The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Vakhtang "Vic" Darchinyan is an Armenian professional boxer. He is a former world champion in two weight classes, having held the IBF flyweight title from 2004 to 2007. Additionally, he has held a record four IBO titles at flyweight, super-flyweight, twice at bantamweight between 2005 and 2011. A southpaw boxer with a unique fighting style and formidable punching power, Darchinyan became the first Armenian to win a world title in 2004. Darchinyan was born on 7 January 1976, in Armenia, his father, Ruben Darchinyan, was an Olympic wrestling coach for Armenia. Ruben's name can sometimes be seen on Vic's boxing trunks. Vic has a sister named Liana. Vic wanted to become a boxer at the age of 5 and dreamed of becoming a world champion in the professionals, his father told him there was no professional boxing in Armenia and instead wanted Vic to follow in his footsteps and take up wrestling. Vic wrestled as a kid, but always continued to say he would become a world champion someday, he left wrestling in pursuit of his dream to become a world boxing champion.
Darchinyan and his wife Olga, an English teacher, met near an Opera House in Sydney, Australia in 2001. They got married a year later. In 2007, the couple had a son named Ruben II. Vic began boxing at the age of 8 within the community of Vanadzor, where boxing was popular, he was trained by the experienced Vazgen Badalyan. Darchinyan's amateur career record was 158-18 with 105 knockouts. Vic fought in many different countries and participated for Armenia in the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia, he went to the third round in the 112 lb division before losing against Bulat Jumadilov of Kazakhstan. Darchinyan moved to Australia after competing in the Olympics and became an Australian citizen in the same year. Darchinyan turned pro at the age of 24 on 3 November 2000. Vic Darchinyan won a bronze medal at the 1998 European Amateur Boxing Championships in Minsk, he won a bronze medal at the 1998 Goodwill Games. In the same year, Darchinyan won a bronze medal at the 1998 Boxing World Cup. Defeated opponent Defeated Ilfat Ryazapov 20-11 Lost to Bulat Jumadilov 8-15 Vic is promoted by Gary Shaw Promotions.
From November 2000 to December 2004, Vic built up a record of 21-0 and captured the Australian and Pan Pacific flyweight titles. After knocking out former 2-division world champion Wandee Singwancha in an IBF eliminator on 13 June 2003, he earned the IBF #1 mandatory ranking, he won his IBF title on 16 December 2004 in his first fight in the United States, defeating respected then-undefeated champion Irene Pacheco of Colombia, via 11th round technical knock-out. Pacheco had held the title for over 5 years. Returning to Australia, his first title defense was on 27 March 2005 against long time contender and IBO belt holder, Mzukisi Sikali, in a crowd-pleasing brawl. By the 8th round, Sikali took a combination body and head shots and turned away in a'No Mas' fashion, prompting referee Pete Podgorski to step in and wave it off. Attempting to secure a fight in the USA, Vic took a stay-busy fight on 24 August 2005 defending his title against fringe contender Jair Jimenez, whom he floored him in round 4.
The referee stopped fight in the 5th. Returning to the USA headlining on ShoBox: The New Generation, his third title defense was against Filipino contender Diosdado Gabi on 3 March 2006. Vic knocked him out with a single straight left in the 8th round. Three months returning to Showtime after the hotly contested Jose Luis Castillo Vs Diego Corrales rubber match fell through, Vic's defense against then-undefeated Mexican contender Luis Maldonado was moved to the main event, he stopped the tough Mexican in the 8th round. In his fifth title defense, Vic faced Glenn Donaire on 7 October 2006. Glenn gave up during the fight, claiming Vic broke his jaw in the 6th round from an alleged elbow attack. Replays showed no evidence of an elbow. Darchinyan's camp, though winners by technical decision, have always claimed this should have been a legitimate knockout. In his sixth title defense, Darchinyan faced former light flyweight champion Victor Burgos on 3 March 2007. Vic stopped him in the twelfth round. Victor underwent surgery to remove a blood clot from his brain.
Burgos was made a full recovery. However, he was not able to fight again. On 7 July 2007, Darchinyan suffered his first defeat from Nonito Donaire, younger brother of Glenn Donaire, in a title bout via TKO. Darchinyan was caught with a left hook which floored him, in an exchange with Donaire in the fifth round. Darchinyan managed to get up but fell on the ropes and the referee stopped the fight. Darchinyan lost the IBO flyweight titles to Donaire; the match was awarded Knockout of the Year and Upset of the Year by Ring Magazine. Darchinyan returned 3 months and won the vacant IBO super flyweight title by stopping Filipino veteran Federico Catubay. Catubay was knocked down in round 7 and 11. Vic decided to outbox and outpunch his larger opponent and finished him off in round 12, he voluntarily relinquished the IBO title prior to fighting in an IBF eliminator. On 2 February 2008, Darchinyan fought Z Gorres to a controversial split draw at the Waterfront Hotel in Cebu City, Philippines in an IBF Super Flyweight Eliminator where the winner would challenge the champion Dimitri Kirilov.
The bout began with a knockdown for Darchinyan in the first round, which appeared to be a slip by Gorres when replayed
Nonito Gonzales Donaire Jr. is a Filipino-American professional boxer. He has held multiple world championships in four weight classes, including the WBA bantamweight title since 2018. In total, Donaire has held eight world titles by the main four boxing sanctioning bodies, as well as the IBO flyweight title from 2007 to 2009, the WBA interim super flyweight title from 2009 to 2010, the Ring magazine and lineal super bantamweight titles from 2012 to 2013; as of March 2019, Donaire is ranked as the world's fourth best active bantamweight by The Ring, the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, BoxRec. Donaire is popularly known as "The Filipino Flash" due to his exceptionally fast hand speed and formidable punching power, is a two-time winner of The Ring's Knockout of the Year award, in 2007 and 2011, he reached a peak pound for pound ranking of third by The Ring in 2011, was named Fighter of the Year in 2012 by the Boxing Writers Association of America. Donaire is one of three Asian boxers to win world titles in at least four weight classes, along with fellow Filipinos Manny Pacquiao and Donnie Nietes.
Donaire was born in Talibon, the third of four children to Nonito C. Donaire, Sr. and Imelda M. Gonzales, his brother is a flyweight boxer. Donaire's cousin, Richard Donaire, is a professional boxer; until he was six years of age, Donaire lived in General Santos City, South Cotabato and attended the same school as the eight-division world champion, Manny Pacquiao. Donaire was a child of small stature, bullied. Donaire's father was an amateur boxer who competed in the U. S. in the early 1990s. His paternal grandfather was born in Hawaii, United States and this gave Donaire US citizenship under the principle of Jus Sanguinis. In 1993, at the age of eleven, Donaire joined his father in Los Angeles, California, they lived in San Leandro, California. And San Mateo County, California. Donaire said that during his childhood he wished for more attention from his parents and, after his brother started boxing, the attention given to him; this was his reason for entering the sport of boxing at the age of eleven though he did not enjoy it.
His father supported his choice. During their younger years and his older brother, would spar. Donaire watched videos of his hero, Alexis Argüello, from them he learned to throw a powerful left hook. While enrolled at the San Lorenzo High School in San Lorenzo, California Donaire and his brother won several regional and district amateur boxing championships. In his first amateur bout, he beat his opponent with straight punches, all the while thinking that "I'm going to kill him before he kills me." However, Donaire had little confidence. As a young amateur, Donaire won three U. S. national championships: the National Silver Gloves, National Junior Olympics and the National USA Tournament. He won the 1999 International Junior Olympics gold medal. Donaire's amateur record was 68 - 8 with 5 technical knockouts. In 2001, Donaire and his brother became professional boxers, they signed contracts with Jackie Kallen. Donaire was paid a monthly salary of $1,500. In 2001, after a controversial decision, Donaire lost his second fight against Rosendo Sanchez.
This impassioned him to win his fights which he did until April 2013. After four professional bouts and his brother left their contracts with Kallen and returned to Manila and to San Leandro, where there were fewer distractions. On September 9, 2002 in Guam, Donaire won his first regional title, the vacant WBO Asia Pacific flyweight title, he knocked out Kaichon Sor Vorapin in the second round. On January 20, 2006, Donaire won his second regional title, the NABF super flyweight title, by defeating Kahren Harutyunyan on ShoBox on a split decision; the scores were 97 -- 92 for Donaire and 95 -- 94 for Harutyunan. On October 7, 2006, Donaire defeated Oscar Andrade, a veteran boxer, by 118–109, 116–112, 116–112. On July 7, 2007, Donaire won the IBF flyweight title with a one-punch, fifth-round knockout of the undefeated Vic Darchinyan; this victory was awarded Ring Magazine's "Knockout of the Year" and "Upset of the Year". On July 31, 2007, Donaire met Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Donaire said.
It was indescribable. The moment I walked up the stairs and she was up there and when I looked it was a moment when I couldn't look at her face, it was a great honor." On December 1, 2007, Donaire made the first defense of his IBF title against Luis Maldonado of Mexico by a technical knockout in the eighth round. Donaire said, "I guess my validation was today but I didn't feel my best. I didn't have my legs. I don't know. I couldn't move well so I tried to rely on my upper body movement."In late June 2008, Donaire severed his association with his promoter, Gary Shaw. Donaire had not been offered the number of fights. Shaw failed to disclose revenue from fights as demanded by the Muhammad Ali Boxing Reform Act. Days after leaving Gary Shaw Productions, Donaire made a contract with Top Rank Boxing. On November 2, 2008, Donaire made the defense of his IBF flyweight title through a sixth round technical knockout of Moruti Mthalane. During the sparring, Donaire suffere
Masao Ohba was a professional boxer from Tokyo, Japan. He became the WBA flyweight champion on October 22, 1970, defeating the reigning champion Berkrerk Chartvanchai in Tokyo and retained the championship for an impressive five title defenses, he died in a car accident at 23. He was trained by Isamu Kuwata. Ohba was born on October 21, 1949. Ohba's father was a factory worker and a compulsive gambler, causing him to know poverty from an early age, his father followed professional boxing as an avid fan which influenced Ohba's childhood aspirations and dreams. By the time Ohba was in elementary school, he dreamt of becoming a world champion, bringing himself and his family out of poverty. After completing middle school, he took a job in a candy shop to help support his family and trained as a boxer in the evening, he joined the Teiken Boxing Gym in 1965. Because Ohba weighed only about 105 pounds and stood five feet when he entered the gym, the trainers doubted that he would be successful as a professional boxer.
He trained hard, putting on the seven pounds of muscle he needed to box within the flyweight range by the time he made his debut. He had trouble making the strict flyweight limit in his career, at nearly five feet six inches was somewhat tall for a flyweight. Ohba made his professional debut in November 7, 1966, at the age of 17 against Kazuyoshi Watanabe in Tokyo. Between November 1966 and August 1968, he won all but one of his first eighteen bouts, with one draw, he fought. On December 14, 1969, he defeated Bernabe Villacampo in a non-title fight by way of a ten-round Unanimous Decision on points in Tokyo. Villicampo was Flyweight Champion at the time, making Oba's clear win an important victory, as well as an upset, he got his first world title shot on October 22, 1970 at Nichidi Auditorium, Nihon University, in Tokyo, against Berkrerk Chartvanchai, the WBA World flyweight champion. He won by TKO in the 13th round before a crowd of 7000, becoming the eighth Japanese boxer to capture a world title.
According to one source, the bout was postponed from its initial date when Chartvanchai took ill with a high fever. Chartvanchai was down three times before being called out for the full count. Enrique Jimenez refereed. Oba finished off Chartvanchai with a volley of punches to the head at 2:16 into the thirteenth round. Charvantchai had trouble making the weight limit after doing light exercise and taking a steam bath, which may have weakened him for the bout. Oba gained a considerable lead in points throughout the match. Chartvanchai was weakened both by a cut to his eye he received in the fourth round which gave him trouble and the efforts he took to make weight. On January 21, 1971 he defeated Swiss boxer Fritz Chervet in a non-title fight technical knockout at Korakuen Hall in Tokyo, Japan; the bout was ended after 1:31 into the eighth round. Ohba made his first three WBA World Flyweight Championship defenses by 15-round decisions, his 4th defense by 5th-round KO, all at Nihon University Stadium in Tokyo.
He fought four non-title matches in between his defenses, winning all of them as well. His first defense was against the great champion Betulio Gonzales on April 1, 1971 in Tokyo in a significant fifteen round Unanimous Decision. Gonzales would hold the Venezuelan Flyweight Title, at one time hold both the WBC and WBA World Flyweight Championships. On August 19, 1971, he won a Unanimous Decision over Tony Moreno of San Antonio in a non-title ten round bout; the audience of 2000 were somewhat disappointed as Ohba was unable to score a knockdown against his opponent. His second defense of the World Flyweight Title was a fifteen-round Unanimous Decision on October 23, 1971 against Filipino boxer Fernando Cabanela, his third defense was against Japanese boxer Susumu Hanagata on March 4, 1972 in a fifteen-round mixed decision in Tokyo. Hanagata, an accomplished flyweight, would take the WBA World Flyweight Title in October 1974, his fourth WBA World Flyweight defense was against Orlando "Yango" Amores from Colón, Republic of Panamá, on June 20, 1972 in Tokyo.
Ohba impressively won on a fifth-round knockout. On January 2, 1973, Ohba faced Chartchai Chionoi, for his fourth defense. Ohba was knocked down with a right hook in only forty seconds into the first round, injured his right ankle while falling to the canvas, he managed to pick himself up, his corner iced his ankle in between rounds, but Ohba limped as he exchanged punches with Chionoi. With his injury, Ohba managed to overpower Chionoi in the middle rounds using rights to the head, knocked down the challenger for the first time a 2:19 into the 12th round. Chionoi was knocked down two more times in the round, having been knocked down three times, the bout was ruled an automatic knockout. Ohba marked, he remarked to an interviewer after the bout that "I did not expect the Thai to put up such a good fight, it was my hardest fight so far." He noted "I did not expect the long hook that hit me first and made me groggy", "I did not expect the second that dropped me on my pants." On the morning of January 24, 1973, only three weeks after his last defense, Ohba died in a car accident.
He was returning to the Teiken Gym where he lived. Ohba was driving his new 1973 ivory Chevrolet Corvette down an expressway in Tokyo, when he hit a heavy duty eleven ton parked truck on the shoulder of the opposite lane, his Corvette had jumped the road divider when he was unable to negotiate a turn and he was unable to regain control. He was driving around sixty, in a thirty-six mile per ho
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Emmanuel Dapidran Pacquiao, PLH is a Filipino professional boxer and politician serving as a Senator of the Philippines. He is the only eight-division world champion in the history of boxing, having won twelve major world titles, as well as being the first boxer to win the lineal championship in five different weight classes. Pacquiao is the first boxer in history to win major world titles in four of the original eight weight classes of boxing: flyweight, featherweight and welterweight, he was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America, WBC, WBO. He is a three-time Ring magazine and BWAA Fighter of the Year, winning the award in 2006, 2008, 2009. In 2016, Pacquiao was ranked number 2 on ESPN's list of top pound for pound boxers of the past 25 years and ranks #4 in BoxRec's ranking of the greatest pound for pound boxers of all time. Pacquiao has generated 19.6 million in pay-per-view buys and $1.2 billion in revenue from his 24 pay-per-view bouts.
According to Forbes, he was the second highest paid athlete in the world as of 2015. Beyond boxing, Pacquiao has participated in basketball, business, TV hosting, music recording, politics. In May 2010, Pacquiao was elected to the House of Representatives in the 15th Congress of the Philippines, representing the province of Sarangani, he was re-elected in 2013 to the 16th Congress of the Philippines. In June 2016, Pacquiao was elected as a senator and will serve a six-year term until 2022. Pacquiao has been considered a top contender for Philippine presidential election, 2022. Incumbent president Rodrigo Duterte announced in December 2016 and December 2017 that he intends to make Pacquiao his successor. Pacquiao was born on December 17, 1978, in Kibawe, Philippines, he is the son of Dionisia Dapidran-Pacquiao. His parents separated when he was in sixth grade, after his mother discovered that his father was living with another woman, he is the fourth among six siblings: Liza Silvestre-Onding and Domingo Silvestre and Isidra Pacquiao-Paglinawan, Alberto "Bobby" Pacquiao and Rogelio "Roel" Pacquiao.
Pacquiao married Jinkee Jamora on May 10, 2000. Together, they have five children, Emmanuel Jr. Michael Stephen, Mary Divine Grace, Queen Elizabeth and Israel, his daughter, was born in the United States. He resides in his hometown of South Cotabato, Philippines. However, as a congressman of lone district of Sarangani, he is residing in Kiamba, the hometown of his wife. Raised in the Roman Catholic faith, Pacquiao is a practicing Evangelical Protestant. Pacquiao said he once had a dream where he saw a pair of angels and heard the voice of God—this dream convinced him to become a devout believer. Pacquiao completed his elementary education at Saavedra Saway Elementary School in General Santos City, but dropped out of high school due to extreme poverty, he left his home at age 14 because his mother, who had six children, was not making enough money to support her family. In February 2007 he took, passed, a high school equivalency exam, making him eligible for college education, he was awarded with a high school diploma by the Department of Education.
Pacquiao enrolled for a college degree in business management at Notre Dame of Dadiangas University in his aforementioned hometown of General Santos City. On February 18, 2009, Pacquiao was conferred the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humanities by Southwestern University at the Waterfront Cebu City Hotel & Casino in Lahug, Cebu City in recognition of his boxing achievements and humanitarian work. In preparation for his career as a lawmaker in the House of Representatives, Pacquiao enrolled in the Certificate Course in Development and Governance at the Development Academy of the Philippines – Graduate School of Public and Development Management. Pacquiao is a military reservist with the rank of Colonel in the Reserve Force of the Philippine Army. Prior to being promoted to full Colonel after finishing his General Staff Course schooling, he held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel for being a member of the Philippine Congress as per the AFP's regulations for reservist officers, he first entered the Army's reserve force on April 2006 as a Sergeant.
He rose to Technical Sergeant on December 1 of the same year. On October 7, 2007, he became the highest rank in the enlisted personnel. On May 4, 2009, he was given the special rank of Senior Master Sergeant and was designated as the Command Sergeant Major of the 15th Ready Reserve Division. Pacquiao started boxing at the age of 14 while living in the streets of Manila and turned professional when he was 16 years old, he had a record of 60-4 as an amateur and has a record of 61-7-2 as a professional, with 39 wins by knockout. "Many of you know me as a legendary boxer, I'm proud of that," he said. "However, that journey was not always easy. When I was younger, I became a fighter. I had nothing. I had no one to depend on except myself. I realized that boxing was something I was good at, I trained hard so that I could keep myself and my family alive."Pacquiao made history by being the first boxer to win world titles in eight weight divisions, having won twelve major world titles, as well as being the first boxer to win the lineal championship in five different weight classes.
Pacquiao is the first boxer in history to win major world titles in four of the original eight weight classes of boxing known as the "glamour divisions": flyweigh
International Boxing Federation
The International Boxing Federation is one of four major organizations recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame which sanction world championship boxing bouts, alongside the World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council and World Boxing Organization. The IBF was preceded by the United States Boxing Association, a regional championship organization like the North American Boxing Federation, the North American Boxing Association. In 1983, at the WBA's annual convention, held in Puerto Rico, Robert W. "Bobby" Lee, Sr. president of the USBA, lost in his bid to become WBA president against Gilberto Mendoza. Lee and others withdrew from the convention after the election, decided to organize a third, world-level organization, to co-exist with the World Boxing Association and the World Boxing Council. Formed as USBA-International, the fledgling organization was renamed the International Boxing Federation, based in New Jersey, where its main offices remain. Bobby Lee had been a New Jersey boxing commissioner until 1985, according to news reports, "he was suspended and fined by the Ethical Standards Commission for accepting contributions from fight promoters and casino executives."The IBF's first world champion was Marvin Camel, a former World Boxing Council world cruiserweight champion who won the IBF's belt in the same division.
During its first year of existence, the IBF remained obscure. But by 1984, the IBF decided to recognize Larry Holmes, Aaron Pryor, Marvin Hagler and Donald Curry established champions from other organizations, as IBF world champions. In Holmes' case, he relinquished his WBC title to accept the IBF's recognition, it established the IBF as the third sanctioning body, a legitimate organization. Despite achieving an appearance of legitimacy, subsequent to a three-year investigation started by 1996 charges levied by former heavyweight champion Michael Moorer. Indicted on federal racketeering and racketeering conspiracy charges were "president, Robert W. Lee, 65. Lee was subsequently convicted of money-laundering and tax evasion in August 2000 sentenced, in 2001, to 22 months in prison and fined $25,000. In 2000, citing extortion. Arum was fined $125,000 by the Nevada State Athletic Commission. Boxing promoters Cedric Kushner and Dino Duva admitted to making similar payments to Lee. IBF was under federal observation from Lee's conviction through September 2004.
Former Michigan Boxing Commissioner, WBA vice-president, boxing safety advocate and IBF interim president Hiawatha Knight became president following Lee's conviction, was the first woman president of any world governing boxing organization. In 2001, Marian Muhammad assumed the presidency, followed by Daryl J. Peoples, who remains president as of 2018. IBF had "1st Annual Convention of IBF Muaythai" in Bangkok, Thailand on 20–21 December 2017. Daryl Peoples, IBF president, attended the convention; the new champions of IBF Muay Thai were crowned in three weight divisions. As of April 13, 2019. List of boxing organisations Don King List of IBF world champions List of IBF Muay Thai world champions Official website All-time IBF World champions - Reference book