Gander International Airport
Gander International Airport is located in Gander and Labrador, is operated by the Gander International Airport Authority. Canadian Forces Base Gander shares the airfield but is a separate entity from the airport. Construction of the airport began in 1936 and it was opened in 1938, with its first landing on January 11 of that year, by Captain Douglas Fraser flying a Fox Moth of Imperial Airways. Within a few years it was the largest airport in the world, its official name until 1949 was Newfoundland Airport. In 1940, the operation of the Newfoundland Airport was assigned by the Dominion of Newfoundland to the Royal Canadian Air Force and it was renamed RCAF Station Gander in 1941; the airfield was used by RAF Ferry Command and Air Transport Command for transporting newly built aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean to the European Theatre, as well as for staging operational anti-submarine patrols dedicated to hunting U-boats in the northwest Atlantic. Thousands of aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Corps through the changeover to the United States Army Air Forces, the RCAF destined for the European Theatre, travelled through Gander.
The Royal Canadian Navy established Naval Radio Station Gander at the airfield, using the station as a listening post to detect the transmissions and location of enemy submarines and warships. Following the war, the RCAF handed operation of the airfield back to the dominion government in March 1946, although the RCN's radio station remained and the military role for the entire facility was upgraded through the Cold War; the Canadian federal government changed the name to Gander Airport after Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949. It opened the current passenger terminal in 1959. On 16 September 1945 the first transatlantic proving flight, a Pan Am DC-4, departed Gander for Shannon in western Ireland. On 24 October 1945, the first scheduled commercial flight, an American Overseas Airlines DC-4, passed through Gander. Following Newfoundland's entry into Confederation, the government renamed the airport Gander International Airport and it came under the administration of Canada's federal Department of Transport.
Numerous improvements were made to the terminals. Gander is near the great circle route between cities of the U. S. East Coast and London. Starting in the 1940s it was a refueling stop for transatlantic flights to Scotland and beyond, continued in this role through the early 1960s and in some cases into the 1990s. Carriers at Gander during this era included: Aeroflot operated Ilyushin Il-86 widebody flights during the 1980s and early 1990s between Moscow and such long-range destinations as New York and Havana. Due to the IL-86's limited range of 2,000 miles, the flights would make refueling stops at both Shannon and Gander en route to the final destination; the Boeing 747-200s of the same era had typical ranges from 5,000–6,000 miles and were much more sought after by international airlines. The IL-86 was used exclusively by Aeroflot and successor post-Soviet airlines. Air France ran several services through Gander connecting Paris and Shannon to Montreal and New York in the 1950s. American Overseas Airlines used Gander as a stop for Lockheed Constellation flights between New York and London from 1947.
British Overseas Airways Corporation operated Constellations on London-Shannon-Gander-New York, London-Glasgow-Gander-New York, London-Glasgow-Gander-Montreal routings from 1947. By 1960, the Gander stop was only used as an alternative to a Glasgow or Shannon stop for Bristol Britannia service to Montreal and Toronto. Interflug flights between East Germany and Cuba would stop to refuel in Gander until the airline began using Airbus A310s in 1989. KLM used Gander as a stop on Amsterdam-Glasgow-Gander-New York service from 1946. Pan American World Airways used Gander as a stop for transatlantic Douglas DC-4 service between New York-Idlewild and Shannon starting in 1946. Gander remained in use in 1960 as a stop for Douglas DC-7 services between New York and Scandinavia, although other transatlantic flights bypassed Gander by that point. Sabena operated Brussels-Shannon-Gander-New York service from 1949 using Douglas DC-6s. Scandinavian Airlines operated Stockholm-Oslo/Copenhagen-Prestwick-Gander-New York service from 1946.
Trans-Canada Air Lines used Gander as a stop for transatlantic service to London from 1946 and operated local service from Gander to St. John's and Sydney. Trans World Airlines operated Boston-Gander-Shannon and Boston-Gander-Azores-Lisbon services from 1947 using Constellations, with onward service to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, India. Runway 04/22 was extended from 8,400 to 10,500 ft in 1971. With the advent of jets with longer range in the 1960s, most flights no longer needed to refuel. Gander has decreased in importance, but it remains the home of Gander Control, one of the two air traffic controls which direct the high-level airways of the North Atlantic. Most aircraft travelling to and from Europe or North America must talk to at least one of these air traffic controls; some commercial transatlantic flights still use Gander as a refuelling stop. The 757 is affected in this respect, as it was not an aircraft intended or designed for transatlantic flights; this practice has been controversial, since strong headwinds over the Atlantic Ocean during the winter months can result in the flights being declared "minimum
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
Fogo, Newfoundland and Labrador
Fogo is an outport community on Fogo Island in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It was incorporated as a town prior to becoming part of the Town of Fogo Island through an amalgamation in 2011; the second largest community on the island, Fogo may be the location of the island's first permanent settlement, which took place in the early 18th century, though it is unknown which exact area of Fogo Island hosted the first European settlers. Some historians feel Tilting Harbour might have been the first settlement, owing to its sheltered harbour and close proximity to fishing grounds, although some local legends say that an English settlement was in place at Fogo as early as 1680, this is unlikely. James Cook surveyed the area in the 1770s, at that time he was told that the first English settlers in the area were in Twillingate in the year 1728. Before that, French fishermen never settled permanently. Fogo is situated along the island's north shore, its economy is tied to the fishing industry and, from the 18th to 20th centuries, was home to several fish merchants.
On March 1, 2011, the Town of Fogo amalgamated with other communities to become the Town of Fogo Island. Fogo Aerodrome Town of Fogo Island
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
Halifax Stanfield International Airport
Halifax Stanfield International Airport is a Canadian airport in Goffs, a rural community of the Halifax Regional Municipality in Halifax County, Nova Scotia. It serves adjacent areas in the neighbouring Maritime provinces; the airport is named in honour of Robert Stanfield, the 17th Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The airport, owned by Transport Canada since it was constructed, has been operated since 2000 by the Halifax International Airport Authority, it forms part of the National Airports System. Halifax Stanfield is the 8th busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, it handled a total of 4,316,079 passengers in 2018 and 84,045 aircraft movements in 2017. It is a hub for Air Canada Express, Cougar Helicopters, Maritime Air Charter, PAL Airlines and SkyLink Express. An airfield in the West End, known as Chebucto Field, was built as the Halifax Civic Airport by the City of Halifax in 1931, it served as the city's main airport until 1942, when it was converted to an army base.
Today Saunders Park, named after the first Halifax airport manager, marks the site. RCAF Station Shearwater subsequently functioned as Halifax's primary airport until the current airport was opened. In October 1945, the City of Halifax asked the federal Department of Transport for help choosing a site for a new civil airport. A key factor was to find a site near Halifax with a minimal number of days per year when fog would affect airport operation. Lucasville was favoured, but after a year of study it was found to have similar average visibility to the foggy airport at Shearwater. A site near Kelly Lake was scrutinized based on a recommendation by Trans-Canada Air Lines. After two years of monitoring, the site was approved in 1954 for construction of a modern, C$5 million airport; the land was purchased by the City of Halifax on April 5, 1955, while the federal Department of Transport was tasked with building the airport. Construction of the new airport began in November 1955; the runways were built by Diamond Construction of Halifax.
The modernist terminal building was designed by Gilleland and Strutt, an architecture firm which designed a similar-looking terminal at Ottawa. The new airport was completed in June 1960. An opening gala was held on Dominion Day of 1960. At 4:50 am on August 1, 1960 the first airplane landed there, a Vickers Viscount running the Trans-Canada Airlines Flight 400 between Montreal and Newfoundland, it was piloted by Halifax native W. E. Barnes; the first overseas flight arrived an hour travelling from London en route to Montreal. The airport was formally inaugurated on September 10, 1960 by the Minister of Transport, George Hees; the ultimate cost of construction was about $18 million. Passenger numbers grew during the first few decades of operation; the passenger terminal was renovated in 1966. A 5,000-square-metre passenger terminal extension opened in July 1976. By 1990 2,500,000 passengers passed through the airport annually, up from about 180,000 when it first opened. A 400-square-metre southern expansion was opened in December 1994 by Minister of Transport Doug Young, while the check-in area was expanded in 1998.
Owing to the National Airports Policy, announced in 1994, the Halifax International Airport Authority was founded in November 1995. Management of the airport was passed from Transport Canada to HIAA on February 1, 2000. Following the September 11 attacks the airport took part in Operation Yellow Ribbon, commenced to accept United States civilian flights after the Federal Aviation Administration closed down U. S. airspace. Halifax airport took in 47 flights—more flights than any other Canadian airport involved in the operation—carrying about 7,300 passengers—more passengers than any other Canadian airport involved in the operation other than Vancouver, which registered 8,500. Much of this was because flights that were coming from Europe were told to avoid the major airports in Central Canada, like Toronto Pearson, Montréal-Dorval, Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport. Shortly after the attacks, the airport was advised that as many as 40 to 50 planes would divert to Halifax. In response, runway 15/33 was shut down to accommodate the parked aircraft.
The first diverted aircraft, a United Airlines Boeing 767, arrived at 11:35 am. The number of arriving passengers outstripped the capacity of the airport, which faced processing 7,000–8,000 people with an arrivals facility designed to handle 900 per hour; the Halifax municipal government was tasked with providing emergency shelter, food and care to the stranded travellers, who were housed in city sports complexes and schools, universities, military bases, as well as the homes of private citizens. A memorial ceremony was held in the airport terminal on September 14, 2001. To honour the people of Gander and Halifax for their support during the operation, Lufthansa named a new Airbus A340-300 Gander-Halifax on May 16, 2002; that airplane is listed with the registration D-AIFC, is the first aircraft of the whole fleet with a city name outside of Germany. On September 11, 2006, five years after the attacks, United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Halifax airport and delivered a speech of thanks.
After the December 2003 death of Robert Stanfield, the former Premier of Nova Scotia and federal Leader of the Official Opposition, several proposals were made in Nova Scotia to honour the respected politician. In early 2005 the airport's governing board voted to rename the terminal building after Stanfield; the terminal was rechristened in a ceremony held on September 9
De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and produced by Viking Air. The aircraft's fixed tricycle undercarriage, STOL capabilities, twin turboprop engines and high rate of climb have made it a successful commuter passenger airliner as well as a cargo and medical evacuation aircraft. In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Force's 98th Flying Training Squadron. Development of the aircraft began in 1964, with the first flight on May 20, 1965. A twin-engine replacement for the single-engine DHC-3 Otter retaining DHC's renowned STOL qualities, its design features included double-slotted trailing-edge flaps and ailerons that work in unison with the flaps to boost STOL performance; the availability of the 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop in the early 1960s made the concept of a twin more feasible.
To bush operators, the improved reliability of turboprop power and the improved performance of a twin-engine configuration made it an popular alternative to the piston-powered Otter, flying since 1951. The first six aircraft produced were designated Series 1, indicating that they were prototype aircraft; the initial production run consisted of Series 100 aircraft, serial numbers seven to 115 inclusive. In 1968, Series 200 production began with serial number 116. Changes made at the beginning of Series 200 production included improving the STOL performance, adding a longer nose, equipped with a larger baggage compartment, fitting a larger door to the rear baggage compartment. All Series 1, 100, 200 aircraft and their variants were fitted with the 550-shaft-horsepower PT6A-20 engines. In 1969, the Series 300 was introduced, beginning with serial number 231. Both aircraft performance and payload were improved by fitting more powerful PT6A-27 engines; this was a 680 hp engine, flat-rated to 620 hp for use in the Series 300 Twin Otter.
The Series 300 proved to be the most successful variant by far, with 614 Series 300 aircraft and their subvariants sold before production in Toronto by de Havilland Canada ended in 1988. In 1976, a new -300 would have cost $700,000 and is still worth more than $2.5 million in 2018 despite the -400 introduction, many years after the -300 production ceased. After Series 300 production ended, the remaining tooling was purchased by Viking Air of Victoria, British Columbia, which manufactures replacement parts for all of the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft. On February 24, 2006, Viking purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft; the ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to manufacture new aircraft. On July 17, 2006, at the Farnborough Air Show, Viking Air announced its intention to offer a Series 400 Twin Otter. On April 2, 2007, Viking announced that with 27 orders and options in hand, it was restarting production of the Twin Otter, equipped with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines.
As of November 2007, 40 firm orders and 10 options had been taken and a new final assembly plant was established in Calgary, Alberta. Zimex Aviation of Switzerland received the first new production aircraft, serial number 845, in July 2010. By mid-2014, Viking had built 55 new aircraft at its Calgary facility; the production rate as of summer 2014 was about 24 aircraft per year. In April 2015, Viking announced a reduction of the production rate to 18 aircraft per year. On June 17, 2015, Viking further announced a partnership with a Chinese firm, Reignwood Aviation Group; the group will purchase 50 aircraft and become the exclusive representatives for new Series 400 Twin Otters in China. Major changes introduced with the Series 400 include Honeywell Primus Apex integrated avionics, deletion of the AC electrical system, deletion of the beta backup system, modernization of the electrical and lighting systems, use of composites for nonload-bearing structures such as doors; the 100th Series 400 Twin Otter was displayed at the July 2017 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.
38% are operated as regional airliners, 31% in military aviation or special missions, 26% in industrial support and 5% in private air charter. Additionally, 70 are on regular landing gear wheels, 18 are configured as straight or amphibious floatplanes, 10 have tundra tires and 2 have wheel skis. Twin Otters could be delivered directly from the factory with floats, skis, or tricycle landing gear fittings, making them adaptable bush planes for remote and northern areas. Areas including Canada and the United States, had much of the demand. Many Twin Otters still serve in the far north, but they can be found in Africa, Asia and other regions where bush planes are the optimum means of travel, their versatility and maneuverability have made them popular in areas with difficult flying environments such as Papua New Guinea. In Norway, the Twin Otter paved the way for the network of short-field airports, connecting rural areas with larger towns; the Twin Otter showed outstanding reliability, remained in service until 2000 on certain routes.
Widerøe of Norway was, at one time, the world's largest operator of Twin Otters. During one period of its tenure in Norway, the Twin Otter fleet achieved over 96,000 cycles per year. A number of commuter airlines in
The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop fixed-wing aircraft, manufactured by Beechcraft. It was designed, is used, as a regional airliner, it is used as a freight aircraft and corporate transport, by several governmental and military organisations. With customers favoring larger regional jets, Raytheon ended production in October 2002; the aircraft was designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with short runways. It is capable of flying in excess of 600 miles. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history; the 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6- to 11-passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, freight carriers; the 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, was produced between 1966 and 1975, from 1982 to 1986.
It was commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight. The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 Twin Bonanza, a 5-passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U. S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, called the Model 65 Queen Air; this aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, named the Model 90 King Air. A stretched version of the King Air was developed and designated the Model 200 Super King Air. Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air, in order to provide a pressurized commuterliner to compete with the Swearingen Metro and the British Aerospace Jetstream; the 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration certification awarded on November 22, 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation 41C airworthiness standards. Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.
The 1900 entered service in February 1984, with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history. With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002. Many airlines continue to fly the 1900. Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for passenger airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air; the 1900 is powered by Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower; the 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower. The propellers are manufactured with four blades on each propeller.
The blades are made from composite materials. The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots true airspeed. Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles, but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles; the Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on short airstrips and it can take off and land on grass and rough runways. The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet above mean sea level with its pressurized cabin, it is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, it is equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather. The aircraft can be fitted with a lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage; the original design is known as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two airstair passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, a second at the front just behind the cockpit, it has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, behind the passenger compartment.
Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Kansas. UA-3, registered FAB-043, served in Bolivia until it crashed in November 2011, it became clear that having two airstair doors on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers was excessive. In creating the 1900C, Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were similar to the original 1900s; these were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built. Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. 1900Cs use a wet wing fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored increasing the 1900C's range; the wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are referred to as 1900C-1s.
The wet wings proved popular, the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built. Raytheon manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U. S. militar