Interstate 95 in Florida
Interstate 95 is the main Interstate Highway of Florida's Atlantic Coast. It begins at a partial interchange with U. S. Highway 1 just south of downtown Miami, heads north past Daytona Beach, through Jacksonville, to the Georgia state line at the St. Marys River near Becker; the route passes through the cities of Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, Titusville. Interstate 95 runs for 382 miles, the southernmost 12.848 miles of which are unsigned as State Road 9A, the remainder being the unsigned portion of State Road 9. The highway begins at U. S. Route 1 near 32nd Road in southern Miami, it interchanges with the Rickenbacker Causeway via the short unsigned SR 913, heads north into downtown. The short SR 970 freeway unsigned, distributes traffic to several downtown streets. On the north side of downtown, at the Midtown Interchange, Interstate 395 heads east to the MacArthur Causeway, the tolled SR 836 heads west to Miami International Airport. Throughout Miami-Dade County, I-95 is designated the North–South Expressway according to some maps.
After crossing I-395 and SR 836, I-95 begins to head north along the alignment of Northwest 6th Avenue, lying one block east of Northwest 7th Avenue. Just north of 36th Street, at what has been called the 36th Street Interchange, I-95 crosses Interstate 195, which goes east over the Julia Tuttle Causeway to Miami Beach, SR 112, a toll road west to the airport. A two-way Express Lanes roadway in the median begins at I-195 and SR 112, formed by ramps to and from SR 112. I-95 continues north and interchanging with many surface roads, most of which are State Roads, before reaching the Golden Glades Interchange; the complicated Golden Glades Interchange provides access between I-95 and two other freeways — the original section of Florida's Turnpike, since bypassed by the Homestead Extension, the Palmetto Expressway. Ramps are provided to and from several surface streets - SR 826 east on 167th Street to Sunny Isles Beach, U. S. Highway 441 south on Northwest 7th Avenue and north on Northwest 2nd Avenue, SR 9 southwest on a limited-access roadway to Northwest 27th Avenue.
I-95 north to West Palm Beach, as well as SR 9 southwest to 27th Avenue, runs parallel to the South Florida Rail Corridor, used by CSX Transportation for freight and Tri-Rail for commuter rail. At the Golden Glades Interchange, SR 9 merges with I-95, I-95 is unsigned as State Road 9 for the remainder of its length. North of Miami, I-95 continues on to Ft. Lauderdale, where it interchanges with I-595, providing access to Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport and Port Everglades to the east, Broward County's western suburbs as well as I-75 northbound across the peninsula to the Gulf Coast to the west. In West Palm Beach, I-95 provides direct access to Palm Beach International Airport as well as downtown West Palm Beach and Palm Beach Island via SR 704. North of West Palm Beach, I-95 runs beside Florida's Turnpike for 17 miles, between Donald Ross Road in Jupiter and SR 713 south of Stuart. I-95 steers west of the turnpike through Martin and St. Lucie Counties, crosses the turnpike at Fort Pierce before the freeways go separate ways north of Fort Pierce.
After an interchange with State Road 70 providing access to the Turnpike, the highway narrows to two lanes in each direction. The road soon enters Indian River County and the next major exit is with State Road 60 providing access to Vero Beach; the highway soon enters the Space Coast of Florida. In Palm Bay, the road widens to three lanes in each direction and continues north passing Melbourne and Cocoa; the next major junction is State Road 528 with access to Cocoa Beach, Cape Canaveral eastbound and tolled access to Orlando to the west. I-95 has expanded to three lanes through both exits in Titusville. I-95 enters Volusia County and the city of Daytona Beach shortly afterwards. At the junction with Interstate 4, the road widens to three lanes in each direction; the highway passes through Flagler and St. Johns counties before it enters Duval County and the city of Jacksonville. About 5 miles north of the St. Johns-Duval county border, I-95 intersects the I-295 beltway at its southern end 14 miles south of central Jacksonville, with I-95 continuing north.
The interstate passes through the heart of Jacksonville, crossing the Fuller Warren Bridge over the St. Johns River, rebuilt from its original drawbridge incarnation in 2002. About a mile north of the bridge, at exit 351B, it intersects with the national eastern terminus of I-10, with the interchange's redesign completed in September 2010. From here to exit 353B, it is concurrent with US 17 and its unsigned designation SR 15; the stretch from here in Downtown Jacksonville south past the southern interchange with the Jacksonville Beltway, I-295, can be congested during morning and evening rush hours, with traffic grinding to a halt. Well over 100,000 cars use this section per day, with higher traffic counts in some areas. I-95 intersects I-295 again 11 miles north of Downtown Jacksonville. Just north of the northern I-295 interchange, I-95 provides access to Jacksonville International Airport. From this point, I-95 continues north towards Nassau County with an exit for State Road A1A and into Georgia, just north of mile marker 380.
The current HOV lanes in both directions between I-395 in Miami and Broward Blvd. in Northern Miami and Fort Lauderdale are converted to Hig
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection. Interchanges are always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway or a limited-access divided highway, though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets. Note: The descriptions of interchanges apply to countries where vehicles drive on the right side of the road. For left-side driving, layout of the junctions is the only left/right is reversed. A freeway junction or highway interchange or motorway junction is a type of road junction linking one controlled-access highway to another, to other roads, or to a rest area or motorway service area. In the UK, most junctions are numbered sequentially. In the US, interchanges are either numbered by interchange number. A highway ramp or slip road is a short section of road that allows vehicles to enter or exit a controlled-access highway.
A directional ramp tends toward the desired direction of travel: A ramp that makes a left turn exits from the left side of the roadway. Left directional ramps are uncommon, as the left lane is reserved for high-speed through traffic. Ramps for a right turn are always right directional ramps. A non-directional ramp goes opposite to the desired direction of travel. Many loop ramps are non-directional. A semi-directional ramp exits in a direction opposite from the desired direction of travel turns toward the desired direction. Many flyover ramps are semi-directional. A U-turn ramp leaves the road in one direction, turns over or under it, rejoins in the opposite direction. Weaving is an undesirable situation where traffic veering right and left must cross paths within a limited distance, to merge with traffic on the through lane; the German Autobahn system has Autobahn-to-Autobahn interchanges of two types: a four-way interchange, the Autobahnkreuz, where two motorways cross. Some on-ramps have a ramp meter, a dedicated mid-ramp traffic light that controls the flow of entering vehicles.
A complete interchange has enough ramps to provide access from any direction of any road in the junction to any direction of any other road in the junction. A complete interchange between a freeway and another road requires at least four ramps. Complete interchanges between two freeways have at least eight ramps, as having fewer would reduce capacity and increase weaving. Using U-turns, the number for two freeways can be reduced to six, by making cars that want to turn left either pass by the other road first make a U-turn and turn right, or turn right first and make a U-turn. Depending on the interchange type and the connectivity offered other numbers of ramps may be used. For example, if a highway interchanges with a highway containing a collector/express system, additional ramps can be used to link the interchanging highway with the collector and express lanes respectively. For highways with high-occupancy vehicle lanes, ramps can be used to service these carriageways directly, thereby increasing the number of ramps used.
An incomplete interchange has at least one or more missing ramps that prevent access to at least one direction of another road in the junction from any other road in the junction. A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level, four-way interchange where all turns across opposing traffic are handled by non-directional loop ramps. Assuming right-handed traffic, to go left vehicles first cross over or under the target route bear right onto a curved ramp that turns 270 degrees, merging onto the target route from the right, crossing the route just departed; these loop ramps produce the namesake cloverleaf shape. Two major advantages of cloverleaves are that they require only one bridge which makes such junctions inexpensive as long as land is plentiful, that they do not require any traffic signals to operate. However, weaving is a major shortcoming of cloverleaves, as the four total offramps and onramps are present, merge on the main routes; the capacity of this design is comparatively low. Cloverleaves use a considerable area of land, are more found along older highways, in rural areas and within cities with low population densities.
A variant design separates all turning traffic into a parallel carriageway to minimize the problem of weaving. Collector and distributor roads are similar, but are separated from the main carriageway by a divider, such as a guard rail or Jersey barrier. A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby a semi-directional left turn and a directional right turn are both available. Access to both turns is provided by a single offramp. Assuming right-handed driving, in order to cross over incoming traffic and go left, vehicles first exit onto an off-ramp from the rightmost lane. After demerging from right-turning traffic, they complete their left turn by crossing both highways on a flyover ramp or underpass; the penultimate step is a merge with the right-turn on-ramp traffic from the opposite quadrant of the interchange. An onramp merges both streams o
Coral Way (street)
Coral Way, co-signed State Road 972 between Douglas Road and US 1 in Miami, is a 16.4-mile-long primary east-west street that extends from Southwest 157th Avenue in western Miami-Dade County to Brickell Avenue in the Brickell neighborhood of Downtown, Florida, United States. Coral Way begins as SW 26th Street at Southwest 157th Avenue in unincorporated Miami-Dade County as a mix of a residential street and commercial street. Just west of the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike, Coral Way curves to the north, becoming SW 24th Street as it passes over the Turnpike without an interchange, it continues through unincorporated Miami-Dade County, intersecting with Galloway Road, interchanging with the Palmetto Expressway, Ludlam Road, becoming residential east of Ludlam Road. At Red Road, Coral Way enters Coral Gables, becomes a two lane street, begins a residential stretch of road in which Coral Way is covered under a natural canopy from each side of the road made of large oak and other hardwood trees.
At South Greenway Drive/Anderson Road, it exits the canopy, with the trees still lining the street, it borders the Granada Golf Course for two blocks before a traffic circle turns Coral Way into a one way westbound street for two blocks further, with eastbound traffic taking Segovia Street south to Biltmore Way to rejoin Coral Way at the intersection with Le Jeune Road. For the next half mile, Coral Way is known as the Miracle Mile, the major east–west road through downtown Coral Gables; the median resumes with large date palm trees and flower beds lining the center of the road. The Miracle Mile ends at Douglas Road, with Coral Way leaving Coral Gables and entering Miami, is the western terminus of State Road 972. State Road 972 begins on the intersection between Coral Way/Southwest 22nd Street and Douglas Road at the Coral Gables and Miami boundary, with SR 972 heading east into Miami, it runs as a 4-lane divided road with many old ficus and banyan trees in its median through a commercial area, passing by the Miracle Marketplace a few blocks east of the western terminus.
It intersects SW 27th Avenue, continues straight east until an intersection with SW 3rd Avenue in the Five Points neighborhood, where Coral Way veers northeast, becoming SW 3rd Avenue, intersects with SW 12th Avenue, still as a commercial road. After crossing under I-95 and intersecting with SW 15th Road/Broadway just east of I-95, the historic scenic drive of Coral Way ends, as it curves back into a purely eastern direction and becomes an undivided four lane road known as SW 13th Street, heading into the core of central Miami. Four blocks east of SW 15th Road and one block east of Miami Avenue, where the road is known as SE 13th Street, SR 972 meet its eastern terminus of U. S. Route 1 in the downtown Miami Financial District; the Coral Way Corridor was built in 1922, connecting the city of Miami to Coral Gables with citrus lined streets. A few years streetcar tracks were laid down the middle. In 1929, a roadside beautification program was started and 1,200 non-native banyan trees were planted along it.
In the years after the merger of Silver Bluff and Miami, Coral Way has been extended many times. Westward from SR 972, it now travels along Southwest 24th Street until after passing over Florida's Turnpike, rounding a gentle chicane, following Southwest 26th Street until its current terminus just west of Southwest 162nd Avenue. Although the newer sections of Coral Way west of Coral Gables do not have the scenery or the history of the current SR 972, they form an important commercial link for Miami-Dade County. Coral Way was designated as State Road 956 in 1980 and renumbered as State Road 972 in 1983. SR 972 extended 7.2 miles further west along Southwest 24th Street to Southwest 107th Avenue, near Tamiami Park and Florida International University. A series of truncations started in the late 1990s, first moving the western terminus 2.0 miles eastward to SR 973 another 4.5 miles to SR 953 in Coral Gables – the exit signs on the Palmetto Expressway were replaced with ones without the State Road designation in 2001 – and, at the request of businesses along the Miracle Mile stretch of Coral Way, a final move of the western terminus one-half mile to its current location.
The final move re-established SR 972 on the original, pre-1926 configuration of Coral Way. The entire route is in Miami-Dade County
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
In the context of traffic control, a lane is part of a roadway, designated to be used by a single line of vehicles, to control and guide drivers and reduce traffic conflicts. Most public roads have at least two lanes, one for traffic in each direction, separated by lane markings. On multilane roadways and busier two-lane roads, lanes are designated with road surface markings. Major highways have two multi-lane roadways separated by a median; some roads and bridges that carry low volumes of traffic are less than 15 feet wide, are only a single lane wide. Vehicles travelling in opposite directions must stop to pass each other. In rural areas, these are called country lanes. In urban areas, alleys are only one lane wide. Urban and suburban one lane roads are designated for one-way traffic. Lane capacity varies due to conditions such as neighboring lanes, lane width, elements next to the road, number of driveways, presence of parking, speed limits, number of heavy vehicles and so on – the range can be as low as 1000 passenger cars / hour to as high as 4800 passenger cars / hour but falls between 1500 and 2400 passenger cars / hour.
A traffic lane or travel lane is a lane for the movement of vehicles traveling from one destination to another, not including shoulders. A through lane or thru lane is a traffic lane for through traffic. At intersections, these may be indicated by arrows on the pavement pointing straight ahead. An express lane of a road has less access to exits/off ramps. In other areas, an express lane may refer to a HOV lane. A reversible lane is a lane, they are used to accommodate periods of high traffic flow rush hour where the flow is predominantly in one direction, on roads that cannot be widened such as over bridges. One or more lanes are added to the peak flow. An auxiliary lane is a lane other than a through lane, used to separate entering, exiting or turning traffic from the through traffic. An acceleration lane or merge lane allows traffic entering a highway to accelerate to the speed of through traffic before merging with it. A deceleration lane is a lane adjacent to the primary road or street used to improve traffic safety by allowing drivers to pull out of the through lane and decelerate safely before turning off a surface street or exiting a freeway.
A turn lane is set aside for making a turn, so as not to disrupt traffic. By removing turning traffic from the through lanes, motorist safety is improved and delay is removed, but crossing distances for pedestrians are lengthened, increasing their exposure to collisions. A two-way center turn lane is a lane in the center of a roadway to allow drivers traveling in either direction to pause before turning across oncoming traffic while waiting for a gap in traffic. A passing lane is sometimes provided on busy two-lane roads to allow drivers to pass slower vehicles without having to cross the center line and risking a head-on collision. A climbing lane, truck lane, or crawler lane is provided on steep mountain grades, in order to allow smaller vehicles to pass larger, slower ones; the lane is marked only on the uphill stretch and a short distance afterward. An operational lane or auxiliary lane is an extra lane on the entire length of highway between interchanges, giving drivers more time to merge in or out.
The lane is created when an entrance ramp meets the highway, drops out to become the ramp at the next exit. A transfer lane of a road is used to move from express lanes to collector lanes, or vice versa. A collector lane of a road has more access to exits/off ramps. Dedicated lanes are traffic lanes set aside for particular types of vehicles. A high occupancy vehicle or carpool lane is reserved for carpooling. In the US, they may be marked with a diamond icon every few hundred feet, or separated from other lanes by double broken white lines, a continuous pair of double yellow lines, or just a single broken white line. A high-occupancy toll lane is a combination of an HOV lane and toll collection technology that allows drivers without passengers to use the HOV lane by paying a premium price for the privilege A designated bicycle lane is a portion of the roadway or shoulder designated for the exclusive or preferential use of bicyclists; this designation is indicated by special word or symbol markings on the pavement and "BIKE LANE" signs.
A motorcycle lane is provided at certain roads and highways such as the Federal Highway in Malaysia to segregate the motorcycle traffic from the main roadways to reduce motorcycle-related accidents. The motorcycle lane may form a part of the hard shoulder, or may be one or more separated lanes. A bus lane is reserved for buses providing public transportation on a fixed route, sometimes with overhead catenary for trolleybuses. In some countries, bus lanes may be used by some other traffic, such as taxis and motorbikes. A tram lane is a lane reserved for the use of buses and taxicabs, it is encountered in cities with curbside tram network, such as Zagreb. A truckway is a dedicated lane for longer length trucks. Since the major cost of trucking is the fixed cost of the same trailer with its driver the cost per ton of operating with truckway size and weig
Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport known as MIA and as Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the Miami area, with over 1,000 daily flights to 167 domestic and International destinations. The airport is in an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 8 miles northwest of Downtown Miami, in metropolitan Miami, between the cities of Miami, Doral, Miami Springs, the village of Virginia Gardens, the unincorporated Fontainebleau neighborhood, it is South Florida's main airport for long-haul international flights and a hub for the Southeastern United States, with passenger and cargo flights to cities throughout the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, as well as cargo flights to East Asia. It is the largest gateway between the United States and south to Latin America, is one of the largest airline hubs in the United States, owing to its proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth, large local Latin American and European populations, strategic location to handle connecting traffic between North America, Latin America, Europe.
In 2018, 45,044,312 passengers traveled through the airport, making the airport the 13th busiest airport in the USA and the 40th busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic. MIA is the 3rd busiest airport in the US in terms of international passenger traffic; the airport handled more international cargo than any other airport in the United States. MIA is the busiest airport in the State of Florida in terms of total aircraft operations and total cargo traffic and the second-busiest in terms of total passenger traffic; the airport is American Airlines' primary gateway to Latin America along with a domestic hub for its regional affiliate American Eagle in the U. S. A, it serves as a focus city for Avianca, Frontier Airlines, LATAM, both for passengers and cargo operations. In the past, it has been a hub for Braniff International Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Air Florida, the original National Airlines, the original Pan American World Airways, United Airlines, Iberia Airlines and Fine Air.
For the World War II and United States Air Force Reserve use of the airport, see Miami Army AirfieldThe first airport on the site of MIA opened in the 1920s and was known as Miami City Airport. Pan American World Airways opened an expanded facility adjacent to City Airport, Pan American Field, in 1928. Pan American Field was built on 116 acres of land on 36th Street and was the only mainland airport in the eastern United States that had port of entry facilities, its runways were located around the threshold of today's Runway 26R. Eastern Airlines began to serve Pan American Field in 1931, followed by National Airlines in 1936. National used a terminal on the opposite side of LeJeune Road from the airport, would stop traffic on the road in order to taxi aircraft to and from its terminal. Miami Army Airfield opened in 1943 during the Second World War to the south of Pan American Field: the runways of the two were separated by railroad tracks, but the two airfields were listed in some directories as a single facility.
Following World War II in 1945, the City of Miami established a Port Authority and raised bond revenue to purchase Pan American Field, since renamed 36th Street Airport, from Pan Am. It merged with the former Miami Army Airfield, purchased from the United States Army Air Force south of the railroad in 1949 and expanded further in 1951 when the railroad line itself was moved south to make more room; the old terminal on 36th Street was closed in 1959. United States Air Force Reserve troop carrier and rescue squadrons operated from the airport from 1949 through 1959, when the last unit relocated to nearby Homestead Air Force Base. Nonstop flights to Chicago and Newark Liberty International Airport in northeast New Jersey started in late 1946, but nonstops didn't reach west beyond St. Louis and New Orleans until January 1962. Nonstop transatlantic flights to Europe began in 1970. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Air Florida had a hub at MIA, with a nonstop flight to London, England which it acquired from National upon the latter's merger with Pan Am.
Air Florida ceased operations in 1982 after the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. British Airways flew a Concorde SST triserial between Miami and London via Washington, D. C. from 1984 to 1991. After former Apollo 8 astronaut Frank Borman became president of Eastern Airlines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in New York City to Building 16 in the northeast corner of MIA, Eastern's maintenance base. Eastern remained one of the largest employers in the Miami metropolitan area until ongoing labor union unrest, coupled with the airline's acquisition by union antagonist Frank Lorenzo in 1986 forced the airline into bankruptcy in 1989. In the midst of Eastern's turmoil American Airlines CEO Bob Crandall sought a new hub in order to utilize new aircraft which AA had on order. AA studies indicated that Delta Air Lines would provide strong competition on most routes from Eastern's hub at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, but that MIA had many key routes only served by Eastern.
American announced that it would establish a base at MIA in August 1988. Lorenzo considered selling Eastern's profitable Latin American routes to AA as part of a Chapter 11 reorganization of Eastern in early 1989, but backed out in a last-ditch effort to rebuild the MIA hub; the effort proved futile, American purchased the routes (including the route authority between Miami and L
Brickell Avenue is a north–south road part of U. S. Route 1, in Miami, just south of the Miami River. North of the Brickell Avenue Bridge, U. S. Route 1 is known as Biscayne Boulevard. Brickell Avenue is the main road through the Brickell financial district of Downtown Miami and is considered a desirable address associated with business and finance. Brickell Avenue is lined with high-rise office buildings and residential condominiums, as well as many banks and restaurants, it is an off-grid plan main north–south thoroughfare through the south part of Miami's central business district. From the Miami River south it continues south-southwest and upon crossing Broadway/SE 15th Street it curves southwest and continues in that direction until it terminates at Southeast 26th Road/Rickenbacker Causeway, becoming South Federal Highway for a short distance until it becomes South Dixie Highway - US1; the portion north of the one-way pair of 7th and 8th Streets carries U. S. Route 41. South Dixie Highway Miami Avenue