William II of Holland
William II of Holland was a Count of Holland and Zeeland. He was elected as German anti-king in 1247 and remained king until his death and he was the son of Floris IV and Matilda of Brabant. When his father was killed at a tournament at Corbie, William was only seven years old and his uncles and Otto, were his guardians until 1239. With the help of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and the archbishop of Cologne, the next year, he decided to extend his fathers hunting residence to a palace which met his new status. This would be called the Binnenhof and was the beginning of the city of The Hague, after a siege of five months, William took Aachen from Fredericks followers. Only could he be crowned as king and his power never extended beyond the Rhineland. In his home county, William fought with Flanders for control of Zeeland and he made himself count of Zeeland. In July 1253, he defeated the Flemish army at Westkapelle and his anti-Flemish policy worsened his relationship with France. From 1254, he fought a number of wars against the West Frisians and he built some strong castles in Heemskerk and Haarlem and created roads for the war against the Frisians.
William gave city rights to Haarlem, Delft, s-Gravenzande and Alkmaar, William married Elizabeth, daughter of Otto the Child, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1252. They had, Floris V, Count of Holland, in battle near Hoogwoud on 28 January 1256, William tried to traverse a frozen lake by himself, because he was lost, but his horse fell through the ice. In this vulnerable position, William was killed by the Frisians and his body was recovered 26 years by his son Floris V, who took terrible vengeance on the West-Frisians. William was buried in Middelburg, contemporary sources, including the chronicle of Melis Stoke, portray William as an Arthurian hero. A golden statue of William can be found on the Binnenhof in The Hague, the inner court of the parliamentary complex of the Netherlands
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. As a commercial and industrial city with a port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region. Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and eleventh in Germany, Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen is home to dozens of galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums. Bremen has a reputation as a working class city, along with this, Bremen is home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec, four-time German football champions Werder Bremen are based in the city. Bremen is some 60 km south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea, with Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC, burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since The Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemys Fourth Map of Europe, written in 150 AD, but Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, and by these dates Phabiranon is situated northeast of the mouth of river Visurgis. At that time the Chauci lived in the now called north-western Germany or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons, during the Saxon Wars the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum which stated that Saxons were not allowed to worship Odin, in 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. The citys first stone walls were built in 1032, around this time trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.
The city was recognised as an entity with its own laws. Property was to be inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremens status of imperial immediacy, since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, in 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000, around this time the Hansekogge became a unique product of Bremen
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Floris V, Count of Holland
Floris V reigned as Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1256 until 1296. His life was documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by Melis Stoke and his dramatic murder, engineered by King Edward I of England and Guy, Count of Flanders, made him a hero in Holland. He was the son of Count William II, who was slain in 1256 by Frisians when Floris was just two old, and Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg. First his uncle, his aunt fought over custody of Holland, at the battle of Reimerswaal on 22 January 1263, Count Otto II, Count of Guelders defeated Aleidis and was chosen regent by the nobles who opposed Aleidis. Otto II served as Floris Vs guardian until he was years old. Floris’s mother continued to reside in Holland after her husband’s death in 1256 and she died on 27 May 1266 and is buried in Middelburg abbey church. She died in the year that Count Floris V was declared old enough to rule without guardianship. Floris was supported by the count of Hainaut of the house of Avesnes, Floris married Beatrix of Dampierre, the daughter of Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders, in 1269.
In 1272 he unsuccessfully attacked the Frisians in a first attempt to retrieve the body of his father and Herman were supported by the craftsmen of Utrecht, the peasants of Kennemerland and Amstelland and the West Frisians. He assisted the bishop, John I of Nassau, by making a treaty with the craftsmen. The bishop would become dependent on Hollands support, and eventually added the lands of the lords to Holland in 1279. He gave concessions to the peasants of Kennemerland, Kennemerland was a duneland, where the farmers had far fewer rights than the farmers in the polders. Floris got rid of the Avesnes influence and switched allegiance to the Dampierres, in 1282 he again attacked the troublesome Frisians in the north, defeating them at the battle of Vronen, and succeeded in retrieving the body of his father. After a campaign in 1287–1288 he finally defeated the Frisians, in the meantime he had received Zeeland-bewester-Schelde as a loan from the Holy Roman King Rudolf I of Germany in 1287, but the local nobility sided with the count of Flanders who invaded in 1290.
Floris arranged a meeting with count Guy of Flanders, but he was taken prisoner in Biervliet and was forced to abandon his claims and set free. After Edward I moved his trade in wool from Dordrecht in Holland to Mechelen in Brabant, to gain Flanderss support against France, Edward I now prohibited all English trade with Holland and conspired with Guy of Flanders to have Floris kidnapped and taken to France. The humiliated lords Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel and Herman of Woerden enter the scene again as part of the conspiracy, together with Gerard van Velsen they captured Floris during a hunting party and brought him to Muiderslot castle. The news of the spread quickly, afraid of the people
Corbie is a commune of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The small town is situated 15 km up river from Amiens and it lies in the valley of the River Somme, at the confluence of the River Ancre. The town is bisected by the Canal de la Somme and this Satellite photograph shows it in its context. The town is to the left and the fenny Somme valley winds down to it from the right, the chalk of the Upper Cretaceous plateau shows pale in the fields. The River Ancre flows down from the north-east, the A29 is shown under construction snaking across the chalk in the southern part of the picture. The fainter, straight line just to its north is the road N29 and it passes through Villers-Bretonneux, the village just south of Corbie. The town of Corbie grew up round Corbie Abbey, founded in 657 or 660 by the queen regent Bathilde and its scriptorium came to be one of the centres of work of manuscript illumination when the art was still fairly new in western Europe. In this early, period the work of Corbie was innovative in that it showed pictures of people, for example and it was the place of creation, in about 780, of the influential Caroline minuscule script.
The contents of its library are known from catalogues of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, in 1638, Cardinal Richelieu ordered the transfer of the librarys books to the library at Saint-Germain-des-Prés, which was dispersed at the end of the eighteenth century. In 1234, Floris IV, Count of Holland died at a tournament held here, in 1475, the town was taken by Louis XI. The Spanish took it on 15 August 1636 but were ousted in November by Richelieu, in 1918, Corbie was on the margin of the battlefield of Villers-Bretonneux at which the First Battle of the Somme of the Spring Offensive came to a climax. Abbey of St. Peter Town Hall Church of la Neuville, at the north-west end of the town Adalard of Corbie, in 822, he founded Corvey Abbey on the territory of Höxter in Westphalia. Adela of France, Countess of Flanders, countess of Corbie, married Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, their son, Baldwin of Mons became Baldwin VI, Saint Colette, reformer of the Franciscan Order Eugène Lefebvre, aviation pioneer, born at Corbie 4 October 1878.
He was the first pilot to be killed at the controls of his aeroplane,7 September 1909 Höxter, Germany Pickering, Great Britain Communes of the Somme department INSEE Nordenfalk, western European Illuminated Manuscripts 8th to 16th centuries
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Margaret of Holland, Countess of Henneberg
Margaret of Henneberg was a daughter of Count Floris IV of Holland and his wife, Matilda of Brabant. Margaret married on Pentecost of 1249 to Count Herman I of Henneberg-Coburg and this marriage had political background, because Hermann had hoped to be elected King of the Germans earlier in 1246, but had lost to Margarets brother William II. In an attempt to strengthen his influence in Germany, William had arranged a marriage between his sister and a German count, Margaret of Henneberg and her husband lived in Coburg, although the couple owned a residence in Loosduinen, where they frequently stayed. Their eldest son, was born in 1250 and died young and he was buried in the church of Loosduinen. Before her death she was able to some letters about her inheritance to her nephew Floris V of Holland. She died on Good Friday of 1276 and, like her first son, from notes made by her widower, it is known that her death was unusual. Later, however, a legend was formed that she had died in childbirth after giving birth to no fewer than 365 children, an early form of this legend can be found in the 14th-century Tafel van Egmond, which can be found in the University Library of Utrecht.
It briefly reports that she died giving birth to 364 sons. They were all buried together in Loosduinen, where a still exists. Another 14th-century source is De Clerks Kronyk van Holland and it gives a reason for the unusual multiple births. Margaret had on one occasion insulted a mother of twins with the assertion that these children would have to have two different fathers, as a punishment, she had been bewitched. The Kronyk mentions that 365 mouse-sized children were baptized in a large vessel, Hermann Korner wrote his Chronica Novella between 1415 and 1535. Here, we find the legend in an embellished form, the mother of twins now has a name, and is described as a personal enemy of Margaret, who is described as the wife of Count John of Holland. Simon, Catherines husband, had rejected her and she was sent to prison. Then Margaret had given birth to 364 children, and Simon had had second thoughts, the 364 children are described as tiny as crabs and as having died after baptism in a large vessel.
The story is reported by Jan van Naaldwijk in his Croonijcke van Holland. In his version of the story, Herman of Henneberg was present at the birth, in this version of the story, the mother of the twins is a beggar. It has the details that the baptism was performed by Bishop Guido of Utrecht, and that all the boys were given the name of John
Henry I, Duke of Brabant
Henry I of Brabant, named The Courageous, was a member of the House of Reginar and first Duke of Brabant from 1183/84 until his death. He was possibly born in Leuven, the son of Count Godfrey III of Louvain and his wife Margaret and his father held the title of a Landgrave of Brabant, Duke of Lower Lorraine and margrave of Antwerp. Henry early appeared as a co-ruler of his father, in 1179 he married Matilda of Boulogne, daughter of Marie of Boulogne and Matthew of Alsace and on this occasion received the County of Brussels from his father. He acted as a regent while Count Godfrey III went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1182 to 1184, in 1183 Henry took the title of a Duke of Brabant. Upon the death of his father in 1190, King Henry VI confirmed the elevation of Brabant, Duke Henry sought to expand his power and soon picked several quarrels with the Count Baldwin V of Hainaut. He was in opposition to the German king when his brother Albert of Louvain was elected Bishop of Liège and murdered shortly afterwards.
Further conflicts with Duke Henry III of Limburg and Count Otto I of Guelders followed, here he acted as regent until the arrival of the new King, Amalric II. He fought against Philips seconders Count Dirk VII of Holland and Count Otto of Guelders, however, he switched sides in 1204, in 1208, after the assassination of Philip, Henry was proposed as successor by King Philip II. In the war followed, he finally reached a reconciliation with Emperor Otto IV. Together they fought against King Philip in the 1214 Battle of Bouvines, in 1213, Duke Henry suffered a heavy defeat against the Bishopric of Liège in the Battle of Steppes. From 1217 to 1218 he joined the Fifth Crusade to Egypt, under Henry I, there was town policy and town planning. Among the towns to which the duke gave city rights and trade privileges was s-Hertogenbosch, in 1235 the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II appointed Henry to travel to England to bring him his fiancée Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of King John Lackland. Unfortunately, Henry fell ill on his way back and died at Cologne and he was buried in St.
Peters Church at Leuven where his Late Romanesque effigy can still be seen
Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is now part of the new region of Hauts-de-France and it is located in the northern part of France. The historical province of Picardy stretched from north of Noyon to Calais, via the whole of the Somme department, the province of Artois separated Picardy from French Flanders. From the 5th century the area was part of the Frankish Empire, and in the period it encompassed the six countships of Boulogne, Ponthieu, Amiénois, Vermandois. According to the 843 Treaty of Verdun the region part of West Francia. The name Picardy was not used until the 12th or 13th century, during this time, the name applied to all lands where the Picard language was spoken, which included all the territories from Paris to the Netherlands. In the Latin Quarter of Paris, people identified a Picard Nation of students at Sorbonne University, during the Hundred Years War, Picardy was the centre of the Jacquerie peasant revolt in 1358.
From 1419 onwards, the Picardy counties were gradually acquired by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good, in 1477, King Louis XI of France led an army and occupied key towns in Picardy. By the end of 1477, Louis would control all of Picardy, in the 16th century, the government of Picardy was created. This became a new region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the half of the Aisne département. In 1557, Picardy was invaded by Habsburg forces under the command of Emmanuel Philibert, after a seventeen-day siege, St. Quentin would be ransacked, while Noyon would be burned by the Habsburg army. In the 17th century, a disease similar to English sweat originated from the region. It was called Suette des picards or Picardy sweat, the sugar industry has continued to play a prominent role in the economy of the region. One of the most significant historical events to occur in Picardy was the series of battles fought along the Somme during World War I.
From September 1914 to August 1918, four major battles, including the Battle of the Somme, were fought by British and German forces in the fields of Northern Picardy. In 2009, the Regional Committee for local government reform proposed to reduce the number of French regions, Picardy would have disappeared, and each department would have joined a nearby region. The Oise would have incorporated in the Île-de-France, the Somme would have been incorporated in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands, located in the northeast of the country. It is bordered by Overijssel to the south, Friesland to the west, Groningen to the north, in January 2017, it had a population of 491,867 and a total area of 2,683 km2. Drenthe has been populated for 150,000 years, the region has subsequently been part of the Bishopric of Utrecht, Habsburg Netherlands, Dutch Republic, Batavian Republic, Kingdom of Holland, and the Netherlands. Drenthe is a province since 1796. The capital and seat of the government is Assen. The Kings Commissioner of Drenthe is Jacques Tichelaar, the Labour Party is the largest party in the States-Provincial, followed by the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy and the Christian Democratic Appeal. Drenthe is a populated rural area, unlike many other parts of the Netherlands. Except for some industry in Assen and Emmen, the land in Drenthe is mainly used for agriculture, the name Drenthe is said to stem from *thrija-hantja meaning three lands.
Drenthe has been populated by people since prehistory, artifacts from the Wolstonian Stage are among the oldest found in the Netherlands. In fact, it was one of the most densely populated areas of the Netherlands until the Bronze Age. The most tangible evidence of this are the dolmens built around 3500 BC.53 of the 54 dolmens in the Netherlands can be found in Drenthe, Drenthe was first mentioned in a document from 820, it was called Pago Treanth. In archives from Het Utrechts Archief, from 1024 to 1025, the county Drenthe is mentioned, after long being subject to the Utrecht diocese, Bishop Henry of Wittelsbach in 1528 ceded Drenthe to Emperor Charles V of Habsburg, who incorporated it into the Habsburg Netherlands. The successor Batavian Republic granted it provincial status on 1 January 1796, shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, the Dutch government built a camp near the town of Hooghalen to accommodate German refugees. During the Second World War, the German occupiers used the camp as a Durchgangslager, many Dutch Jews, Roma, resistance combatants and political adversaries were imprisoned before being transferred to concentration and extermination camps in Germany and Poland.
Anne Frank was deported on the last train leaving the Westerbork transit camp on 3 September 1944, in the 1970s, there were four hostage crises where South Moluccan terrorists demanded an independent Republic of South Maluku. They held hostages in hijacked trains in 1975 and 1977, in a school in 1977. Drenthe is the 9th largest province of the Netherlands and it has a total area of 2,683 km2, with 2,639 km2 of land and 44 km2 of water. About 72% of the land or 1,898 km2 is used for agriculture, Drenthe has several heathlands and no significant rivers or lakes
Count of Holland
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. The first count of Holland, Dirk I, was the son or foster-son of Gerolf and he received land around Egmond from Charles the Fat at a place called Bladella in 922. This is seen as the beginning of the county of Holland, until about 1100, the usual names for the county were West-Friesland, Frisia or Kennemerland, in spite of this the counts from Dirk I onwards are named of Holland. Note that the chronology of the first few counts is uncertain and this third Count Dirk is placed between Dirk I and II and numbered as Dirk I bis to avoid confusion with the already established numbering referring to the other counts of Holland named Dirk. John of Avesnes was a son of Adelaide of Holland, sister of William II of Holland, during the rule of Margaret, her son William V had the real power in the county. He became ruler in his own right as a result of the Hook and he was Duke of Bavaria-Straubing as William I.
This war was won by Philip of Burgundy in 1432. Philip was a nephew of William VI, who had married a daughter of Philip the Bold of Burgundy, in 1432 he forced Jacqueline to abdicate from Hainaut and Holland on his behalf. In 1581, the Estates General of the United Provinces declared themselves independent from the Spanish rule of Philip II. Until the Treaty of Münster in 1648, the kings of Spain still used the title Count of Holland, but they had lost the actual power over the county to the States of Holland. Philip IV, King Philip III of Spain Philip V, King Philip IV of Spain The County remained in existence as a constituent member state of the Dutch Republic until 1795. There were no more Counts however since the Estates of Holland, the Stadtholders, who were servants of the Estates were the de facto Chief-Executives during this period. Counts of Holland family tree A book of 32 plates of the counts of Holland published in Amsterdam in 1663, engraved by Adriaen Matham B. K. S. Dijkstra, Een stamboom in been, Amsterdam 1991