Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing
John Eaton (politician)
John Henry Eaton was an American politician and diplomat from Tennessee who served as U. S. Senator and as Secretary of War in the administration of Andrew Jackson, he was 28 years old when he entered the Senate, making him the youngest U. S. Senator in history. Eaton was a lawyer in Tennessee who became part of a network that supported the political campaigns of Andrew Jackson, he served in the militia as a major, during the War of 1812 became an aide to Jackson. After serving in the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1815 and 1816, in 1818 Eaton was elected to the United States Senate, though he had not yet reached the constitutionally mandated age of 30. Following Jackson's election to the presidency in 1828, Eaton resigned his Senate seat to join Jackson's cabinet as Secretary of War. Eaton and his wife Peggy became the focus of controversy during Jackson's first term; the wives of the vice president, cabinet members, members of Congress looked down on Peggy because of the circumstances of her marriage to Eaton.
Eaton resigned as Secretary of War as part of a strategy to resolve the controversy. S. Minister to Spain. Upon returning to the United States in 1840, Eaton refused to endorse incumbent Martin Van Buren for reelection to the presidency, angering Jackson. In retirement, Eaton resided in Washington, he died there in 1856, was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery. John Eaton was born on June 18, 1790 near Scotland Neck, Halifax County, North Carolina to John and Elizabeth Eaton; the elder John Eaton was a furniture maker who served as county coroner and member of the North Carolina House of Representatives. Eaton's uncle, Major Pinketham Eaton, was a Continental Army officer who died in combat during the Revolutionary War. Eaton's father owned a large amount of land in middle Tennessee, the 1790 census lists him as the owner of 12 slaves; the younger Eaton attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1802 to 1804. He studied law, attained admission to the bar, moved to Franklin, where he established a law practice.
Eaton became active in the Tennessee militia, attained the rank of major. He developed a close friendship with Andrew Jackson, served as an aide to Jackson during the Creek War and the War of 1812. Eaton took part in all Jackson's major campaigns, he supported Jackson's controversial decision in November 1814 to attack Pensacola in Spanish Florida, claiming that Spain had put herself in a belligerent position by allowing its territory to be occupied by British soldiers. Eaton participated in the Battle of New Orleans, became a major proponent of Jackson's presidential candidacy following the war. From 1815 to 1816, Eaton was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives. In 1818, he was elected to serve as a United States Senator from Tennessee, he served until 1829, his age of 28 at the time of his entry to the Senate was notable. S. Constitution's requirement. During the early years after the creation of the United States, personal details including date of birth were not always well-documented.
Eaton, Henry Clay, Armistead Thomson Mason, others all served in Senate before they had attained the required age. Eaton's age of 28 makes him the youngest person known to have served in the Senate. Unlike many Southerners, Eaton supported the Missouri Compromise of 1820. On March 11, 1820, in a letter to Jackson, he claimed that "it has preserved piece and dissipated angry feelings, dispelled appearances which seemed dark and horrible and threatening to the interest and harmony of the nation." He remained a close friend of Jackson, while in the Senate supported the Jacksonian movement. He urged Jackson to accept an appointment as Governor of the newly acquired Territory of Florida in 1821, which he did. From 1827 to 1829, Eaton served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on the District of Columbia. John Reid, another Jackson aide, began a biography of Jackson in 1816, but died before the work was completed. Eaton finished the book, published as The Life of Andrew Jackson; this book was reissued in time for the 1824 presidential election and republished for campaigns, became a primary reference for future Jackson biographers.
In 1822, Eaton and William Berkeley Lewis attempted to nominate a candidate before the Tennessee legislature to oppose incumbent U. S. Senator John Williams, against Jackson's candidacy for president in 1824. After being unable to find a viable candidate, they nominated Jackson himself; the strategy was successful, Jackson won. Eaton helped advance Jackson's campaign for president through the Letters of Wyoming, which were printed in newspapers. In them, Eaton praised Jackson's record, he celebrated some of Jackson's most controversial actions, such as the suspension of habeas corpus in New Orleans in 1815. "Washington would have done the same," he asserted. In 1825, Eaton received an honorary degree from the University of North Carolina. Eaton supported the Tariff of 1828, or the "Tariff of Abominations." In 1813, Eaton married his first wife, Myra Lewis, the daughter of William Terrell Lewis, a prominent Tennessee businessman and landowner. After the death of their father, Ja
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Fort Barrancas or Fort San Carlos de Barrancas is a United States military fort and National Historic Landmark in the former Warrington area of Pensacola, located physically within Naval Air Station Pensacola, developed around it. The hill-top fort, connected to a sea level water battery, overlooks Pensacola Bay. From 1839–1844, the historic Spanish fort on the hill was reconstructed and expanded in brick; this is now termed "Fort Barrancas". The older, water battery downhill has been separately named as "Fort San Carlos", it is a remnant from the Spanish fortification, the wooden Fort San Carlos de Barrancas of the late 18th century. Due to changing requirements, the U. S. Army deactivated Fort Barrancas on April 15, 1947 following World War II. Designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, the fort was transferred to the control and administration of the National Park Service in 1971. After extensive restoration during 1971-1980, Fort Barrancas was opened to the public. Fort Barrancas was built on the site of numerous previous forts, including Fort San Carlos de Austria, constructed by the Spanish in 1698.
It was besieged in 1707 by Indians under the general leadership of some English traders, but was not taken. In 1719 French forces destroyed the Spanish fort. Following Britain's defeat of the French in the Seven Years' War, in 1763 it exchanged some territory with Spain and took over West Florida; the British used this site as a harbor fortification, building the Royal Navy Redoubt in 1763. More than a decade as enemies of the British, the Spanish joined the war against them in 1779 during the American Revolutionary War, though they never became American allies, they took Pensacola in 1781. After the war, the Spanish retook control of West Florida, they completed the fort San Carlos de Barrancas in 1797. Barranca is a Spanish word for bluff, the natural terrain feature that makes this location ideal for the fortress. During the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom, the fort was the scene of the American victory at the Battle of Pensacola; this was fought between American forces commanded by General Andrew Jackson as well as some Indian allies, the allied forces of the British and Creeks.
American units raided West Florida. In 1818, the Spanish garrison of the fort exchanged cannon fire with an American battery for a few days; the U. S. force was led by General Jackson. The Spanish surrendered the fort, leaving Pensacola in American hands; when the United States purchased Florida from Spain in 1821, it selected Pensacola as the site for a major Navy Yard, developed around the Spanish Fort Barrancas. In addition, the US developed plans for construction of additional harbor fortifications to protect this deepwater bay. Fort Pickens was completed on Santa Rosa Island in 1834, Fort McRee was completed in 1839 to defend the pass to Pensacola Bay. Fort Barrancas was reconstructed and expanded with brick between 1839–1844 on its hilltop overlooking the bay, it was strengthened to defend against both ships entering the attack across land. The Advanced Redoubt was built north of the fort, a trenchline connected them; this system protected the Navy Yard to the east from infantry attacks. The expanded Fort Barrancas was designed by Joseph Gilbert Totten.
It was connected to the Spanish-built water-battery by an underground walkway tunnel. Major William Henry Chase supervised the construction, done by enslaved African-American workers. January 8, 1861, more than three months before the American Civil War started at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, a company of 50 U. S. Army soldiers stationed at Fort Barrancas, under the command of John H. Winder fired upon a militia; this militia was Florida state troops under Colonel William Henry Chase demanding that the U. S. troops surrender the fort. Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer, acting commander in Winder's absence, had the troops fire shots meant to repel the militia. Lt Slemmer knew that Fort Pickens was easier to defend, so he spiked the guns at Barrancas, loaded ammunition and supplies on a flatboat, moved his company across the bay to Fort Pickens; the Union held this fort throughout the Civil War. The Confederacy stationed soldiers from Alabama and Mississippi at Fort Barrancas. While a small company of soldiers could man the fort the Confederate Army fortified the position with additional sand batteries along the coast, to be operated by the garrison.
General Braxton Bragg took command of Confederate Pensacola on March 11, 1861, continued work on the batteries. On October 9, a Confederate force of 1000 troops landed east of Fort Pickens, but was repelled by Union forces. Fort McRee and Fort Barrancas exchanged heavy cannon fire with Fort Pickens on November 22–23, 1861 and January 1, 1862. But, in May 1862, after learning that the Union Army had taken New Orleans, Confederate troops abandoned Pensacola. Stronger, rifled cannon and ironclad ships developed during the Civil War made masonry forts like Fort Barrancas outmoded; the fort was used as a signal station, small arms range, storage area by the Army until 1946. Newer weapon technology developed during World War II made coastal defense obsolete. On April 15, 1947, Fort Barrancas was deactivated; the U. S. Navy incorporated the site into Naval Air Station Pensacola. At the same time, local leaders and the National Park Service were working to designate the harbor defenses of Pensacola as a historic national monument.
In 1971, Congress authorized the establishment of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, to be managed by the National Park Service. Fort Barrancas was
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
Pinckney's Treaty commonly known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It defined the border between the United States and Spanish Florida, guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River. With this agreement, the first phase of the ongoing border dispute between the two nations in this region called the West Florida Controversy, came to a close; the treaty's full title is Treaty of Friendship and Navigation Between Spain and the United States. Thomas Pinckney negotiated the treaty for the United States and Don Manuel de Godoy represented Spain, it was presented to the United States Senate on February 26, 1796, after debate, was ratified on March 7, 1796. It was ratified by Spain on April 25, 1796 and ratifications were exchanged on that date; the treaty was proclaimed on August 3, 1796. In 1763, Great Britain established two colonies—East Florida and West Florida—out of territory along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast taken from France and Spain following the French and Indian War.
From Spain the British received all of Spanish Florida, from France received the portion of French Louisiana east of the Mississippi River – New Orleans plus all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi had been secretly given to Spain the previous year. Both East and West Florida, never extensively colonized by the British, were ceded to Spain in the 1783 Treaty of Paris at the end of the American Revolutionary War; when this transaction was made however, the boundaries of West Florida, which had changed while under British sovereignty, were not specified. In 1763 West Florida's northern border was set at the 31st parallel north, but was moved in 1764 to 32° 22′ in order to give the West Floridians more territory, including the Natchez District and the Tombigbee District. After reacquiring the colony, Spain insisted that its West Florida claim extended to 32° 22′, but the U. S. asserted that the land between 31° and 32° 22′ had always been British territory, therefore rightfully belonged to the United States.
In 1784, the Spanish closed New Orleans to American goods coming down the Mississippi River. In 1795, the border was settled, the US and Spain concluded a trade agreement. New Orleans was reopened, Americans could transfer goods without paying cargo fees when they transferred goods from one ship to another. Established the southern boundary of the United States with the Spanish colonies of East Florida and West Florida as: a line beginning on the River Mississippi at the 31st parallel north drawn due east to the middle of the Chattahoochee River and, from there, downstream along the middle of the river to the junction with the Flint River and, from there, due east to the headwaters of the St. Marys River and, from there, along the middle of the channel to the Atlantic Ocean. Stipulated that a joint Spanish–American team would survey the boundary line. Established the western boundary of the United States with the Spanish colony of Louisiana, as: the middle of the Mississippi River from the northern boundary of the United States to the 31st degree north latitude.
S. citizens would have free navigation along the full length of the Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean. The United States and Spain agreed not to incite native tribes to warfare and to promote mutually beneficial trade relationships the tribe on both sides of the border. Spain had been supplying weapons to local tribes for many years; the agreement put the lands of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations of American Indians within the new boundaries of the United States. Spain and the United States agreed to protect and defend the vessels of the other party anywhere within their jurisdictions and not to detain or embargo the other's citizens or vessels. A joint Spanish–American team surveyed the boundary line. Andrew Ellicott served as the head of the U. S. contingent. The region that Spain relinquished its claim to through Pinckney's treaty was organized by Congress as Mississippi Territory on April 7, 1798. Natchez was the territory's only capital. Grant argues that the treaty was critical for the emergence of American expansionism because control of the Natchez and Tombigbee districts were needed for America's dominance of the Southwest.
The collapse of Spanish power in the region was inevitable as Americans poured into the district, few Spaniards lived there. Spain gave up not local unrest. Spanish rule was accepted by the British settlers near Natchez. Relations with the Indians were tranquil. However, with the loss of Natchez, Spain's frontier was no longer secure, the rest of its territory was lost piecemeal. Under the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso of October 1, 1800, Spanish Louisiana—comprising both the vast territory west of the Mississippi and New Orleans—was formally retroceded to France. Again, as in 1783, the boundaries of the territory being exchanged were not specified; as a result, when France and the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a new dispute, the second phase of the West Florida Controversy, arose. This time, the disagreement was over whether the portion of West Florida first under British and Spanish control since 1763 (between