Florida's Turnpike, designated as unsigned State Road 91, is a toll road in the U. S. state of Florida, maintained by Florida's Turnpike Enterprise. Spanning 309 miles along a north–south axis, the turnpike is in two sections; the SR 91 mainline runs 265 miles, from its southern terminus at an interchange with Interstate 95 in Miami Gardens to an interchange with I-75 in Wildwood at its northern terminus. The Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike continues from the southern end of the mainline for another 48 miles to US Highway 1 in Florida City; the slogan for the road is "The Less Stressway". The mainline opened in stages between 1957 and 1964, while the extension was completed in 1974; the turnpike runs through Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, where it parallels I-95, through Orlando, where it crosses I-4. Florida's Turnpike is one of the busiest highways in the country; the main section of Florida's Turnpike begins at the northern end of the Golden Glades Interchange in Miami Gardens as a six-lane highway, passes through the Golden Glades Toll Barrier, a cashless toll point, similar to the ones on the HEFT.
About 2 miles north of the toll gantry, it passes by Hard Rock Stadium, home to the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, to the west before intersecting with the northern end of the HEFT at the Miami-Dade/Broward County line 4 miles from Golden Glades, continuing the HEFT's mile marker. The highway goes through the inland suburbs of Miramar and Davie, with an exit at Hollywood Boulevard at mile 50, passing west of the Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hollywood just south the Griffin Road interchange. In Davie, about 8 miles north of the Homestead Extension interchange, it intersects with I-595, providing direct access to Alligator Alley and Ft. Lauderdale International Airport. After two more interchanges, one with Sunrise Boulevard in Plantation and Commercial Boulevard in Tamarac, it crosses the Cypress Creek Toll Plaza in North Lauderdale, the second on the mainline. Just 1 mile north of the toll plaza, it intersects with the Pompano Beach Service Plaza, the first of seven full-service plazas on the mainline, where the Turnpike's operations center is located.
Still in Pompano Beach, it has a northbound-only exit at Atlantic Boulevard, followed by full interchanges with Coconut Creek Parkway/Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Sample Road, it enters Deerfield Beach with an interchange with the Sawgrass Expressway in Coconut Creek, the final interchange in Broward County. The Turnpike enters Palm Beach County, with one interchange each in Boca Raton, Delray Beach and Boynton Beach. In central Palm Beach County at mile marker 88, the ticket system of the turnpike begins at the Lantana Toll Plaza; the turnpike narrows to a four-lane highway as it goes through a less developed portion of Palm Beach County, crossing interchanges with Lake Worth Road, followed by the Lake Worth/West Palm Beach Service Plaza at mile marker 94. In West Palm Beach, the highway has interchanges with US 98/SR 80, a SunPass-only interchange at Jog Road, followed by an interchange at Okeechobee Boulevard that heads directly into downtown West Palm Beach. North of the interchange, the highway enters stretch of sparse development between this point and Port St. Lucie, intersecting with the Beeline Highway, another SunPass only interchange before leaving West Palm Beach.
Just north of the SR 786 interchange in Palm Beach Gardens, I-95 parallels the Turnpike to the east for about 20 miles, with I-95 visible from the turnpike as it has an interchange with SR 706 in Jupiter and into Martin County. It breaks off as it crosses the Thomas B. Manuel Bridge over the St. Lucie Canal, crossing I-95 without an interchange just south of the SR 714 interchange, the only exit in Martin County. I-95 heads west towards the western fringes of St. Lucie County development, while the turnpike takes a path through the central areas of the county; the turnpike has two interchanges in Port St. Lucie, one at Becker Road, the third SunPass-only exit, SR 716, followed by the Port St. Lucie-Fort Pierce service plaza at mile marker 144; the turnpike intersects I-95 one last time just south of SR 70 in Fort Pierce, as I-95 continues to head up the east coast of Florida and the turnpike curves inland towards Orlando. North of the SR 70 interchange, the turnpike enters a rural area, with cattle farms and orange groves lining the road for most of the section between Fort Pierce and Kissimmee, with only one interchange: SR 60 in Yeehaw Junction.
There are two service plazas in this area, one at Fort Drum at mile marker 184 and the other, Canoe Creek, at mile marker 229. Between Fort Pierce and Yeehaw Junction, the turnpike travels in a nearly east-west direction heading inland, with a 40.5-mile gap between the two exits, the second longest of any US expressway. Between Yeehaw Junction and Kissimmee, the turnpike, returning to a north-northwest direction towards Orlando, has a 48.9-mile stretch without an exit, the longest of any US expressway. At mile marker 236, the ticket system ends at the Three Lakes toll plaza, as the turnpike enters the Orlando area and development starts to reappear on the turnpike; the SunPass-only interchange located at Kissimmee Park Road, a partial interchange featuring a northbound on- and southbound off-ram
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the southeasternmost county on the U. S. mainland. According to a 2017 census report, the county had a population of 2,751,796, making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States, it is Florida's third largest county in terms of land area, with 1,946 square miles. The county seat is the principal city in South Florida. Miami-Dade County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the county is home to 34 incorporated many unincorporated areas. The northern and eastern portions of the county are urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including South Florida's central business district, Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the region. Agricultural Redland makes up one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban northern portion of the county.
The county includes portions of two national parks. To the west it extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. East of the mainland, in Biscayne Bay, is Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves; the earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region came from about 12,000 years ago. The first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks; the inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled much of southeastern Florida, including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, the southern part of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did not practice agriculture, they buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay.
His journal records he reached Chequescha, a variant of Tequesta, Miami's first recorded name. It is unknown whether he made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés' missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier. Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year but it was short-lived. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, to ask if they could migrate there; the Cubans sent two ships to help them. The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef; some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River.
At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas, it was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing a total loss of population in Miami. After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River, he charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, six years a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area; the Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Dade County was created on January 1836, under the Territorial Act of the United States; the county was named after Major Francis L. Dade, a soldier killed in 1835 in the Second Seminole War, at what has since been named the Dade Battlefield.
At the time of its creation, Dade County included the land that now contains Palm Beach and Broward counties, together with the Florida Keys from Bahia Honda Key north and the land of present-day Miami-Dade County. The county seat was at Indian Key in the Florida Keys; the Florida Keys from Key Largo to Bahia Honda were returned to Monroe County in 1866. In 1888 the county seat was moved to Juno, near present-day Juno Beach, returning to Miami in 1899. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed from the northern portion of what was Dade County, in 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County. There have been no significant boundary changes to the county since 1915; the third-costliest natural disaster to occur in the United States was Hurricane Andrew, which hit Miami in the early morning of Monday, August 24, 1992. It struck the southern part of the county from due east, south of Miami and near Homestead and Cutler Ridge. Damages numbered over US$25 billion in the county alone, recovery has taken years in these areas where the destruction was greatest.
This was the costliest natural disaster in US history until Hurricane Katrina st
North Miami, Florida
North Miami is a suburban city located in northeast Miami-Dade County, United States, about 10 miles north of Miami. The city lies on Biscayne Bay and hosts the Biscayne Bay Campus of Florida International University, the North Miami campus of Johnson & Wales University; the town of "Arch Creek", the area was incorporated as the "Town of Miami Shores", renamed the "Town of North Miami" in 1931. It was reincorporated as a city in 1953; the city is home to the Oleta River State Park, the state's largest urban park. As of 2010, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau is 58,786. With 60,000 residents, North Miami is the sixth largest city in Miami-Dade County. In the final phase of Indian inhabitation of the area that became "North Miami", United States Army soldiers in 1856 cut a Military Trail through nearly impassable thickets and rivers connecting Fort Lauderdale to Fort Dallas at the mouth of the Miami River; this eight foot trail, Dade County’s first roadway, crossed a unique natural bridge -- a natural limestone bridge spanning 40 feet across the creek that no longer stands in Arch Creek Memorial Park -- in an area that would attract a settlement that early on would be known as "Arch Creek".
Before 1890 a handful of adventuresome pioneers spent brief periods around the Arch Creek Natural Bridge, a centuries-old Indian settlement. In 1891, Mr. Ilhe was the first to put down roots in the Arch Creek vicinity, he purchased 80 acres from the State of Florida at one dollar an acre in the area of today’s N. E. 116th Street and Biscayne Boulevard. The place was so remote. Mr. Ihle built. During the next 27 years he grew shallots, squashes, sugar cane, Puerto Rican pineapples, guavas, rose apples, Jamaican apples, tomatoes. By 1905 the area surrounding the nine-year-old Arch Creek Railroad Depot had become the community’s hub, it was located at 125th Street and the F. E. C. Tracks; that year a school were opened nearby. By 1912, eighteen homes, a church, a general store, a blacksmith shop, two tomato packing houses were located around the railroad; the population was estimated at less than one hundred. Farming was still the principal occupation; the Florida land boom, underway in the 1920s spread to Arch Creek farming community.
The Biscayne Canal was dug in 1924 to remove farmland from flooded conditions. But as a consequence, the soil began to lose its moisture, the farming, the backbone of the economy, was no longer profitable. However, in step with the times, this drained land became available for partitioning, lot sales, development. Thirty eight out of the forty seven registered voters, at the encouragement of developers E. C. Harner, Earl Irons and Arthur Griffing, showed up and voted to incorporate into a town on February 5, 1926. North Miami, between 1926 and 1931, was named "Town of Miami Shores" because its early eastern boundary was the Atlantic Ocean; the Town limits were: bounded on the South by Miami and Miami Beach, on the East by the Atlantic Ocean, on the West by 17th Avenue, on the North by a line which approximates Golden Glades Drive or 166th Street. Incorporation moved costs from developers to residents and lot purchasers. Late in 1926 a bond issue of $287,000 was passed to build streets, sidewalks, a town hall, a water system, fire protection.
The devastating September 1926 hurricane burst the real estate land speculation. The local community recovered from the damage, but lot sales came to a stop, the northern tourists names showed up in great numbers on the delinquent tax list; some money from the bond issue was used to build a Spanish-Mediterranean style city hall building at N. E. 8th Avenue and 125th Street in 1928. The City Hall housed the police and fire departments. In the 1930s a new water plant and gravity tank was installed behind City Hall; the first newspaper, The Miami Shores Bulletin, was published in 1927-28 and chronicled the events of the times. The historic William Jennings Bryan school was constructed in 1928 on the same spot where the Arch Creek Elementary School had burned down the year before. Seven miles of Atlantic Oceanfront beachland property from the Broward County line southward to Surfside were removed from the town limits as a result of a 1931 Florida Supreme Court decision; the 1926 hurricane ended plans for a causeway to deliver municipal services to that area of town.
With no services being received, the beach area instituted a lengthy court lawsuit to separate and form their own community. The wealthy Shoreland Company, located to the south of the Town, lobbied the 1931 Florida Legislature to grant their huge development the name "Village of Miami Shores"; the Legislature did so. It passed an official act abolishing "Town of Miami Shores" as a name; the next step was for the local population to choose a new name. The municipality was renamed The Town of North Miami. During the Depression years, in 1933, Mrs. Cecille Sevier and Mrs. Ella S. Klefeker became the first two women elected to the Town Council; the 1940s census stated that 1,973 inhabitants lived in the "Town of North Miami". At the end of World War II in 1945, the large and constant influx of former military veterans and their young families changed the face of North Miami by ushering in a great growth period. Homebuilding, road building, shops and office business construction now continued for decades without stopping.
By 1951 it was reported nationally that North Miami was one of the fastest growing towns in the United States. During this time, the growing community needed a high school, so in 1951 construction s
Florida State Road 836
The Dolphin Expressway is a 15-mile-long, six-lane, divided freeway, with the westernmost 14 miles as an all electronic tollway signed as State Road 836, the easternmost 1.292 miles between Interstate 95 and SR A1A cosigned as Interstate 395. The road extends from just north of the intersection of Southwest 137th Avenue and U. S. Highway 41 in Tamiami, eastward past the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike and Miami International Airport, before intersecting I-95, becoming I-395 and ending at SR A1A in Miami at the west end of the MacArthur Causeway; the Dolphin Expressway is maintained and operated by the Miami-Dade Expressway Authority, while the I-395 section is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. The Dolphin Expressway from the Palmetto Expressway to I-95 opened in 1969, with the I-395 section opening in 1971, the extension to the HEFT opening in 1974 and a second western extension opening in 2007; the highway begins just north of the intersection of Southwest 137th Avenue and U.
S. Highway 41 in Tamiami, built in 2007 and accessible only to motorists with SunPass transponders, passing through the first toll gantry; the expressway heads east towards the Homestead Extension of the Turnpike, passes through the second of four toll gantries. It intersects with the Palmetto Expressway at the rebuilt Dolphin-Palmetto Interchange, passes through the southern end of the Miami International Airport. With the failure of FDOT to build either the planned airport spur or the proposed LeJeune Road Expressway to give additional access to the airport, Miami-Dade County's sole complete east–west throughway is now congested, most in the stretch between the Palmetto Expressway and LeJeune Road. During this stretch, the expressway have interchanges with NW 72nd Avenue, a third toll gantry, NW 57th Avenue, a partial with NW 45th Avenue before reaching LeJeune Road. East of the interchange with the airport at LeJeune Road, The expressway has interchanges with NW 37th Avenue and NW 27th Avenue, reaches the fourth and final toll gantry just west of downtown.
The highway has two more interchanges in the fringes of downtown with NW 17th Avenue and NW 12th Avenue before intersecting with I-95 at the Midtown Interchange and becoming a free road and unsigned as Interstate 395 goes into downtown Miami. I-395 heads east as an six-lane expressway into downtown Miami; the feeder lanes from I-95 to eastbound I-395 make up a separate three lane ramp to the right of I-395, with the exit to US 1/US 41 being a left exit from the I-395 lanes and a right exit from the I-95 feeder lanes. The feeder lanes merge into three lanes, heading east towards the MacArthur Causeway, with I-395 and SR 836 terminating just east of an entrance ramp with US 1 /US 41, continuing as SR A1A; the Dolphin Expressway is an all-electronic toll road that only accepts tolls via SunPass transponders or billing by the toll-by-plate at double cost. The toll road does not accept cash. Toll gantries are located along the expressway and on interchange ramps, eliminating all "free movement" sections that existed in the past.
As of November 15, 2014, the total toll for traffic traveling along the expressway from Northwest 137th Avenue to Interstate 95 is $2.40 for SunPass users, $4.80 for Toll-by-Plate users. Envisioned as the Twentieth Street Tollway in 1964, construction on the Fourteenth Street east–west Expressway between the Palmetto Expressway and US 1 started in 1967 and was completed in 1969. Two years construction of the western extension to Florida's Turnpike commenced, was finished in 1974. In 1974, the name of the tollway was changed to commemorate the success of the Miami Dolphins of the NFL, after back-to-back wins in the Super Bowl; the section of SR 836 signed as I-395 was supposed to open with the rest of the Dolphin Expressway in 1968, but was delayed due to a freeze at the federal level for road spending. The expressway opened on March 26, 1971. Initial plans for the Interstate 75 extension to Miami in 1968 would have had used the Dolphin Expressway as its final link to Interstate 95. However, these plans were abandoned in 1973 in favor of I-75's current route farther north.
The fact that the Dolphin Expressway was not built to interstate standards was one of the factors in changing I-75's proposed route. Construction of a second westward extension of SR 836 started in 2004; this extension, westward to Northwest 137th Avenue near Northwest 12th Street, opened June 22, 2007, was accessible only to motorists with SunPass electronic toll-paying capability. The road has since opened to non SunPass users with the Toll by Plate system; this extension of SR 836 opened just in time for the premiere of the Go, Diego, Go! Live, held 6 days at the Broward Center for the Performing Arts from June 28 to July 1 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; as a result, traffic was busy during the first 11 days of new extension in operation as motorists used the new extension to continue east along SR 836 to north onto I-95. From there, motorists would continue north along I-95 and turn east onto SR 842 where motorists would turn west towards the Broward PAC and see the Go, Diego, Go! live. Until July 1, 2007, the toll for eastbound automobiles was $1.25, paid at a toll booth between Northwest 22nd and Northwest 17th Avenues.
In conjunction with the completion of t
Doral is a city in Miami-Dade County, United States. One of thirty-four municipalities in the county, it is located just one mile from Miami International Airport and 13 miles from Downtown Miami; the city hosts in excess of 100,000 people who work in Miami. The City of Doral occupies a land area of 15 square miles bordered on the west by the Ronald Reagan Turnpike, to the north by the Town of Medley, to the east by the Palmetto Expressway and to the South by the City of Sweetwater. Doral is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. Doral has operated under the Mayor-Council-Manager form of government since incorporation. Policymaking and legislative authority are vested in a governing council consisting of the mayor and four other council members; the Council, elected at large, is responsible among other things, for passing ordinances and resolutions, adopting the annual budget, appointing the City Manager, City Clerk and City Attorney.
The City Manager is responsible for carrying out the policies and ordinances of the Council, for overseeing the daily operations of the government, for appointing the heads of various departments. For a city of its size, Doral has a large number of shops, financial institutions and businesses importers and exporters because of its proximity to the airport. In 2008, Fortune Small Business and CNN Money ranked Doral as 51 on a list of 100 cities with the best mix of business advantages and lifestyle appeal. Doral is sometimes nicknamed, "Doralzuela" for its large Venezuelan population, which began moving to Doral in earnest around the time of Doral's incorporation in 2003. In 2013, it was estimated that about 28% of the population of Doral was of Venezuelan descent, the largest concentration of Venezuelan expatriates in the US. In the late 1950s, real estate pioneers Alfred and Doris Kaskel purchased 2,400 acres of swampland between Northwest 36 Street and Northwest 74 Street and from Northwest 79 Avenue to Northwest 117 Avenue for about $49,000, intending to build a golf course and hotel.
In 1962, the Doral Country Club opened in western Dade County, featuring the blue and par-3 golf courses, along with a hotel on Miami Beach. The "Doral" name combined Alfred; as Doral's first structure, the Doral Hotel and Country Club became the area's hot spot: guests were transported from the beach to the country club for a day on the golf course. In the second year of operations, the Kaskels hosted the first Doral Open Invitational, Florida's major PGA event. Alfred offered $50,000 in prize money to attract well-known golfers. According to the South Florida Golf Foundation, at the time only three other tournaments were held in Florida, offering a combined total of $65,000 prize money. By the early 1980s, Doral started to experience its first residential growth spurt, when Alfred's and Doris' grandson Bill developed Doral Estates, followed by a joint venture with Lennar Corporation to build Doral Park. Both communities were named after the hotel, a trend, to be repeated many more times. Although younger families started flooding the area, there were schools, or parks.
Most new homes were investment properties or second homes, but early full-time residents started coming together as a community. From 1983 to 1985, Miami-Dade County imposed a building moratorium to protect the area's water wells. Once the ban was lifted, Doral experienced tremendous growth. In 1989, Morgan Levy helped organize the West Dade Federation of Homeowner Associations to stand strong against any proposals that threatened the community's welfare. Thus, they secured a police station instead of a jail, as well as convinced county officials to implement higher development standards as well as more lighting and landscaping. In 1995, residents began lobbying for incorporation in earnest, dissatisfied with the high tax rate relative to the services they received, as well as unchecked growth; the county met the first attempt at incorporation with a year's deferral. Some classified Doral as a "donor community," meaning that the taxes paid were more than the cost of operations. With the deferral, incorporation efforts intensified more.
In 1996, the community elected its first community council: Jose "Pepe" Cancio, Sr. Mario Pita and Barbara B. Thomas were elected and three other members were appointed; the council met once every month. In 2002, Governor Jeb Bush appointed Cancio to fill the remainder of Miami-Dade Commissioner Miriam Alonso's term of office. Doral residents hoped that his appointment would bring the community closer to incorporation, their hopes were realized. Although Cancio endorsed Juan Carlos Bermudez, the City of Doral's first elected Mayor, as his replacement on the Community Council, Bermudez declined the offer, ran for the seat and was elected. At the time, Bermudez was president of One Doral, a civic organization formed to counteract the perceived influence of the West Dade Federation on the new Council. However, both One Doral and the West Dade Federation proved essential to the incorporation process. In January 2003, following a seven-year battle, 85% of Doral's voters voted in favor of incorporation.
In June of the same year, 92% voted to accept the City Charter and elected their first Mayor and City Council. The new City of Doral was named as an attractive location for entrepreneurs with an interest in the Latin America market. Mayor Luigi Boria, elected in November 2012, became the second Venezuelan-American mayor in the United States, he was replaced by Juan Carlos Bermudez who won a reelection bid in 2016. The city of Doral has its own newspaper, "Doral Community Newspapers, published bi-weekly and is part of Miami Community Newspapers
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection. Interchanges are always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway or a limited-access divided highway, though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets. Note: The descriptions of interchanges apply to countries where vehicles drive on the right side of the road. For left-side driving, layout of the junctions is the only left/right is reversed. A freeway junction or highway interchange or motorway junction is a type of road junction linking one controlled-access highway to another, to other roads, or to a rest area or motorway service area. In the UK, most junctions are numbered sequentially. In the US, interchanges are either numbered by interchange number. A highway ramp or slip road is a short section of road that allows vehicles to enter or exit a controlled-access highway.
A directional ramp tends toward the desired direction of travel: A ramp that makes a left turn exits from the left side of the roadway. Left directional ramps are uncommon, as the left lane is reserved for high-speed through traffic. Ramps for a right turn are always right directional ramps. A non-directional ramp goes opposite to the desired direction of travel. Many loop ramps are non-directional. A semi-directional ramp exits in a direction opposite from the desired direction of travel turns toward the desired direction. Many flyover ramps are semi-directional. A U-turn ramp leaves the road in one direction, turns over or under it, rejoins in the opposite direction. Weaving is an undesirable situation where traffic veering right and left must cross paths within a limited distance, to merge with traffic on the through lane; the German Autobahn system has Autobahn-to-Autobahn interchanges of two types: a four-way interchange, the Autobahnkreuz, where two motorways cross. Some on-ramps have a ramp meter, a dedicated mid-ramp traffic light that controls the flow of entering vehicles.
A complete interchange has enough ramps to provide access from any direction of any road in the junction to any direction of any other road in the junction. A complete interchange between a freeway and another road requires at least four ramps. Complete interchanges between two freeways have at least eight ramps, as having fewer would reduce capacity and increase weaving. Using U-turns, the number for two freeways can be reduced to six, by making cars that want to turn left either pass by the other road first make a U-turn and turn right, or turn right first and make a U-turn. Depending on the interchange type and the connectivity offered other numbers of ramps may be used. For example, if a highway interchanges with a highway containing a collector/express system, additional ramps can be used to link the interchanging highway with the collector and express lanes respectively. For highways with high-occupancy vehicle lanes, ramps can be used to service these carriageways directly, thereby increasing the number of ramps used.
An incomplete interchange has at least one or more missing ramps that prevent access to at least one direction of another road in the junction from any other road in the junction. A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level, four-way interchange where all turns across opposing traffic are handled by non-directional loop ramps. Assuming right-handed traffic, to go left vehicles first cross over or under the target route bear right onto a curved ramp that turns 270 degrees, merging onto the target route from the right, crossing the route just departed; these loop ramps produce the namesake cloverleaf shape. Two major advantages of cloverleaves are that they require only one bridge which makes such junctions inexpensive as long as land is plentiful, that they do not require any traffic signals to operate. However, weaving is a major shortcoming of cloverleaves, as the four total offramps and onramps are present, merge on the main routes; the capacity of this design is comparatively low. Cloverleaves use a considerable area of land, are more found along older highways, in rural areas and within cities with low population densities.
A variant design separates all turning traffic into a parallel carriageway to minimize the problem of weaving. Collector and distributor roads are similar, but are separated from the main carriageway by a divider, such as a guard rail or Jersey barrier. A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby a semi-directional left turn and a directional right turn are both available. Access to both turns is provided by a single offramp. Assuming right-handed driving, in order to cross over incoming traffic and go left, vehicles first exit onto an off-ramp from the rightmost lane. After demerging from right-turning traffic, they complete their left turn by crossing both highways on a flyover ramp or underpass; the penultimate step is a merge with the right-turn on-ramp traffic from the opposite quadrant of the interchange. An onramp merges both streams o
Miami Springs, Florida
Miami Springs is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The city was founded by Glenn Hammond Curtiss, "The Father of Naval Aviation", James Bright, during the famous "land boom" of the 1920s and was named Country Club Estates. It, along with other cities in Miami-Dade County such as Coral Gables and Opa-locka, formed some of the first planned communities in the state. Like its counterparts, the city had an intended theme which in its case, was to reflect a particular architecture and ambiance. In this case it was a regional style of architecture called Pueblo Revival developed in the southwest New Mexico, incorporating design elements of Pueblo architecture. Other buildings incorporated Mission style design. In fact, the original Hotel Country Club was designed to resemble a Pueblo village. Shortly prior to incorporation in 1926, the city was renamed after a spring located in the area which provided parts of Miami with fresh water until the mid-1990s; as of 2013, the population recorded by the U.
S. Census Bureau is 14,316. Miami Springs is located at 25°49′11″N 80°17′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles. 2.9 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Speaking the core of Miami Springs is shaped as a triangle with three definable sides. Northwest 36th Street forms most of the southern boundary whilst the Miami River canal forms the northern/eastern boundary; the Ludlam Canal and Florida East Coast Railroad Yard delimit the western boundary. Hialeah Medley Miami Unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Virginia Gardens Hialeah, Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Virginia Gardens, Unincorporated Miami-Dade County As of 2010, there were 5,361 households out of which 5.6% were vacant. In 2000, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families.
24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.16. In 2000, the city population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $50,000, the median income for a family was $56,892. Males had a median income of $37,176 versus $30,823 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,963. About 6.9% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language made up 63.21% of residents, while English accounted for 35.49% of the population.
Other languages spoken as a mother tongue were well below 1.00%. As of 2000, Miami Springs had the sixteenth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 31.83% of the populace. It had the thirty-third highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 3.89% of the city's population, the twenty-second highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 2.06% of the population. It had the twenty-sixth most Peruvians in the US, at 1.90%, while it had the nineteenth highest percentage of Venezuelans, at 1.01% of all residents. Miami Springs was founded by an aviation pioneer, thus, the fate of the city has always been intertwined with the aviation industry since Miami International Airport is located just south of the city on the southern border of NW 36th Street; the airline industry brought many residents from airline crew bases, as well as employment opportunities at the airport, which brought much prosperity to the city. This dependence, left the city vulnerable; the sudden 1991 collapses of both Eastern Airlines and Pan American World Airways left many Miami Springs residents unemployed and unable to afford living in the neighborhood.
Given that the businesses in Miami Springs had always relied upon the large disposable incomes of the employees of the large airline carriers, the bankruptcy of both corporations in the same year created a chain reaction causing many small businesses to close their doors. Despite the closure of the airlines, from a residential standpoint, Miami Springs remained strong; the city is seen as blessedly isolated from the perceived turbulence of the rest of Miami-Dade County. This has continued to provide ample replacements for the older residents. Nonetheless the legacy of the airline closures remains. Residential millage taxation rates hover near the state mandated maximum because continued weakness in the commercial sector makes it an insufficient source of tax revenue; the Consulate-General of Bolivia in Miami is located in Suite 505 at 700 South Royal Poinciana Boulevard in Miami Springs. Curtiss Mansion is a Pueblo style home. Beginning in the late 1970s, the house was subject to a number of fires.
In 1998, a public/private partnership of Curtiss Mansion, Inc. and the city of Miami Springs embarked on a lengthy restoration project, completed in 2012. Fair Haven Nursing Home is one of the oldest buildings in Miami Springs and is built in the pueblo style favored during the initial development; the building was designed by architect Bernard E. Muller, it was designated a Miami Springs Historic Site in