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In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are a phase of matter and include liquids and plasmas, they are substances with zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, substances which cannot resist any shear force applied to them. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could be present; this colloquial usage of the term is common in medicine and in nutrition. Liquids form a free surface. Viscoelastic fluids like Silly Putty appear to behave similar to a solid when a sudden force is applied. Substances with a high viscosity such as pitch appear to behave like a solid. Fluids display properties such as: not resisting permanent deformation, resisting only relative rates of deformation in a dissipative, frictional manner, the ability to flow; these properties are a function of their inability to support a shear stress in static equilibrium.

In contrast, solids respond to shear either with a spring-like restoring force, which means that deformations are reversible, or they require a certain initial stress before they deform. Solids respond with restoring forces to both shear stresses, to normal stresses—both compressive and tensile. In contrast, ideal fluids only respond with restoring forces to normal stresses, called pressure: fluids can be subjected to both compressive stress, corresponding to positive pressure, to tensile stress, corresponding to negative pressure. Both solids and liquids have tensile strengths, which when exceeded in solids makes irreversible deformation and fracture, in liquids causes the onset of cavitation. Both solids and liquids have free surfaces. In the case of solids, the amount of free energy to form a given unit of surface area is called surface energy, whereas for liquids the same quantity is called surface tension; the ability of liquids to flow results in different behaviour in response to surface tension than in solids, although in equilibrium both will try to minimise their surface energy: liquids tend to form rounded droplets, whereas pure solids tend to form crystals.

Gases do not have free surfaces, diffuse. In a solid, shear stress is a function of strain, but in a fluid, shear stress is a function of strain rate. A consequence of this behavior is Pascal's law which describes the role of pressure in characterizing a fluid's state. Depending on the relationship between shear stress, the rate of strain and its derivatives, fluids can be characterized as one of the following: Newtonian fluids: where stress is directly proportional to rate of strain Non-Newtonian fluids: where stress is not proportional to rate of strain, its higher powers and derivatives; the behavior of fluids can be described by the Navier–Stokes equations—a set of partial differential equations which are based on: continuity, conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum, conservation of energy. The study of fluids is fluid mechanics, subdivided into fluid dynamics and fluid statics depending on whether the fluid is in motion. Matter Liquid Gas Supercritical fluid Bird, Robert Byron.

Transport Phenomena. New York: Wiley, Revised Second Edition. P. 912. ISBN 0-471-41077-2

Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba

Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba is a pizzeria in Naples, believed to be the world's first pizzeria. First established in 1738 as a stand for peddlers, Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba was opened in 1830 in the town center at Via Port'Alba 18; the restaurant replaced street vendors who would make pizza in wood-fired ovens and bring it onto the street, keeping it warm in small tin stoves they balanced on their head. It soon became a prominent meeting place for men in the street. Most patrons were artists, students, or others with little money, so the pizzas made were simple, with toppings such as oil and garlic. A payment system, called pizza a otto, was developed that allowed customers to pay up to eight days after their meal. A resulting local joke was that a meal from Port'Alba might be someone's last free meal, if they died before they paid. Additionally, patrons created poetry to honor the pizzas. Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba is still in business today, located between a number of bookstores, it is believed to be the world's first pizzeria.

Since its creation in 1830, the eatery's ovens have been lined with lava rocks from nearby Mount Vesuvius. At the time of its creation, one popular pizza was the Mastunicola, topped with lard, sheep milk cheese, basil. Basil and oregano were the most common herbs, while other toppings included seafood, buffalo mozzarella, cured meats, cecinielli, small white fish still in development


Oplopomus is a genus of gobies found in coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. It contains two species. Oplopomus are compressed heads, they possess 24 to 30 ctenoid scales on the body, becoming cycloid on the nape before disappearing just behind the eyes. Their snouts are shorter than the diameter of the eyes; the lower jaw protrudes with a pair of canine teeth on each side. The dorsal fins are separate with six rays on the first; the ventral fins are joined by a bridge of skin. The caudal fins are rounded, they can grow to a maximum length of 10 cm. They superficially resemble members of the genus Acentrogobius, but Oplopomus can be distinguished by having the first rays of both dorsal fins ending in a sharp point; the genus Oplomopus was first used by the German zoologist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg for Oplopomus pulcher. It was made available through subsequent usage by the Austrian zoologist Franz Steindachner in 1860, it has been classified under the subfamily Gobiinae of the goby family, although the 5th edition of Fishes of the World does not recognise any subfamilies in Gobiidae.

Oplopomus can be found from the Red Sea to the Pacific Ocean. They inhabit coral reefs, in depths of 1 to 30 m beneath the surface. There are two recognized species in this genus: Oplopomus caninoides Oplopomus oplopomus

Turkish labour law

Turkish labour law provides a number of protections to employees, governed by the Labor Code, Trade Union Law, the Constitution. Labor unions are legal in Turkey, have been present since 1947; the Constitution of Turkey affirms the right of workers to form unions "without obtaining permission" and "to possess the right to become a member of a union and to withdraw from membership". Articles 53 and 54 affirm the right of workers to engage in collective bargaining and to strike, respectively. However, Turkish unions do face certain restrictions. A union must represent at least 10% of Turkish employees to be recognized as a bargaining agent, workers in the education, national defense and utilities industries are banned from striking; the Labor Act of 2003 establishes a 45-hour workweek, unless otherwise agreed upon, working time will be divided among days worked. With a written contract, work can be divided unequally among working days, but must not exceed 11 hours in a single day. Any work beyond 45 hours in a single week is considered overtime work, compensated with a raise of the hourly rate of the workers' salary by 50%.

The total number of overtime hours worked. There are no standard regulations for specific working hours in Turkey; the Labor Act bans discrimination based on sex, religion, or political affiliation, mandates that employees should only be terminated with "valid cause". Those fired without what is deemed to be valid cause are entitled to be compensated through severance pay and "notice pay" for the employers' failure to provide adequate notice to the employee; the law mandates that any employment arrangement lasting at least one year must be expressed in a written contract between the employer and employee. Full-time employees who have worked a minimum of one year are entitled to 14 working days' paid leave per year; this increases to 20 working days after 5 years, 26 working days after 15 years. In addition, there are eight paid holidays per year. Turkish child labor law sets the minimum age for part-time employment at 13, on condition that it is not hard physical labor and they continue to attend school, the minimum age for full-time employment at 15.

In spite of this, illegal child labor is not uncommon among poor families and in rural areas. Turkey is a member of the International Labour Organization, a signatory to the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention and Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949. European labour law Trade unions in Turkey Demir and Baykara v Turkey Yazar, Karatas and Hep v Turkey 36 EHRR 59

Huw Price

Huw Price is an Australian philosopher the Bertrand Russell Professor in the Faculty of Philosophy, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He was Challis Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Time at the University of Sydney, before that Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh, he is one of three founders and the Academic Director of the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at the University of Cambridge, the Academic Director of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence. Price is known for his work in philosophy of physics and for his brand of "neo-pragmatism" and "anti-representationalism," according to which "all utterances must be looked at through the lens of their function in our interactions, not the metaphysics of their semantic relations." This view has acknowledged affinities with the work of Robert Brandom and, Wilfrid Sellars. He was elected a Fellow of Australian Academy of the Humanities in 1994, a Fellow of the British Academy in 2012.

Around 2012, Price co-founded the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, stating that "It seems a reasonable prediction that some time in this or the next century intelligence will escape from the constraints of biology." Price voices concern that as computers become smarter than humans, humans could someday be destroyed by "machines that are not malicious, but machines whose interests don't include us," and seeks to push this concern forward in the "respectable scientific community". Around 2015, he assumed the directorship of the new Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, stating "Machine intelligence will be one of the defining themes of our century, the challenges of ensuring that we make good use of its opportunities are ones we all face together. At present, however, we have begun to consider its ramifications, good or bad." Facts and the Function of Truth Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point: New Directions for the Physics of Time Naturalism without Mirrors Causation and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited ed. with Richard Corry Expressivism and Representationalism Personal webpage Closer to Truth interview with Huw Price on YouTube

Gus Leger

Augustine Joseph Leger is a New-Zealand born Tongan rugby union player. He played as centre. Leger first played rugby union with the Avondale College team from Auckland, he played for the New Zealand national under-17 rugby union team, where he played alongside Jonah Lomu and Taine Randell. During his stay in the United States, he played baseball for three years. Leger returned to New Zealand, to play softball and become a New Zealand a Samoan international, he played rugby union with East Coast and with Counties Manukau in the National Provincial Championship. Leger was first capped for Tonga during a match against Scotland, on 10 November 2001, at Murrayfield, he was part of the Tongan roster for the 2003 Rugby World Cup, playing three matches in the tournament, with his last test cap being against Canada, on 29 October 2003, in Wollongong. Gus Leger international statistics Augustine Joseph Leger at New Zealand Rugby History