Gulf of California
The Gulf of California is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. It is bordered by the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa with a coastline of 4,000 km. Rivers which flow into the Gulf of California include the Colorado, Mayo, Sinaloa and the Yaqui; the gulf's surface area is about 160,000 km2. Depths range from fording at the estuary near Yuma, Arizona, to in excess of 3,000 meters in the deepest parts; the Gulf is thought to be one of the most diverse seas on the planet, is home to more than 5,000 species of micro-invertebrates. Home to over a million people, Baja California is the second-longest peninsula in the world, after the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Parts of the Gulf of California are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. AreaThe International Hydrographic Organization defines the southern limit of the Gulf of California as: "A line joining Piastla Point in Mexico, the southern extreme of Lower California".
The Gulf of California is 1,126 km long and 48–241 km wide, with an area of 177,000 km2, a mean depth of 818.08 m, a volume of 145,000 km3. The Gulf of California includes three faunal regions: the Northern Gulf of California the Central Gulf of California the Southern Gulf of CaliforniaOne recognized transition zone is termed the Southwestern Baja California Peninsula. Transition zones exist between faunal regions, they vary for each individual species. Geology Geologic evidence is interpreted by geologists as indicating the Gulf of California came into being around 5.3 million years ago as tectonic forces rifted the Baja California Peninsula off the North American Plate. As part of this process, the East Pacific Rise propagated up the middle of the Gulf along the seabed; this extension of the East Pacific Rise is referred to as the Gulf of California Rift Zone. The Gulf would extend as far as Indio, except for the tremendous delta created by the Colorado River; this delta blocks the sea from flooding the Imperial Valleys.
Volcanism dominates the East Pacific Rise. The island of Isla Tortuga is one example of this ongoing volcanic activity. Furthermore, hydrothermal vents due to extension tectonic regime, related to the opening of the Gulf of California, are found in the Bahía de Concepción, Baja California Sur. Islands The Gulf of California contains 37 major islands – the two largest being Isla Ángel de la Guarda and Tiburón Island. Most of the islands are found on the peninsular side of the gulf. In fact, many of the islands of the Sea of Cortez are the result of volcanic explosions that occurred during the early history of Baja California; the islands of Islas Marías, Islas San Francisco, Isla Partida are thought to be the result of such explosions. The formations of the islands, are not dependent on each other, they were each formed as a result of an individual structural occurrence. Several islands, including Isla Coronados, are home to volcanoes; the gulf has islands which together total about 420 hectares.
All of them as a whole were enacted as "Area Reserve and Migratory Bird Refuge and Wildlife" on August 2, 1978. In June 2000, the islands were given a new category "Protection Area Wildlife". In addition to this effort by the Mexican government, for its importance and recognition worldwide, all islands in the Gulf of California are part of the international program "Man and Biosphere" and are part of the World Reserve Network UNESCO Biosphere as Special Biosphere Reserve. Due to the vast expanse covered by this federal protected area conservation and management is carried out through a system of four regional directorates by way of co-direction. There is a regional directorate in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the work of direct and indirect conservation is done in the islands is governed by a single Management Program, published in 2000, complemented by local and specific management programs archipelagos; the Directorate of Protection Area Wildlife California Gulf Islands in Baja California is responsible for 56 islands located off the coast of the state.
These are grouped into four archipelagos: San Luis Gonzaga or Enchanted, Guardian Angel, Bahia de los Angeles and San Lorenzo. Shores and tidesThe three general types of shores found in the Gulf of California include rocky shore, sandy beach, tidal flat; some of the rich biodiversity and high endemism that characterize the Gulf of California and make it such a hotspot for fishing can be attributed to insignificant factors, such as the types of rocks that make up a shore. Beaches with softer, more porous rocks have a higher species richness than those with harder, smoother rocks. Porous rocks will have more cracks and crevices in them, making them ideal living spaces for many animals; the rocks themselves, however need to be stable on the shore for a habitat to be stable. Additionally, the color of the rocks can affect the organisms living on a shore. For example, darker rocks will be warmer than lighter ones, can deter animals that do not have a high tolerance for heat. The
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Horseshoe Bend (Arizona)
Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped incised meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona, in the United States. Horseshoe Bend is located 5 miles downstream from the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell within Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, about 4 miles southwest of Page, it is accessible via hiking a 1.5-mile round trip from U. S. Route 89. Horseshoe Bend can be viewed from the steep cliff above; the overlook is 4,200 feet above sea level, the Colorado River is at 3,200 feet above sea level, making it a 1,000-foot drop. The rock walls of Horseshoe Bend contain hematite, platinum and other minerals. By 2018 references to the location on social media had caused the number of visitors to increase significantly. Official website
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Lake Powell is a reservoir on the Colorado River, straddling the border between Utah and Arizona, United States. Most of Lake Powell, along with Rainbow Bridge National Monument, is located in Utah, it is a major vacation spot. It is the second largest man-made reservoir by maximum water capacity in the United States behind Lake Mead, storing 24,322,000 acre feet of water when full. However, due to high water withdrawals for human and agricultural consumption, because of subsequent droughts in the area, Lake Mead has fallen below Lake Powell in size several times during the 21st century in terms of volume of water and surface area. Lake Powell was created by the flooding of Glen Canyon by the Glen Canyon Dam, which led to the creation of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, a popular summer destination; the reservoir is named for explorer John Wesley Powell, a one-armed American Civil War veteran who explored the river via three wooden boats in 1869. In 1972, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area was established.
It is public land managed by the National Park Service, available to the public for recreational purposes. It lies in parts of Garfield and San Juan counties in southern Utah, Coconino County in northern Arizona; the northern limits of the lake extend at least as far as the Hite Crossing Bridge. Lake Powell is a water storage facility for the Upper Basin states of the Colorado River Compact; the Compact specifies that the Upper Basin states are to provide a minimum annual flow of 7,500,000 acre feet to the Lower Basin states. In the 1940s and early 1950s, the United States Bureau of Reclamation planned to construct a series of Colorado River dams in the rugged Colorado Plateau province of Colorado and Arizona. Glen Canyon Dam was born of a controversial damsite the Bureau selected in Echo Park, in what is now Dinosaur National Monument in Colorado. A small but politically effective group of objectors led by David Brower of the Sierra Club succeeded in defeating the Bureau's bid, citing Echo Park's natural and scenic qualities as too valuable to submerge.
By agreeing to a relocated damsite near Lee's Ferry between Glen and Grand Canyons, Brower did not realize what he had gambled away. At the time, Brower had not been to Glen Canyon; when he saw Glen Canyon on a river trip, Brower discovered that it had the kind of scenic and wilderness qualities associated with America's national parks. Over 80 side canyons in the colorful Navajo Sandstone contained clear streams, abundant wildlife, natural bridges, numerous Native American archeological sites. By however, it was too late to stop the Bureau and its commissioner Floyd Dominy from building Glen Canyon Dam. Brower believed the river should remain free, would forever after consider the loss of Glen Canyon his life's ultimate disappointment. Glen Canyon Dam was built to solve the downstream delivery obligations of the Upper Basin states. Lake Powell is an "aquatic bank" built to fulfill the terms of the "Compact Calls" of Lower Basin. If the Compact had required the Upper Basin to deliver half the flow of the Colorado in low water years, rather than a fixed amount, the burden of drought would have been spread between the basins and there would have been no need to build the dam.
It's ironic that the lake is named after John Wesley Powell, who planned to settle the West based on the facts of hydrology, not politics. Construction on Glen Canyon Dam began with a demolition blast keyed by the push of a button by President Dwight D. Eisenhower at his desk in the Oval Office on October 1, 1956; the first blast started clearing tunnels for water diversion. On February 11, 1959, water was diverted through the tunnels; that year, the bridge was completed, allowing trucks to deliver equipment and materials for the dam, for the new town of Page, Arizona. Concrete placement started around the clock on June 17, 1960; the last bucket of concrete was poured on September 13, 1963. Over 5 million cubic yards of concrete make up Glen Canyon Dam; the Dam is 710 feet high, with the surface elevation of the water at full pool being 3700 feet. Construction of the Dam cost $155 million, 18 lives were lost in the process. From 1970 to 1980, turbines and generators were installed for hydroelectricity.
On September 22, 1966, Glen Canyon Dam was dedicated by Lady Bird Johnson. Upon completion of Glen Canyon Dam on September 13, 1963, the Colorado River began to back up, no longer being diverted through the tunnels; the newly flooded Glen Canyon formed Lake Powell. Eleven years elapsed before the lake filled to the 3,700 feet level, on June 22, 1980; the lake level fluctuates depending on the seasonal snow runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The all-time highest water level was reached on July 14, 1983, during one of the heaviest Colorado River floods in recorded history, in part influenced by a strong El Niño event; the lake rose with a water content of 25,757,086 acre feet. Colorado River flows have been below average since the year 2000. In the winter of 2005 the lake reached its lowest level since filling, an elevation of 3,555.10 feet above sea level, 150 feet below full pool. Since 2005, the lake level has rebounded, although it has not filled since then. Summer 2011 saw the third largest June and the second largest July runoff since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the water level peaked at nearly 3
Cataract Canyon is a 46-mile-long canyon of the Colorado River located within Canyonlands National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area in southern Utah. It begins at the Colorado's confluence with the Green River and its downstream terminus is the confluence with the Dirty Devil River; the lower half of the canyon is submerged beneath Lake Powell when the lake is at its normal high water elevation of 3,700 feet. Cataract Canyon is cut by the Colorado River into the Colorado Plateau, a vast continental uplift comprising much of the American Southwest; until 80 million years ago, the Colorado Plateau was near sea level. Over millions of years, a series of inland oceans transgressed onto and regressed from the region, resulting in a series of horizontally deposited rock layers. 70 to 80 million years ago, a series of mountain-building events called the Laramide orogeny uplifted the entire region. The Colorado River subsequently cut through the rock layers; the oldest rock layer visible in Cataract Canyon is the Paradox Formation, deposited 320 million years ago.
Indigenous peoples, most of the Fremont culture, inhabited the Canyonlands area long before European settlers arrived. Rock art and ruins have been found in Cataract Canyon; because of the remote location, it was some time before European explorers and settlers reached the area. The Colorado River and its canyons were more of an obstacle to travel than a destination to be explored; the first recorded European to reach Cataract Canyon was a fur trapper named Denis Julien in 1836. Julien carved his name into a rock wall in the lower section of Cataract Canyon, though this inscription is now covered by Lake Powell; the first organized exploration to travel the entire length of Cataract Canyon was the Powell Expedition in 1869, led by John Wesley Powell, a one-armed Civil War veteran who launched in wooden boats near Green River and traveled down the Green River to its confluence with the Colorado River at the top of Cataract Canyon. The rapids of Cataract Canyon terrified Powell and his men; the expedition portaged their boats around every rapid in a difficult and arduous task.
Because of the difficulty of the rapids, Powell named the canyon Cataract Canyon. After exiting Cataract Canyon, Powell continued his trip downstream through Glen Canyon, now submerged by Lake Powell, the Grand Canyon before ending his trip near the mouth of the Virgin River. Other river runners soon followed. Nathanial Galloway made numerous trips through the canyon beginning in 1894. Galloway would go on to pioneer rowing techniques still used by river runners today. Brothers Emery and Ellsworth Kolb traveled through the canyon in 1911; the Kolb brothers established a studio on the south rim of the Grand Canyon where they featured videos of their exploits running the rapids of the Colorado River. Buzz Holmstrom made a solo trip through Cataract Canyon and Grand Canyon in 1937 ending at the newly constructed Hoover Dam; the first commercial outfitter to offer trips through Cataract Canyon was Norman Nevills in 1938. The advent of rubber rafts came about in the early 1950s with the availability of surplus rubber rafts from World War II.
River runners found the rubber rafts easier to maneuver and much more forgiving than their wooden counterparts. With this newer equipment, many commercial outfitters began running Grand Canyon and Cataract Canyon. Cataract Canyon remains a popular whitewater rafting destination today; the rapids in the canyon are considered "big water", with a character similar to those found in Grand Canyon. Cataract Canyon is rated on the Class I-VI International Scale of River Difficulty, unlike the Grand Canyon, rated on a scale of one to ten. Unlike Grand Canyon, the flow of the Colorado River through Cataract Canyon is far enough downstream from a dam that it is unregulated; the river can reach extreme levels during the spring runoff in years following plentiful snow throughout the Colorado River watershed. During an average spring runoff, the Colorado River will peak at 52,000 cu ft/s; the maximum recorded flow of 114,900 cu ft/s occurred on May 27, 1984. The rapids of Cataract Canyon become difficult at flows above 30,000 cu ft/s and extreme at flows above 50,000 cu ft/s.
Most rapids in Cataract Canyon are named from upstream to downstream as Rapid 1, Rapid 2, etc. However, some rapids within the canyon have separate names due to their notoriety. Notorious are the "Big Drops", a set of three rapids in short succession named "Big Drop 1", "Big Drop 2" and "Big Drop 3". During high water, these three rapids run together to form one large rapid; these rapids contain many large hydraulic features including "Little Niagara", "Satan's Gut", "The Claw". During times of high runoff, the National Park Service sometimes establishes a camp below the big drops and uses a jetboat to facilitate rescues of capsized rafts and their passengers. However, it is understood that all river runners attempting Cataract Canyon at any river level should be capable of self-rescue and not depend on the NPS for support. Cataract Canyon contained several rapids which are submerged beneath Lake Powell and have been buried in lake sediment. "Gypsum Canyon Rapid" and "Dark Canyon Rapid" in particular were considered difficult rapids to navigate.
River trips which run Cataract Canyon must run one of the flatwater sections above the confluence of the Green and Colorado Rivers. Most groups launch at Potash or Mineral Bottom and spend up to five days
Lower Colorado River Valley
The Lower Colorado River Valley is the river region of the lower Colorado River of the southwestern United States in North America that rises in the Rocky Mountains and has its outlet at the Colorado River Delta in the northern Gulf of California in northwestern Mexico, between the states of Baja California and Sonora. This north–south stretch of the Colorado River forms the border between the U. S. states of California/Arizona and Nevada/Arizona, between the Mexican states of Baja California/Sonora. It is defined as the region from below Hoover Dam and Lake Mead to its outlet at the northern Gulf of California, it is home to recreation activities from the river, the lakes created by dams and the home of various cities and towns along the river, or associated with the valley region. Five Indian reservations are located in the LCRV: the Chemehuevi, Fort Mojave and Colorado River Indian Reservations; some of the highest absolute air temperatures are recorded in the LCRV. Worldwide, only some deserts found in Africa and in the Middle East stand up with an hotter summer climate on average.
The LCRV is defined by three deserts. The Mojave Desert is in southeast California, southern Nevada, northwest Arizona. To the south is the Sonoran Desert on both sides of the Colorado River; however an ecozone delineation occurs in the transition from Arizona to southeast California. The Lower Colorado River Valley is located in the north, northwestern Sonoran Desert; the LCRV extends about 350 miles from Hoover Dam to the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Desert itself is more than twice as extensive north-to-south, about 450 miles in width. Two species, Desert Ironwood- and the Lesser Long-nosed Bat, have geographic ranges identical to the Sonoran Desert, are indicator species of the Sonoran Desert region; the spring flowering of Ironwood, the bat species migration arrivals become indicators of annual or multi-year climate trends for regions of the Sonoran Desert. The Lower Colorado River Valley subregion of the Sonoran Desert bioregion has multiple threats; some major threats include urbanization, clearing of land for agriculture, human occupancy – as a result of imported external resources, camping and camptrailers on BLM land.
Other threats include harvesting for fuelwood, etc. of desert ironwood, Olneya tesota, destruction of land by offroad vehicles in sand dunes, harvesting and manipulation of groundwater. Laughlin, Nevada in Clark County, Nevada Needles, California in San Bernardino County Bullhead City, Arizona Mojave Valley, Arizona Lake Havasu City, Arizona Vidal, California Parker, Arizona Blythe, California Quartzite, Arizona Winterhaven, California in Imperial County, California Yuma, Arizona in Yuma County, Arizona San Luis, Arizona San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora Rio Grande, the eastern river valley drainage of the Southwest USA Rio Grande Valley Category:Rio Grande Category:Fauna of the U. S. Rio Grande Valleys List of dams of the LCRV List of LCRV communities Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Elbert L, 1976, US Government Printing Office. Library of Congress No. 79-653298. Map 103, Olneya tesota. Journey of the Nectar Bats Map, Lesser Long-nosed Bat range. US Bureau of Reclamation, "Dams Along the Lower Colorado River"