A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the
Florida State Road 874
State Road 874, named the Don Shula Expressway for its length, is an electronic toll road in southern Miami-Dade County, Florida. It extends 7 miles northeast from the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike in southwestern Kendall to the Palmetto Expressway in Glenvar Heights, allowing traffic from the far south of Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys to move to more central regions of metropolitan Miami and vice versa, bypassing communities along U. S. Route 1, while permitting local access to the Kendall district; the road, named in honor of the long-serving coach of the Miami Dolphins NFL team, is maintained and tolled by the Miami-Dade Expressway Authority. Contrary to the numbering plan of Florida State Roads, SR 874 is signed north–south. SR 874 begins at an interchange with the HEFT on the boundary of the communities of Three Lakes, Richmond Heights and Kendall, about 15 miles southwest of Downtown Miami; the expressway is formed from the median lanes of the HEFT, turns to the northeast, passing under the HEFT's northbound lanes.
Southbound HEFT traffic cannot access northbound SR 874. After turning to the northeast and entering Kendall, the six-laned Don Shula Expressway subsequently follows a CSX-owned railroad past predominantly residential neighborhoods for its entire route. SR 874 meets its first of three toll gantries about 1.4 miles north of its southern terminus, just north of its former lone toll plaza. About two miles from SR 874's southern terminus, the expressway interchanges with Killian Parkway and Southwest 107th Avenue at a partial cloverleaf interchange; the Don Shula Expressway continues on for 1.1 miles, passing through another toll gantry, before reaching an interchange with Kendall Drive. Afterwards, SR 874 crosses the Snapper Creek Canal and enters the Sunset district, it reaches the partial interchange with the Snapper Creek Expressway. Once past the Snapper Creek Expressway, SR 874 features no interchanges for the remainder of its route. Just north of the bridge over Sunset Drive, about one-half mile north of SR 878, motorists in both directions are provided with a separated lane to take their vehicles to if caught in an accident.
One-quarter mile past the accident investigation sites, the Don Shula Expressway swings north over the railroad, crossing over Galloway Road in the process, resumes its northeasterly orientation, now forming the boundary between the communities of Olympia Heights, to the road's north, Glenvar Heights, to the south. 0.6 miles SR 874 passes through its third and final toll gantry, before reaching its northern terminus in a partial interchange with the Palmetto Expressway after another one mile. Like at its southern terminus, SR 874 forms. Like its southern terminus, there is no access for northbound SR 874 or SR 826 traffic to the other route's southbound counterpart. SR 874's tolls are electronic: cash cannot be accepted along its length. Payment is done either via SunPass transponders or via toll-by-plate billing, the latter of which attracts a higher cost. Three toll gantries are located along the Don Shula Expressway: the first between the HEFT and Killian Parkway, the second between Killian Parkway and Kendall Drive, the last between the Snapper Creek and Palmetto Expressways.
The relationship between the tolling points and interchanges along SR 874 and SR 878 is that all motorists are charged at least one toll for using the road. As of July 1, 2013, the cost for a two-axled vehicle to drive the entire length of SR 874 is $1.00 with a SunPass transponder, or $2.00 via the toll-by-plate program, with the two southern gantries charging $0.25 or $0.50 each, the northern one charging twice as much. Each additional axle on a vehicle attracts a surcharge equal to the cost of a two-axled vehicle for each gantry passed; the history of the Don Shula Expressway can be traced back to 1957 when, in planning for the Palmetto Expressway's routing, Dade County Commissioner Ralph Fossey proposed an alternative southern alignment of the expressway to follow the Seaboard-owned railroad southwest from near Miller Drive to Southwest 117th Avenue, before heading south to US 1 at Goulds, instead of heading due south to Kendall. While the Palmetto Expressway was built to its original plan in 1961, the concept of an expressway next to the Seaboard tracks south of Miller Drive, termed the South Dade Expressway, continued to feature in transportation plans over the next decade.
By the middle of 1969, bonds for construction of the South Dade Expressway were being secured from the Turnpike Authority. Funding was secured in 1971, a construction end-date was set for early 1973; this did not eventuate due to difficulties to acquire land for the expressway's right-of-way, resulting in the final section of the South Dade Expressway, between Kendall Drive and the Palmetto Expressway, opening at midday on July 31, 1975. In 1983, the South Dade Expressway was renamed by the Flo
University Park, Florida
University Park is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States. The population was 26,995 at the 2010 census. University Park was the name of the main campus of Florida International University, located in the area; the campus encompasses 344 acres. Florida International University was built from around 1965 onwards, with the destruction of Tamiami Airport. At the time little was located around FIU, the campus was referred to as University Park; as Miami grew west, the area came to be known as University Park after the university's campus name. Today, University Park houses all of the campus's colleges and schools as well as all the administrative offices and main university facilities. University Park is home to Reagan House, the home of FIU's president, the Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Frost Art Museum, the International Hurricane Research Center, the university's athletic facilities such as Riccardo Silva Stadium, FIU Baseball Stadium, FIU Arena; until the early-1990s, aerial pictures of the campus revealed the features of the airport that used to occupy the land until 1969.
Construction has obliterated all of these features, only the University Tower remains as memory of the university's past. Today, University Park is home to 94 % of housing students. University Park is a lush vegetated campus, with many lakes and nature preserves, as well as an arboretum and has 92 buildings. Current construction at University Park includes an independent art museum for the Frost Art Museum, a Graduate Business School Complex, a Molecular Biology Building, a Student Services Building, a Social Sciences Building, a Medical School Complex, an expansion to FIU Stadium for a seating capacity of 45,000. University Park is located at 25°44′43″N 80°21′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.6 km². 10.5 km² of it is land and 0.1 km² of it is water. According to the census of 2000, there were 26,538 people, 8,646 households, 6,501 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 6,535.1 people per square mile. There were 9,047 housing units at an average density of 2,227.9/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.04% White 3.40% Black, 0.06% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.38% from other races, 2.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 82.69% of the population. There were 8,646 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.8% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.32. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 17.6% under the age of 18, 14.7% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $40,039, the median income for a family was $48,451.
Males had a median income of $30,884 versus $25,861 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $17,249. About 9.8% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language accounted for 86.45% of residents, while English made up 12.06%, French as a mother tongue was at 0.45% of the population. As of 2000, University Park had the fifth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 59.80% of the populace. It had the twelfth highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 2.89% of the population, the fifty-fourth highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 2.64% of its population Florida International University is located in University Park. Miami-Dade County Public Schools serves University Park. Dr. Carlos J. Finlay Elementary School and Olympia Heights Elementary School are in University Park. St. Agatha Catholic School is located in University Park.
Dr. Carlos J. Finlay Elementary School Olympia Heights Elementary School St. Agatha Catholic School
Flagler Street is a 12.4-mile main east–west road in Miami. Flagler Street is the latitudinal baseline that divides all the streets on the Miami-Dade County grid plan as north or south streets. Flagler Street is named after industrialist Henry Flagler and serves as a major commercial east–west highway through central Miami-Dade County, with a mixture of residential neighborhoods and strip malls, the commercial presence increasing as SR 968 approaches downtown Miami. Between SR 973 and West 2nd Avenue, Flagler Street is signed State Road 968. State Road 968 begins at Galloway Road in Fontainebleau, as it takes the six lane Flagler Street east through a commercial area with residential housing dotting the street as it approaches the Mall of the Americas to the north and the interchange with the Palmetto Expressway at the eastern end of the mall. Seven blocks east of the interchange, the road enters the city of Miami proper after crossing the Tamiami Canal one block west of the intersection with Milam Dairy Road and becomes a four lane road from here until reaching I-95.
At NW 67th Court, the divided highway comes together as a four lane road continuing east, with business lining both sides of the street. Following Red Road, it reaches Flagler Memorial Park to the north, as the road continues east through more businesses and apartment complexes; the road intersects with LeJeune Road, which provides access to Miami International Airport, with SR 968 continuing east towards central Miami. At the northwest corner of the intersection with West 27th Avenue sits the Miami-Dade Auditorium concert hall, as Flagler Street continues east for three more blocks, until at NW 24th Avenue, the road becomes a one way pair, with Flagler Street going westbound, SW 1st Street going eastbound and both roads featuring commercial businesses and parks; the road intersects West 17th Avenue just a few blocks south of Marlins Park, as SR 968 enters Central Miami. From 12th Avenue West to the Miami River, Flagler Street features one eastbound lane with three westbound lanes, with the intersection with US 441/SR 7 just four blocks west of the Miami River drawbridges.
After, it reaches I-95, with access via nearby streets. The rest of the road features government and business skyscrapers and metro rapid transit trackage towering over the road. At SW 2nd Avenue, SR 968 meets its eastern terminus, Flagler Street is once again a two-way street, with one lane in each direction. At Miami Avenue, Flagler Street forms the center of Miami, as Miami Avenue represents the baseline for east and west; the road becomes East Flagler Street as it continues through central Miami, terminating at Biscayne Boulevard, with Bayfront Park, featuring a scenic view of Biscayne Bay just east of the end of Flagler Street. Beyond SR 968's western terminus, West Flagler Street extends west to State Road 985 to end at an intersection with West 118th Avenue in Tamiami, just west of the Homestead Extension. State Road 954, Flagler Street received its current Florida Department of Transportation designation in 1983, when FDOT reassigned route numbers to various streets in southeastern Florida and removed the SR 968 designation from North Miami Boulevard.
SR 968's original western terminus was at an intersection with SR 985. In 1987, FDOT truncated the westernmost two miles of the route to its current configuration. SR 968's original eastern terminus was at Biscayne Boulevard in Miami, until FDOT turned over the section between US 1 and SW 2nd Avenue to the city of Miami; as a condition for the relinquishment of Brickell Avenue to the city of Miami, FDOT plans to adopt both SE 1st Street and NE 1st Street in downtown Miami as part of SR 968 and re-connect the route to Biscayne Boulevard. The entire route is in Miami-Dade County
Florida State Highway System
The State Highway System of the U. S. state of Florida comprises the roads maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation or a toll authority. The components are referred to as state roads, abbreviated SR. State Roads are always numbered. Odd numbered roads run north-south, numbered roads run east-west. One- and two-digit numbers run in order from 2 in the north to 94 in the south, A1A in the east to 97 in the west; the major cross-state roads end in 0 and 5. Most routes of the form X00 are major diagonal routes. Other three-digit numbers are placed in horizontal bands based on the first digit: Three-digit numbers increase from east to west across the band; when the grid was first laid out in 1945, the rules were perfectly followed. However, over the years, as routes have been added, there has not always been room to follow the grid. Placements such as 112, 752, 602 are the most notable violations of the grid system; the Pensacola area has a collection of these "misplaced" street numbers. When FDOT added route numbers to a collection of Miami-Dade County streets in 1980, most of them received 9## designations regardless of the band that they occupied.
Every section of U. S. Highway and Interstate Highway has a State Road number assigned to it unsigned. In addition to some named toll roads some minor State Roads are unsigned. Prior to the 1945 renumbering, State Roads were given numbers in the order they were added to the system; the 1945 renumbering removed many roads that were never built and added some that had not existed prior to 1945. In 1955, the Florida Department of Transportation slowed down the addition of new state roads and began to classify roads into primary and local roads. Primary roads would continue to be state-maintained, while Secondary roads would have an S before the number, would only be state-maintained during a construction project. Local roads would be removed from the system. In 1977, FDOT changed the division of roads into state/county/local. Most secondary roads and some primary roads were given to the counties, a new state road was taken over; the secondary signs had the S changed to C and a small COUNTY sticker added to the bottom.
As signs grew old, they were replaced with the standard MUTCD county road pentagon. While this occurred throughout the State of Florida, the part of the state south of SR 70 was hit hard by the transition from State to County control and maintenance. In the early 1980s several state roads were renumbered; the trend seems to have been reversed since 2002 as new state road designations have been added as a result of construction of new highways, most notably in the Jacksonville and the Tampa-St. Petersburg metropolitan areas. While most state roads are contiguous, there is a relative handful of routes that have interruptions in their designations; the most famous of the set is SR A1A, which exists in seven separate pieces along the Atlantic coast from Fernandina Beach to Key West. State Road 2 has two sections separated by the State of Georgia; the western segment extends westward from Georgia 91 as it crosses the Chattahoochee River and has its western terminus at SR 81 near Sweet Gum Head. State Road 5 temporarily ends leaving Lake Worth, FL as its segment in West Palm Beach was relinquished to the city in the mid 2000s.
The route resumes at US 1's junction with Belvedere Road, where it runs concurrent with US 1 northbound. State Road 15 has two sections bridged by County Road 15 and US 192/441. SR 15 is only signed in Palm Beach County. For most of its route, SR 15 is an administrative FDOT designation for US 441 south of Holopaw, US 17 between Orlando and Jacksonville, US 1/23 north of Jacksonville; the two separate sections of SR 17 formed when US 27 was rerouted in Highlands County, where it passes through Avon Park and Sebring, in Polk County, from Haines City to Frostproof. Signed Alternate US 27, it is now signed as just SR 17. State Road 25 cosigns with US routes throughout most of its length, but departs and travels on its own road in Lake and Marion counties. However, all but less than half a mile of this road has been relinquished to the counties, interrupting SR 25. State Road 30 is gapped by Bay County Road 30 on Front Beach Road west of the Panama City Beach limits to the road's westbound cosign with US 98.
Three sections of State Road 44 exist. Two are connected in Lake County by US 441 and County Road 44; the third is isolated over the Halifax River in New Smyrna Beach due to a route relinquishment to the city. Trailblazers exist down the former route to direct motorists to the continuation of SR 44. State Road 54 has a gap in eastern Pasco County, between the western terminus of State Road 56 and Bruce B. Downs Boulevard in Wesley Chapel, it contains a former segment between 301 in Zephyrhills and US 98 in Polk County. There are two separate s
Kendall is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the area had a total population of 75,371. While the US Census Bureau has defined the boundaries of Kendall, many locals have their own definitions; some believe the communities of West Kendall, Glenvar Heights, Olympia Heights, Westwood Lakes and Tamiami to all be sub-communities of Kendall, Miami while some people believe the neighborhood of The Falls to be a separate entity. Kendall is served by the Miami Metrorail at Dadeland North and Dadeland South stations in its northeastern end. Both stations provide metro service from Dadeland to nearby commercial centers like the City of Coral Gables, Downtown Miami, Miami International Airport. Dadeland South station is a major transit depot in the area, connecting the southernmost cities of Homestead and Florida City to Metrorail via limited-stop bus rapid transit along the South Miami-Dade Busway. West Kendall is served by the Miami market for local television.
Kendall has its own newspaper, The Kendall Gazette, published twice monthly and is part of Miami Community Newspapers. Much of what is now Kendall was purchased from the State of Florida in 1883 by the Florida Land and Mortgage Company, it was named for Henry John Broughton Kendall, a director of Florida Land and Mortgage who moved to the area in the 1900s to manage the company's land. As the land was not open to homesteading, development was slow well into the 20th century. A post office opened in 1914, the first school opened in 1929. After the end of the land boom in 1926, some residents left. Two Seminole camps were in the Kendall area, Seminoles continued to live there into the 1940s. In August 1992, Kendall and the surrounding South Dade area were damaged by Hurricane Andrew. Many of the homes and businesses in the area were destroyed. In the subsequent years, the area was rebuilt. Kendall is located at 25°40′0″N 80°21′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kendall region has an approximate total area of 16.3 sq mi.
Climate in Kendall is similar to the remainder of Miami-Dade County, although its location and elevation inland along the Miami Rock Ridge does make it cooler at night during the winter and warmer during the day in the summer. As of 2010, there were 31,899 households, 8.7% were vacant. As of 2000, 33.4% households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.14. In 2000, the region's population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the area was $51,330, the median income for a family was $61,241.
Males had a median income of $42,875 versus $31,416 for females. The per capita income for the area was $27,914. About 5.7% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, 52.46% of residents spoke Spanish at home, while those who spoke only English speakers comprised 40.38%. Speakers of Portuguese were 1.49% of the population, French 1.12%, French Creole 0.95%. As of 2000, Kendall had the twenty-first highest percentage of Cuban-American residents in the United States, at 21.3% of the populace. It had the twenty-fifth highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 4.56% of the population, the sixteenth highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 2.48% of its population. It had the twenty-fifth most Peruvians in the US, at 2.01% while it had the tenth highest percentage of Venezuelan residents in the US, at 1.47% of the population. As a result of the city's large French community, the French American School of Miami is located in Kendall.
Kendall is the home of Sofigi. Kendall is served by Metrobus throughout the area, by the Metrorail at: Dadeland North Dadeland South Pollo Tropical has its headquarters in Dadeland, Kendall; the headquarters moved to Dadeland in 1994. Kendall is home to Dadeland Mall, an upscale indoor shopping mall in East Kendall with the following anchor stores: Macy's, Saks Fifth Avenue, JCPenney, and in South Kendall, Directly south of Dadeland Mall, on US-1 is The Falls an open-air shopping mall with anchor stores: Macy's, Bloomingdales as well as a Regal Cinema. Prior to its dissolution Air Florida was headquartered in the Dade Towers in what is now the Kendall CDP; the Miami-Dade Police Department operates the Kendall District Station in the CDP. Janet Reno O. J. Simpson The first public school in Kendall was Kendall School, now renamed Kenwood K-8 Center. Kenwood is the site of the Kenwoods Hammock, a native forest planting which has become a world-renowned stop for bird watchers. Miami-Dade County Public Schools serves Kendall.
Instructional Center System Wide Ruth Owen Kruse Education Center Miami Killian High School is in the CDP. Miami Palmetto High School in Pinecrest serves a portion of the CDP. School for Advanced Studies Archimedean Middle Conservatory Miami MacArthur South Pinecrest Academy (North Cam
Doral is a city in Miami-Dade County, United States. One of thirty-four municipalities in the county, it is located just one mile from Miami International Airport and 13 miles from Downtown Miami; the city hosts in excess of 100,000 people who work in Miami. The City of Doral occupies a land area of 15 square miles bordered on the west by the Ronald Reagan Turnpike, to the north by the Town of Medley, to the east by the Palmetto Expressway and to the South by the City of Sweetwater. Doral is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census. Doral has operated under the Mayor-Council-Manager form of government since incorporation. Policymaking and legislative authority are vested in a governing council consisting of the mayor and four other council members; the Council, elected at large, is responsible among other things, for passing ordinances and resolutions, adopting the annual budget, appointing the City Manager, City Clerk and City Attorney.
The City Manager is responsible for carrying out the policies and ordinances of the Council, for overseeing the daily operations of the government, for appointing the heads of various departments. For a city of its size, Doral has a large number of shops, financial institutions and businesses importers and exporters because of its proximity to the airport. In 2008, Fortune Small Business and CNN Money ranked Doral as 51 on a list of 100 cities with the best mix of business advantages and lifestyle appeal. Doral is sometimes nicknamed, "Doralzuela" for its large Venezuelan population, which began moving to Doral in earnest around the time of Doral's incorporation in 2003. In 2013, it was estimated that about 28% of the population of Doral was of Venezuelan descent, the largest concentration of Venezuelan expatriates in the US. In the late 1950s, real estate pioneers Alfred and Doris Kaskel purchased 2,400 acres of swampland between Northwest 36 Street and Northwest 74 Street and from Northwest 79 Avenue to Northwest 117 Avenue for about $49,000, intending to build a golf course and hotel.
In 1962, the Doral Country Club opened in western Dade County, featuring the blue and par-3 golf courses, along with a hotel on Miami Beach. The "Doral" name combined Alfred; as Doral's first structure, the Doral Hotel and Country Club became the area's hot spot: guests were transported from the beach to the country club for a day on the golf course. In the second year of operations, the Kaskels hosted the first Doral Open Invitational, Florida's major PGA event. Alfred offered $50,000 in prize money to attract well-known golfers. According to the South Florida Golf Foundation, at the time only three other tournaments were held in Florida, offering a combined total of $65,000 prize money. By the early 1980s, Doral started to experience its first residential growth spurt, when Alfred's and Doris' grandson Bill developed Doral Estates, followed by a joint venture with Lennar Corporation to build Doral Park. Both communities were named after the hotel, a trend, to be repeated many more times. Although younger families started flooding the area, there were schools, or parks.
Most new homes were investment properties or second homes, but early full-time residents started coming together as a community. From 1983 to 1985, Miami-Dade County imposed a building moratorium to protect the area's water wells. Once the ban was lifted, Doral experienced tremendous growth. In 1989, Morgan Levy helped organize the West Dade Federation of Homeowner Associations to stand strong against any proposals that threatened the community's welfare. Thus, they secured a police station instead of a jail, as well as convinced county officials to implement higher development standards as well as more lighting and landscaping. In 1995, residents began lobbying for incorporation in earnest, dissatisfied with the high tax rate relative to the services they received, as well as unchecked growth; the county met the first attempt at incorporation with a year's deferral. Some classified Doral as a "donor community," meaning that the taxes paid were more than the cost of operations. With the deferral, incorporation efforts intensified more.
In 1996, the community elected its first community council: Jose "Pepe" Cancio, Sr. Mario Pita and Barbara B. Thomas were elected and three other members were appointed; the council met once every month. In 2002, Governor Jeb Bush appointed Cancio to fill the remainder of Miami-Dade Commissioner Miriam Alonso's term of office. Doral residents hoped that his appointment would bring the community closer to incorporation, their hopes were realized. Although Cancio endorsed Juan Carlos Bermudez, the City of Doral's first elected Mayor, as his replacement on the Community Council, Bermudez declined the offer, ran for the seat and was elected. At the time, Bermudez was president of One Doral, a civic organization formed to counteract the perceived influence of the West Dade Federation on the new Council. However, both One Doral and the West Dade Federation proved essential to the incorporation process. In January 2003, following a seven-year battle, 85% of Doral's voters voted in favor of incorporation.
In June of the same year, 92% voted to accept the City Charter and elected their first Mayor and City Council. The new City of Doral was named as an attractive location for entrepreneurs with an interest in the Latin America market. Mayor Luigi Boria, elected in November 2012, became the second Venezuelan-American mayor in the United States, he was replaced by Juan Carlos Bermudez who won a reelection bid in 2016. The city of Doral has its own newspaper, "Doral Community Newspapers, published bi-weekly and is part of Miami Community Newspapers