In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team. The title is honorary, but in some cases the captain may have significant responsibility for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers. In association football and cricket, a captain is known as a skipper. Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules. In many team sports, the captains represent their respective teams when the match official does the coin toss at the beginning of the game. Various sports have differing responsibilities for team captains; some of the greatest captains in history are the ones with the most subtle of traits that are required for success. From Sam Walker in his book "The Captain Class" he states that a captain is "the most important factor for a team's success".
The responsibilities of a captain vary from sport to sport. In sports like cricket or volleyball, the decision for the two teams to be on either defense or offense is determined with a coin toss and a decision made by the captains; this decision is crucial for the captain because they will decide the beginning of the game and quite how it all plays out. A captain is the first one a referee looks to while explaining the results of a play or giving a foul, or flag. Oftentimes a referee will not discuss these matters with any other player than a coach; this is important because the reaction of the captain may or may not determine how the referee will proceed. A captain must stay calm and cool headed when talking with a referee to ensure the most accurate determinants of the game. Manager Captain Captain Captain Captain Captain
Hans Jorritsma is a retired field hockey player from the Netherlands. He competed at the 1976 Olympics and 1978 World Cup, where his teams finished in fourth and second place, respectively. For political reasons Jorritsma refused to receive his World Cup silver medal from the hands of Jorge Rafael Videla, he retired from competitions the same year. Between 1975 and 1978 Jorritsma scored 1 goal. Jorritsma was the national field hockey coach in 1987–1990 and 1991–1993. After that he headed the national teams of South Africa and Pakistan, in 1996 was appointed as the manager of the Dutch association football team
Hockey World Cup
The Men's Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation. The tournament was started in 1971, it is held every four years. There is a Women's Hockey World Cup, held since 1974 and was organised by the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations until 1981, when the governing bodies merged into the current International Hockey Federation in 1982. Pakistan is the most successful team; the Netherlands and Australia have each won three titles, Germany has won two titles. Belgium and India have both won the tournament once; the 2018 tournament was held in India from 28 November to 16 December. Belgium defeated Netherlands in a penalty shoot-out 3–2 after the match ended in a 0–0 tie to win their first World Cup title; the World Cup expanded to 16 teams in 2018, FIH will evaluate the possibility of increasing it to 24 in 2022. The Hockey World Cup was first conceived by Pakistan's Air Marshal Nur Khan, he proposed his idea to the FIH through the first editor of World Hockey magazine.
Their idea was approved on 26 October 1969, adopted by the FIH Council at a meeting in Brussels on 12 April 1970. The FIH decided that the inaugural World Cup would be held in Pakistan. However, political issues would prevent that first competition from being played in Pakistan; the FIH had inadvertently scheduled the first World Cup to be played in Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Furthermore and India had been at war with each other only six years earlier; when Pakistan invited India to compete in the tournament, a crisis arose. Pakistanis, led by cricketer Abdul Hafeez Kardar, protested against India's participation in the Hockey World Cup. Given the intense political climate between Pakistan and India, the FIH decided to move the tournament elsewhere. In March 1971, coincidentally in the same month Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan, the FIH decided to move the first Hockey World Cup to the Real Club de Polo grounds in Barcelona, considered a neutral and peaceful European site.
The FIH has set no limitations on the size of the competition. The 1971 Cup included the smallest World Cup to date; the 1978 Cup featured fourteen nations. The 2002 Cup featured the largest World Cup to date; the remaining 9 World Cups have featured 12 nations. The first three tournaments were held every two years; the 1978 cup was the only tournament held three years from the previous one. It has continued that way. In other words, the tournament has been held every four years since; the Hockey World Cup trophy was created by the Pakistani Army. On 27 March 1971, in Brussels, the trophy was formally handed to FIH President Rene Frank by Mr H. E Masood, the Pakistani Ambassador to Belgium; the trophy consists of a silver cup with an intricate floral design, surmounted by a globe of the world in silver and gold, placed on a high blade base inlaid with ivory. At its peak is a model hockey stick and ball. Without its base, the trophy stands 120.85 mm high. Including the base, the trophy stands 650 mm, it weighs 11,560 g, including 6,815 g of silver, 350 g of ivory and 3,500 g of teak.
The Hockey World Cup consists of a final tournament stage. The format for each stage is the same; the qualification stage has been a part of the Hockey World Cup since 1977. All participating teams play in the qualification round; the teams compete for a berth in the final tournament. The top two teams are automatically qualified and the rest of the berths are decided in playoffs; the final tournament features other qualified teams. Sometimes it features the winners of the Summer Olympics' hockey competition or the continental runners-up; the teams play a round robin tournament. The composition of the pools is determined using the current world rankings; the top two teams in each pool play in the semifinals for a place in the final. The bottom two teams in the semifinals have a third place playoff; the rest of the teams have playoffs to determine their final positions. If they are third or fourth in their pool, they play for fifth place. Twenty four teams have qualified for a Hockey World Cup. Of these, eleven teams have made it to the semifinals.
Seven teams have made it through to the finals. To date the most successful teams are Pakistan, with four titles from six final appearances, the Netherlands, with three titles from seven final appearances, Australia with three titles from five final appearances. Germany won in 2002 and 2006, while India and Belgium won their lone titles in 1975 and 2018, respectively. Below is a list of teams that have finished in the top four positions in the tournament: * = host nation ^ = includes results representing West Germany between 1971 and 1990 # = states that have since split into two or more independent nations Nine nations have hosted the Hockey World Cup. Only the Netherlands and Germany have won the tournament as hosts. Spain and Pakistan emerged as host runners-up in the 1971, 1986 and 1990 tournaments. Australia placed third. To date, the finals of the Hockey World Cup have been contested by Asian and Oceania continental teams. European teams have won the most with six titles, followed by Asia
In field hockey, a penalty corner, sometimes known as a short corner, is a penalty given against the defending team. It is predominantly awarded for a defensive infringement in the penalty circle or for a deliberate infringement within the defensive 23-metre area, they are eagerly provide an excellent opportunity to score. There are particular rules for that only apply at penalty corners and players develop specialist skills, such as the drag flick, for this particular phase in the game; the penalty corner has always been an important part of the game, that importance has become more pronounced since artificial turf became mandatory for top-level competitions in the 1970s. The Netherlands' Paul Litjens was the former leading international scorer with 267 goals in 177 matches and was a specialist in hitting goals from penalty corners. Litjens and early specialists were accurate, hard-hitters of the ball; this led to the introduction of experts in this skill and Litjens' record was surpassed by Pakistani player Sohail Abbas, described as the "world's best" penalty corner and drag flick specialist.
India's Sandeep Singh is regarded as one of the best and has the fastest drag-flick at 145 km/h. The importance of penalty corners has drawn criticism, with the proportion of field goals scored through open play reduced as attackers look to create a foul in the penalty circle from defenders' feet, rather than shooting directly. There are six ways a penalty corner may be awarded: For an offense on an attacking player in the penalty circle that does not prevent the "probable scoring of a goal". For an intentional offence on an attacking player outside the penalty circle but within the 23-metre area they are defending For deliberately playing the ball over the backline. However, a goalkeeper is permitted to deflect the ball over the backline. For an intentional offence by a defender in their penalty circle against an opponent who "does not have possession of the ball or an opportunity to play the ball." When the ball becomes lodged in a defending player's clothing or equipment within the penalty circle.
When the ball hits a defending players foot inside the circle. To award a penalty corner, the umpire points both arms horizontally towards the respective goal. Although time in the match is not stopped, it may be prolonged beyond half-time or full-time to allow for the completion of a penalty corner, or any subsequent penalty corner or penalty stroke. However, as of September 2014, an intended rule change will give a 40-second timeout for a penalty corner; when a penalty corner is awarded, a maximum of five defending players line up behind the back line either in the goal or on the back line at least five metres from the ball. All other players on the defending team must be behind the centre line. One attacking player places themselves on the back line, with the ball in the circle at least 10 metres from the nearest goal post on either side of the goal; the remainder of the attacking team players place themselves on the field outside of the shooting circle. All players other than the attacking player on the back line must not have any part of their body or stick touch the ground inside the circle or over the centre line until the ball is in play.
The attacking player on the back line is allowed one foot within the circle, but the other foot must remain behind the back line. If any player enters the circle or crosses the centre line prematurely, or the attacking player on the back line does not have one foot outside the circle, the penalty corner is reset and taken again; when the attacking player on the back line pushes the ball into play, the players may enter the shooting circle or cross the centre line. Before a shot at goal can be taken, the ball must first travel outside the circle. In a typical penalty corner, the attacking player on the back line will push the ball to a player at the top of the circle who will stop the ball just outside the circle. Another player will take the stopped ball and push or drag it back into the circle before attempting to shoot at goal. If the first attempt at goal in a penalty corner is hit, as opposed to a flick, scoop or push, the ball must be hit so that it will be travelling no higher than the backboard in the goal at the point when it crosses the goal line, for the goal to count.
This must be assessed regardless of any deflections, so for example, if the ball is hit on a trajectory that would see it crossing the goal line below the required height a goal will be awarded if it is deflected over this height and into the goal. Conversely, it does not matter that the ball travels above 460 mm in its flight, provided it does not constitute dangerous play, so long as it drops below 460 mm under its own accord before crossing the goal line, it is still counted as a goal. Flicks, pushes and hits on second and subsequent attempts at goal may cross the goal line at any height, provided it does not constitute dangerous play; the penalty corner ends when a goal is scored, the ball is played over the back line and another penalty corner is not awarded, a penalty stroke is awarded, the defending team is awarded a free hit, or the ball travels more than 5 metres outside the circle. If the penalty corner was awarded on half or full-time the ball only has to travel outside the circle for the second time for the penalty corner to end.
The penalty corner wa
Timotheus "Tim" Bernardus Steens is a retired Dutch field hockey player, who earned a total number of 162 caps, scoring 12 goals for the Netherlands national field hockey team in the 1970s and 1980s. He played for the Dutch hockey team HC Klein Zwitserland, he was a member of the bronze medal-winning Dutch team at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Steens is the younger brother of Dutch field hockey Olympian Ron Steens. Tim Steens Olympic statistics at databaseolympics.com Profile
Jan Hidde Kruize is a former field hockey player from The Netherlands, who participated in two Summer Olympics: in Los Angeles and in Seoul. He ended up in sixth place in California with the Dutch National Men's Team, won the bronze medal in South Korea, after defeating Australia in the Bronze Medal Game. Just like his brothers Ties and Hans, his father Roepie, Kruize played club hockey for HC Klein Zwitserland from The Hague; the striker earned a total number of 95 caps, scoring 31 goals, in the years 1982–1990. He was part of the Dutch team that scored 4 goals. Dutch Hockey Federation
Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the