Stockholm Bromma Airport
Stockholm Bromma Airport is a Swedish domestic and minor international airport in Stockholm. It is located 4 NM west-northwest of downtown Stockholm and is the closest to the city compared to the other commercial passenger airports in the area around Stockholm. Bromma is Sweden's third-busiest airport by passenger traffic and take-offs and landings as of 2015. During the 1930s the need for a proper airport for Stockholm, the capital city of Sweden, became urgent; the airport was opened on 23 May 1936 by King Gustav V, was the first airport in Europe to have paved runways from the start. During World War II Swedish and British aircraft flew to the United Kingdom from Bromma Airport. Since these flights sometimes carried Norwegian and Danish refugees the airport became of interest for German spies, two Swedish Douglas DC-3 that had taken off from Bromma were shot down by the Germans during the war. After the war the airport flourished, two noted airlines that operated from the airport were Aktiebolaget Aerotransport which subsequently became the Swedish partner in Scandinavian Airlines System and Linjeflyg.
However the runway of Bromma was too short for the jet age and for intercontinental traffic in the 1960s, the capacity limit of Bromma could be foreseen, therefore the Stockholm Arlanda Airport was built. With the opening of the Arlanda Airport in 1960–62, all international traffic moved there, the domestic traffic followed in 1983. Bromma became the domain of business jets, general aviation and flight schools in addition to government use. Several of the old hangars were separated from the airport area and turned into shopping outlets adjacent to the airport. With the start of operations by Malmö Aviation with services to Gothenburg, Malmö and London City Airport the airport has experienced something of a renaissance. In 2002 a new control tower was put into use on Ranhammarshöjden and the terminal which had become rundown after years of neglect was renovated; the airport underwent further improvements in 2005 and is now capable of separating passengers arriving from within and outside of the Schengen area.
Sweden's first FBO, Grafair Jet Center, was built in 2004 at Bromma Airport. The Swedish CAA at the time, announced a bidding process in 2003 for a contract to build a General Aviation terminal at the airport in order to improve the ground services provided for the general aviation customers flying to Stockholm and Bromma Airport. Grafair won the contract and went on to build the FBO, finished 11 November 2004; the Grafair Jet Center was voted the 3rd best international FBO in May 2008 in AIN - Aviation International News. Expansion of the airport is limited by noise issues, a lack of space, the necessity to preserve the cultural heritage. With the completion of the third runway at Stockholm Arlanda Airport there is a capacity surplus at that airport, there are conflicting views on whether to use the land occupied by Bromma Airport for residential and commercial purposes. Bromma's main advantage over the much larger Arlanda Airport is its proximity to the centre of Stockholm. However, Arlanda's fast rail link, completed in 1999, means that Bromma's competitive edge in this respect is somewhat lost.
Both airports are now 20 minutes from Stockholm Central railway station. Since far from all passengers using Arlanda go there by train, Bromma still has a location advantage. For Bromma Airport there has been discussion about a future light railway to pass by; the light railway Tvärbanan extension has been inaugurated in 2013, but the nearest stop is 1 km away at Karlsbodavägen. A branch line of Tvärbanan with a stop at the airport is planned to be in operation by 2021; when the airport opened in 1936 the surrounding area was rural, however as the city has expanded noise has become an issue. Therefore, certain measures have been put in place, such as limiting airport operations to the daytime, limiting the type of commercial aircraft which are allowed to operate from the airport and soundproofing residential homes near the airport. There has been a suggestion of denying general aviation and flight schools use of the airport, in order to lessen the impact on the surrounding community. In late 2014 the Red-Green alliance won control of both Stockholm city and the government in the general election.
They have plans to shut down the airport and build apartments instead. There is however a contract between the city and Swedavia allowing usage of the airport area until 2038; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights at Stockholm-Bromma: Bromma Airport is home of two flight clubs, as well as a flight school. Airport coaches travel directly between the City Terminal. Buses 110 and 152 of the Stockholm Transit system stop at the airport or have a bus stop close to the airport. Travel time to central Stockholm is 30 minutes, via Alvik or Sundbyberg. SL bus tickets must be purchased before boarding. There is a taxi stand at the airport, the proximity to central Stockholm ensures that the availability is sufficient at most times. There is parking at the terminal, short-term and long-term parking lots. Terminal parking costs 45 Swedish kronor/h and is limited to one hour, while short-term and long-term parking is less expensive depending on the length of time; the parking lots are managed by the airport authority Luftfartsverket.
On 18 February 1951, a RAF Vickers Valetta with 22 passengers and crew on a military fl
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Mälaren referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden. Its area is 1,140 km² and its greatest depth is 64 m. Mälaren spans 120 kilometers from east to west; the lake drains, from south-west to north-east, into the Baltic Sea through its natural outlets Norrström and Söderström and through the artificial Södertälje Canal and Hammarbyleden waterway. The easternmost bay of Mälaren, in central Stockholm, is called Riddarfjärden; the lake is located in Svealand and bounded by the provinces of Uppland, Södermanland, Närke, Västmanland. The two largest islands in Mälaren are Svartsjölandet; the Viking Age settlements Birka on the island of Björkö and Hovgården on the neighbouring island Adelsö have been an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993, as has Drottningholm Palace on the island of Lovön. The barrow of Björn Ironside is within the lake; the etymological origin of the name Mälaren stems from the Old Norse word mælir appearing in historical records in the 1320s and meaning gravel.
The lake was known as Lǫgrinn, Old Norse for "The Lake". By the end of the last ice age about 11,000 years ago, much of northern Europe and North America was covered by ice sheets up to 3 km thick. At the end of the ice age when the glaciers retreated, the removal of the weight from the depressed land led to a post-glacial rebound; the rebound was rapid, proceeding at about 7.5 cm/year. This phase lasted for about 2,000 years, took place as the ice was being unloaded. Once deglaciation was complete, uplift slowed to about 2.5 cm/year, decreased exponentially after that. Today, typical uplift rates are of the order of 1 cm/year or less, studies suggest that rebound will continue for about another 10,000 years; the total uplift from the end of deglaciation can be up to 400 m. In the Viking Age Mälaren was still a bay of the Baltic Sea, seagoing vessels could sail up it far into the interior of Sweden. Birka was conveniently near the trade routes through the Södertälje Canal. Due to the post-glacial rebound, Södertälje canal and the mouth of Riddarfjärden bay had become so shallow by about the year 1200 that ships had to unload their cargoes near the entrances, progressively the bay became a lake.
The decline of Birka and the subsequent foundation of Stockholm at the choke point of Riddarfjärden were in part due to the post-glacial rebound changing the topography of the Mälaren basin. The lake's surface averages 0.7 meters above sea level. According to Norse mythology as contained in the thirteenth-century Icelandic work Prose Edda, the lake was created by the goddess Gefjon when she tricked Gylfi, the Swedish king of Gylfaginning. Gylfi promised Gefjon as much land as four oxen could plough in a day and a night, but she used oxen from the land of the giants, moreover uprooted the land and dragged it into the sea, where it became the island of Zealand. Snorra Edda says that'the inlets in the lake correspond to the headlands in Zealand'. A selection, in alphabetical order: The most common nesting birds on the skerries of Mälaren are the most common in the Baltic Sea. After a survey in 2005, the ten most common species were found to be common tern, herring gull, black-headed gull, common gull, tufted duck, Canada goose, common goldeneye, lesser black-backed gull and common sandpiper.
White-tailed eagle, greylag goose, barnacle goose, black-throated diver, red-breasted merganser and gadwall are less common, some of these latter are endangered in the Mälaren area. Since 1994 a subspecies of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, has nested there as well. A 2005 survey tallied 23 breeding colonies with 2178 nests, of which the largest colony had 235 nests. Most experts believe the great cormorant population has peaked and will stabilize at around 2000 nests. One of the characteristic species is the osprey which has one of its strongest presences in Lake Mälaren; the osprey nests in all bays of the lake. The Zebra mussel is causing some problems in Lake Mälaren. Mälardrottningen is a poetic name for Stockholm well known in Swedish literature. Utter Inn, an underwater hotel designed by the artist Mikael Genberg, is in the lake; the area around the lake hosted the cycling events at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Mälaren Valley Lakes of Sweden Geography of Stockholm Almarestäket Kanaanbadet Mälarguiden - Guide to Mälaren Castles around Mälaren
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
Christianization of Scandinavia
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries. The realms of Denmark and Sweden established their own Archdioceses, responsible directly to the Pope, in 1104, 1154 and 1164, respectively; the conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people required more time, since it took additional efforts to establish a network of churches. The Sami remained unconverted until the 18th century. Newer archaeological research suggests there were Christians in Götaland during the 9th century, it is further believed Christianity came from the southwest and moved towards the north. Denmark was the first of the Scandinavian countries, Christianized, as Harald Bluetooth declared this around AD 975, raised the larger of the two Jelling Stones; the oldest still-existing church built in stone, is found in Denmark, Dalby Holy Cross Church from around AD 1040. Although the Scandinavians became nominally Christian, it took longer for actual Christian beliefs to establish themselves among the people in some regions, while the people were Christianized before the king in other regions.
The old indigenous traditions that had provided security and structure were challenged by ideas that were unfamiliar, such as original sin, the Incarnation, the Trinity. Archaeological excavations of burial sites on the island of Lovön near modern-day Stockholm have shown that the actual Christianization of the people was slow and took at least 150 to 200 years, this was a central location in the Swedish kingdom. Thirteenth-century runic inscriptions from the merchant town of Bergen in Norway show little Christian influence, one of them appeals to a Valkyrie. During the Early Middle Ages the papacy had not yet manifested itself as the central Roman Catholic authority, so that regional variants of Christianity could develop. Since the image of a "victorious Christ" appears in early Germanic art, scholars have suggested that Christian missionaries presented Christ "as figure of strength and luck" and that the Book of Revelation, which presents Christ as victor over Satan, played a central part in the spread of Christianity among the Vikings.
Recorded missionary efforts in Denmark started with Willibrord, Apostle to the Frisians, who preached in Schleswig, which at the time was part of Denmark. He went north from Frisia sometime between 718 during the reign of King Ongendus. Willibrord and his companions had little success: the king was respectful but had no interest in changing his beliefs. Agantyr did permit 30 young men to return to Frisia with Willibrord. Willibrord's intent was to educate them and recruit some of them to join his efforts to bring Christianity to the Danes. A century Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims and Willerich Bishop of Bremen, baptized a few persons during their 823 visit to Denmark, he returned to Denmark twice without any recorded success. In 826, the King of Jutland Harald Klak was forced to flee from Denmark by Horik I, Denmark's other king. Harald went to Emperor Louis I of Germany to seek help getting his lands in Jutland back. Louis I offered to make Harald Duke of Frisia. Harald agreed, his family and the 400 Danes with him were baptized in Ingelheim am Rhein.
When Harald returned to Jutland, Emperor Louis and Ebbo of Rheims assigned the monk Ansgar to accompany Harald and oversee Christianity among the converts. When Harald Klak was forced from Denmark by King Horik I again, Ansgar left Denmark and focused his efforts on the Swedes. Ansgar established a small Christian community there, his most important convert was Herigar, described as a prefect of the town and a counselor to the king. In 831 the Archdiocese of Hamburg was founded and assigned responsibility for proselytizing Scandinavia. Horik I sacked Hamburg in 845 where Ansgar had become the archbishop; the seat of the archdiocese was transferred to Bremen. In the same year there was a pagan uprising in Birka that resulted in the martyrdom of Nithard and forced the resident missionary Bishop Gautbert to flee. Ansgar returned to Birka in 854 and Denmark in 860 to reestablish some of the gains of his first visits. In Denmark he won over the trust of then-King Horik II who gave him land in Hedeby for the first Christian chapel.
A second church was founded a few years in Ribe on Denmark's west coast. Ribe was an important trading town, as a result, southern Denmark was made a diocese in 948 with Ribe as its seat, a part of the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen under its first bishop, St. Leofdag, murdered that year while crossing the Ribe River; the supremacy of the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen over ecclesiastical life in the north declined as the papacy, from the pontificate of Pope Gregory VII onwards, involved itself more with the North directly. A significant step in this direction was the foundation of an archbishopric for the whole of Scandinavia at Lund in 1103–04. Both the accounts of Willibrod and of Harald are semi-mythical, integrate mythical and legendary themes from the Nordic pagan tradition into their Christian stories. A syncretized variant of the story of Harald, that has him battling Ragnar Lodbrok to establish Christianity in Denmark, appears in Book Nine of Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum. Ebbo is the name of a mythical Nordic figure, Ibor known as Egil or Orvandil, an archer and smith who turns against the Aesir gods and wages war upon them, the story of Ebbo of Rheims integrates themes o
Spånga-Tensta is a borough in Stockholm, Sweden located in the north. The districts that make up the borough are Bromsten, Lunda, Solhem and Tensta. A large portion of the uninhabited field Järvafältet belongs to the districts of Husby; the borough consists of the following places: Spånga TenstaThe population as of 2004 is 34,448 on an area of 12.85 km², which gives a density of 2,680.78/km². The transport provided is: Rail: The Blue Line of the Stockholm Metro, running from Kungsträdgården in the city centre to Hjulsta station in the north west, it has two stations in the borough of Spånga-Tensta and Tensta, both inaugurated in 1975. Commuter rail has Spånga Station. Bus: Several bus routes serve the borough. Car: E18/Hjulstavägen runs on the north of Hjulsta and Tensta; when finished, the Förbifart Stockholm motorway will connect to E18 at Hjulsta. Media related to Spånga-Tensta at Wikimedia Commons
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end