2009 flu pandemic vaccine
The 2009 flu pandemic vaccines are the set of influenza vaccines that have been developed to protect against the pandemic H1N1/09 virus. These vaccines either contain inactivated influenza virus, or weakened live virus that cannot cause influenza; the killed vaccine is injected. Both these types of vaccine are produced by growing the virus in chicken eggs. Around three billion doses will be produced annually, with delivery from November 2009. In studies, the vaccine appears both effective and safe, providing a strong protective immune response and having similar safety profile to the normal seasonal influenza vaccine. However, about 30% of people have some immunity to the virus, with the vaccine conferring greatest benefit on young people, since many older people are immune through exposure to similar viruses in the past; the vaccine provides some cross-protection against the 1918 flu pandemic strain. Early results from an observational cohort of 248,000 individuals in Scotland have shown the vaccine to be effective at preventing H1N1 influenza and influenza related hospital admissions.
Developing and manufacturing sufficient quantities of a vaccine is a process that takes many months. According to Keiji Fukuda of the World Health Organization, "There's much greater vaccine capacity than there was a few years ago, but there is not enough vaccine capacity to make vaccines for the entire world's population for influenza." Nasal mist version of the vaccine started shipping on 1 October 2009. Two types of influenza vaccines are available: TIV or LAIV TIV works by putting into the bloodstream those parts of three strains of flu virus that the body uses to create antibodies. LAIV is not recommended for individuals under age 2 or over age 49, but might be comparatively more effective among children over age two. For the inactivated vaccines, the virus is grown by injecting it, along with some antibiotics, into fertilized chicken eggs. About one to two eggs are needed to make each dose of vaccine; the virus replicates within the allantois of the embryo, the equivalent of the placenta in mammals.
The fluid in this structure is removed and the virus purified from this fluid by methods such as filtration or centrifugation. The purified viruses are inactivated with a small amount of a disinfectant; the inactivated virus is treated with detergent to break up the virus into particles, the broken capsule segments and released proteins are concentrated by centrifugation. The final preparation is suspended in sterile phosphate buffered saline ready for injection; this vaccine contains the killed virus but might contain tiny amounts of egg protein and the antibiotics and detergent used in the manufacturing process. In multi-dose versions of the vaccine, the preservative thimerosal is added to prevent growth of bacteria. In some versions of the vaccine used in Europe and Canada, such as Arepanrix and Fluad, an adjuvant is added, this contains a fish oil called squalene, vitamin E and an emulsifier called polysorbate 80. For the live vaccine, the virus is first adapted to grow at 25 °C and grown at this temperature until it loses the ability to cause illness in humans, which would require the virus to grow at our normal body temperature of 37 °C.
Multiple mutations are needed for the virus to grow at cold temperatures, so this process is irreversible and once the virus has lost virulence, it will not regain the ability to infect people. To make the vaccine, the attenuated virus is grown in chicken eggs as before; the virus-containing fluid is harvested and the virus purified by filtration. The filtered preparation is diluted into a solution that stabilizes the virus; this solution contains monosodium glutamate, potassium phosphate, the antibiotic gentamicin, sugar. A new method of producing influenza virus is used to produce the Novartis vaccine Optaflu. In this vaccine the virus is grown in cell culture instead of in eggs; this method produces a purer final product. There are no traces of egg proteins in the final product, so the vaccine is safe for people with egg allergies; the WHO recommended before the H1N1/09 outbreak that vaccines for the Northern Hemisphere's 2009–2010 flu season contain an A-like virus, stocks have been made. However, the strain of H1N1 in the seasonal flu vaccine is different from the new pandemic strain H1N1/09 and offers no immunity against it.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention characterized over 80 new H1N1 viruses that may be used in a vaccine. There was concern in mid-2009 that, should a second, deadlier wave of this new H1N1 strain appear during the northern autumn of 2009, producing pandemic vaccines ahead of time could turn out to be a serious waste of resources as the vaccine might not be effective against it, there would be a shortage of seasonal flu vaccine available if production facilities were switched to the new vaccine. Seasonal flu vaccine was being made as of May 2009, according to WebMD; the news site added that although vaccine makers would be ready to switch to making a swine flu vaccine, many questions remained unanswered, including: "Should we make a
The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ S. The tropics are referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone; the tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year - thus the latitude of the tropics is equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt. The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone; the tropics contain 36 % of the Earth's landmass. As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s. "Tropical" is sometimes used in a general sense for a tropical climate to mean warm to hot and moist year-round with the sense of lush vegetation.
Many tropical areas have a wet season. The wet season, rainy season or green season is the time of year, ranging from one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls. Areas with wet seasons are disseminated across portions of the subtropics. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet-season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres or more. Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is distributed through the year; some areas with pronounced rainy seasons see a break in rainfall during mid-season when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves poleward of their location during the middle of the warm season. When the wet season occurs during the warm season, or summer, precipitation falls during the late afternoon and early evening hours; the wet season is a time when air quality improves, freshwater quality improves and vegetation grows leading to crop yields late in the season.
Floods cause rivers to overflow their banks, some animals to retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients erosion increases; the incidence of malaria increases in areas. Animals have survival strategies for the wetter regime; the previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature. However, regions within the tropics may well not have a tropical climate. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the area within the geographical tropics is classed not as "tropical" but as "dry", including the Sahara Desert, the Atacama Desert and Australian Outback. There are alpine tundra and snow-capped peaks, including Mauna Kea, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Andes as far south as the northernmost parts of Chile and Argentina. Tropical plants and animals are those species native to the tropics. Tropical ecosystems may consist of tropical rainforests, seasonal tropical forests, dry forests, spiny forests and other habitat types. There are significant areas of biodiversity, species endemism present in rainforests and seasonal forests.
Some examples of important biodiversity and high endemism ecosystems are El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan rainforests, Amazon Rainforest territories of several South American countries, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, the Waterberg Biosphere of South Africa, eastern Madagascar rainforests. The soils of tropical forests are low in nutrient content, making them quite vulnerable to slash-and-burn deforestation techniques, which are sometimes an element of shifting cultivation agricultural systems. In biogeography, the tropics are divided into Neotropics. Together, they are sometimes referred to as the Pantropic; the Neotropical region should not be confused with the ecozone of the same name. "Tropicality" refers to the geographic imagery that many people outside the tropics have of that region. The idea of tropicality gained renewed interest in modern geographical discourse when French geographer Pierre Gourou published Les Pays Tropicaux, in the late 1940s.
Tropicality encompasses at least two contradictory imageries. One is that the tropics represent a Garden of a heaven on Earth; the latter view was discussed in Western literature—more so than the first. Evidence suggests that over time the more primitive view of the tropics in popular literature has been supplanted by more nuanced interpretations that reflect historical changes in values associated with tropical culture and ecology, although some primitive associations are persistent. Western scholars theorized about the reasons that tropical areas were deemed "inferior" to regions in the Northern Hemisphere. A popular explanation focused on the differences in climate—tropical regions have much warmer weather than northern regions; this theme led some scholars, including Gourou, to argue that warmer climates correlate to primitive indigenous populations lacking control over nature, compared to northern popul
Laninamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, being researched for the treatment and prophylaxis of Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. It is in Phase III clinical trials, it is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor administered by nasal inhalation. Laninamivir was approved for influenza treatment in Japan in 2010 and for prophylaxis in 2013, it is marketed under the name Inavir by Daiichi Sankyo. Biota Pharmaceuticals and Daiichi Sankyo co-own Laninamivir. On 1 April 2011, BARDA awarded up to an estimated U$231m to Biota Pharmaceuticals wholly owned subsidiary, Biota Scientific Management Pty Ltd, for the advanced development of Laninamivir in the US, it is under clinical evaluations in other countries
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population. In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly – there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. Pandemics can cause high levels of mortality, with the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic being the worst in recorded history. There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic. Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. Species that are thought to be important in the emergence of new human strains are pigs and ducks; these novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread rapidly and infect large numbers of people. Influenza A viruses can be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics.
The propagation of influenza viruses throughout the world is thought in part to be by bird migrations, though commercial shipments of live bird products might be implicated, as well as human travel patterns. The World Health Organization has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic; this starts with the virus infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere; the 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "s of 8 November 2009, worldwide more than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 6,250 deaths."
Influenza known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. In humans, common symptoms of influenza infection are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal in young children and the elderly. While sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. Although nausea and vomiting can be produced in children, these symptoms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis, sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu."Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions and blood. Healthy individuals can become infected if they breathe in a virus-laden aerosol directly, or if they touch their eyes, nose or mouth after touching any of the aforementioned bodily fluids.
Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C, indefinitely at low temperatures. Most influenza strains can be inactivated by disinfectants and detergents. Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans; these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. When it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s, a deadly avian strain of H5N1 posed a great risk for a new influenza pandemic. Vaccinations against influenza are most given to high-risk humans in industrialized countries and to farmed poultry; the most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. This vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.
A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes over time and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being effective. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified and named according to the isolate that they are like and thus are presumed to share lineage. So a flu from a virus similar to the isolate A/Fujian/411/2002 is called Fujian flu, human flu, H3N2 flu. Variants are sometimes adapted to; some variants named using this convention are: Bird Flu Human Flu Swine Flu Horse Flu Dog FluAvian variants have sometimes been named according to their deadliness in poultry chickens: Low
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. Despite their common name, guinea pigs are not native to Guinea, nor are they biologically related to pigs, the origin of the name is still unclear, they originated in the Andes of South America, studies based on biochemistry and hybridization suggest they are domesticated descendants of a related species of cavy such as C. tschudii, therefore do not exist in the wild. In Western society, the domestic guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a household pet, a type of pocket pet, since its introduction by European traders in the 16th century, their docile nature, friendly responsiveness to handling and feeding, the relative ease of caring for them have made and continue to make guinea pigs a popular choice of pet. Organizations devoted to the competitive breeding of guinea pigs have been formed worldwide, many specialized breeds with varying coat colors and textures are selected by breeders.
The domestic guinea pig plays an important role in folk culture for many indigenous Andean groups as a food source, but in folk medicine and in community religious ceremonies. The animals are used for meat and are a culinary staple in the Andes Mountains, where they are known as cuy. A modern breeding program was started in the 1960s in Peru that resulted in large breeds known as cuy mejorados and prompted efforts to increase consumption of the animal outside South America. Biological experimentation on domestic guinea pigs has been carried out since the 17th century; the animals were so used as model organisms in the 19th and 20th centuries that the epithet guinea pig came into use to describe a human test subject. Since that time, they have been replaced by other rodents such as mice and rats. However, they are still used in research as models for human medical conditions such as juvenile diabetes, tuberculosis and pregnancy complications; the scientific name of the common species is Cavia porcellus, with porcellus being Latin for "little pig".
Cavia is New Latin. Cabiai may be an adaptation of the Portuguese çavia, itself derived from the Tupi word saujá, meaning rat. Guinea pigs are called quwi or jaca in Quechua and cuy or cuyo in the Spanish of Ecuador and Bolivia. Breeders tend to use the more formal "cavy" to describe the animal, while in scientific and laboratory contexts, it is far more referred to by the more colloquial "guinea pig". How the animals came to be called "pigs" is not clear, they are built somewhat like pigs, with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence. They can survive for long periods in small quarters, like a'pig pen', were thus transported on ships to Europe; the animal's name alludes to pigs in many European languages. The German word for them is Meerschweinchen "little sea pig", translated into Polish as świnka morska, into Hungarian as tengerimalac, into Russian as морская свинка; this derives from the Middle High German name merswin. This meant "dolphin" and was used because of the animals' grunting sounds.
Many other less scientifically based explanations of the German name exist. For example, sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an transportable source of fresh meat; the French term is cochon cobaye. This is not universal; the Chinese refer to them as 豚鼠, sometimes as Netherlands pig or Indian mouse. The Japanese word for guinea pig is "モルモット", which derives from the name of another mountain-dwelling rodent, the marmot; the other Japanese word for guinea pig, using kanji, is tenjiku-nezumi, which translates as India rat. The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain. One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea, leading people to think they had originated there. "Guinea" was frequently used in English to refer to any far-off, unknown country, so the name may be a colorful reference to the animal's exotic appeal. Another hypothesis suggests the "guinea" in the name is a corruption of "Guiana", an area in South America.
A common misconception is that they were so named because they were sold for the price of a guinea coin. Others believe; the guinea pig was first domesticated as early as 5000 BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America (the present-day sout
Flu Season (Parks and Recreation)
"Flu Season" is the second episode of the third season of the American comedy television series Parks and Recreation, the 32nd overall episode of the series. It aired on NBC in the United States on January 27, 2011. In the episode, a flu outbreak leaves Leslie ill, but she insists on making a public presentation about her proposed harvest festival. Meanwhile and Ron bond, a hospital-bound April torments the nurse Ann; the episode was directed by Wendey Stanzler. The episode included major development of the characters Ann and Ben, the latter of whom becomes impressed with Leslie, starting a season-long romance subplot between the two characters. Brent Briscoe made a guest appearance as J. J. owner of J. J.'s a restaurant that has appeared in previous Parks episodes. According to Nielsen Media Research, "Flu Season" was seen by 5.83 million household viewers, a six percent decline from the previous episode, third season premiere "Go Big or Go Home". The episode received positive reviews, with many commentators calling it one of the show's best episodes.
Critics praised the performance of Rob Lowe during the scenes when Chris is stricken by the flu. Reviewers said the relationship between Chris and Ann made her character much more interesting and funny. Amy Poehler submitted this episode for judging for her nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series in 2011; the flu season has hit Pawnee hard. Among them are April, who mistreats Ann in retaliation for kissing Andy. April asks Ron not to tell Andy she is in the hospital, Ron is anxious not to get involved in their personal affairs. Leslie has the flu, but will not admit it because she wants to give an important presentation to the Pawnee Chamber of Commerce about the planned Harvest Festival, which she hopes will restore the dwindling budget of the parks department. Ben takes a reluctant Leslie to the hospital, where she is admitted with a dangerously high fever and dehydration. Ben and Tom decide to do the presentation themselves, much to the chagrin of Leslie, who does not trust anyone but herself to do it.
Tom abandons Ben to hang out with a group of older men at the spa. To Ann's surprise, Chris has been admitted to the hospital with the flu; the two have been dating and, although Ann likes Chris, she fears he is too perfect. However, because the health-conscious Chris has a poor immune system and nearly no body fat, he suffers a complete physical breakdown, which makes Ann feel less intimidated about dating him. Meanwhile, Leslie escapes the hospital and heads back to city hall to deliver the presentation herself. Tom returns from the spa, revealing his spa friends are the owners of several car dealerships, which have agreed to lend vehicles to the festival. Although delirious with fever and an excess of flu medication, Leslie delivers a flawless presentation, wildly impressing Ben, she is brought back to the hospital, where Ben tells her 110 businesses have agreed to help with the festival, surpassing the minimum 80 needed. At the department, with April absent from work, Ron asks Andy to fill in as an assistant because the anti-government oriented Ron believes Andy will be ineffective.
The two bond over the course of the day, Andy begins to tell Ron about his problems with April, for whom he still harbors romantic feelings. Although not wishing to get involved, Ron reluctantly tells Andy she is at the hospital and he should visit her. Meanwhile, Ann remains pleasant throughout her nursing shift despite April's constant abuse; the second her shift ends, Ann loses her temper and curses at April. Ann apologizes for kissing Andy, but insists it was a mistake and that April should stop taking it out on Andy. Andy visits April, who pretends to be asleep but smiles, revealing she is happy he came. At the end of the episode, Chris tells Ben they have been called back to Indianapolis for a new assignment, but both agree to seek an extension to stay in Pawnee longer. Although both claim they want to help organize the Harvest Festival, it is hinted they want to stay because of Leslie and Ann. "Flu Season" was directed by Wendey Stanzler. Like all six of the first third season episodes, it was written and filmed immediately after the second season ended as part of an early shooting schedule needed to accommodate Amy Poehler's pregnancy.
However, although finished early in anticipation of a September 2010 release date, Parks was placed on hiatus until early 2011, many months after production on "Flu Season" was finished. Although titled "The Flu" in original press releases, referred to as such by several news articles, the episode title was formally changed to "Flu Season". "Flu Season" continued the subplot of restoring the parks department budget through a harvest festival, which will continue to be a major story arc throughout the first six episodes of the season. Brent Briscoe makes an appearance in "Flu Season" as J. J. the owner of J. J.'s Diner. Although the restaurant appears in the previous episode "The Reporter", "Summer Catalog" and "The Master Plan", "Flu Season" marked the first appearance of J. J. himself. Michael Schur, co-creator of Parks and Recreation, said the episode included development of several of the protagonist characters, including Ben Wyatt, Ann Perkins, Ron Swanson. One of the major story arcs of the season entails Ben, who had never had a firm sense of home falling in love with the