumbe Key and Windley Key. US 1 crosses a drawbridge onto Plantation Key, where it expands to four lanes and leaves Islamorada as it crosses to Key Largo; the Overseas Highway enters Tavernier, where it temporarily splits into a pair of one-way roads through the community. Soon the road enters the community of Key Largo, which features another pair of one-way roads. At the northern end of the Key Largo district, about two-thirds of the way along the island, US 1 intersects County Road 905, which offers an alternative route out of the Keys via North Key Largo and the Card Sound Bridge. Signage approaching the intersection directs northbound motorists to take this alternative route if the lights on it are flashing. US 1 swings to the northwest, forms the southern boundary of North Key Largo, becomes a two-laned divided road after the intersection. After crossing the Jewfish Creek Bridge and travelling along Cross Key, US 1 crosses Manatee Creek, along with the Miami-Dade County boundary, reaches the mainland.
For the first 14 miles in Miami-Dade County, US 1 is a divided two-lane road bordering the Everglades National Park on the west. It is named South Dixie Highway from the county line to Miami, its first major intersection is with the north end of Card Sound Road south of Florida City. To the south, signage directs southbound travelers approaching this intersection to take Card Sound Road if the lights on it are flashing, rather than taking US 1 south to Key Largo. Just north of the Card Sound Road intersection, US 1 meets the southern end of Krome Avenue, enters Florida City. Here, US 1 intersects State Road 9336. From here northbound, the South Dixie Highway is paralleled by the South Miami-Dade Busway along the former Florida East Coast