Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Vinalesa is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Nord in the Valencian Community, Spain
El Puig El Puig de Santa Maria since 2012, is a village situated 15 km north of the city of Valencia in the comarca of Horta Nord, Spain. Its name means "hill" in Valencian); the municipality comprises three main areas, the first being the village itself, dominated by a monastery, two large wooded hills next to it, the largest of which has the ruins of a castle fortress at the top. However, there was another hill named La Pedrera which disappeared during the 20th century to make way for the V-21 motorway, with the rock being used to construct one of the jetties at Valencia's port; the second section is the coastal area of 4 km of beach with eight housing developments that are only inhabited in the summer. The village is well connected, with direct access to the V-21 Valencia to Barcelona motorway and a short distance away from the A-7 Valencia bypass. There is the RENFE C-6 Valencia to Castellón de la Plana local train service from the village every half hour, an hourly bus service to Valencia via El Puig beach.
Until recently the economy has been agriculture, however it is in a state of gradual transformation towards an industrial plan, fundamentally based on the metal industry. The types of agriculture in El Puig include cattle, pig farming and other crops but by far the main economic income is through the cultivation and export of oranges; the industrial sector has a number of sheet metal factories, food processing plants, wood product manufacturers, a beer and ionized water manufacturer and many other trade sector related activities. The fishing industry has disappeared but its beaches are now much in demand in the summer with its residential urbanisations. There are two areas indicated for future housing development in El Puig; the second is near the coastal area close to the beaches, where 6255 houses and apartments are planned to be built around a golf course. It is thought El Puig has been inhabited since pre-historic times, but the first recorded record is of a Muslim fortress situated on the montaña la pata.
El Puig was conquered by El Cid in 1093 on the way to his conquest of Valencia, however, it was retaken by the muslims. El Puig became a symbolic location for Valencians when it was conquered for good by James I of Aragon in 1237 at the Battle of the Puig; the reason the largest hill was named montaña la pata was, as the legend goes, that when James I of Aragon reached the summit with his horse they saw the city of Valencia in the distance, the horse reared up on to its two back legs with excitement and brought its two front feet down with such force that water sprang from the ground and one of its horse shoes became imbedded into the hill. A symbol of the reconquest is represented by the Virgin of El Puig. An Marian image, which according to legend, was seen by James I, which granted Christians the ability to defeat the Moors and retake Valencia, thus James I proclaimed this image of the Virgin Mary as the patron of the newly conquered Kingdom of Valencia, during this time El Puig was known as the spiritual capital of the kingdom.
In 1240 the El Puig was donated to Arnau de Cardona. However, in 1340 Peter IV of Aragon gave it to Pedro de Jérica, in 1353 to Nicolau Janvila. In 1385 the king sold El Puig to Pedro de Centelles. El Puig was separated from Puebla de Farnals in 1608 and the last territorial lords were the Marquess of Belgium and the Municipality of Valencia. January - Last weekend in January is the festival of Peter Nolasco, the founder of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy. February - The second Sunday of February is the festival of Saint Anthony the patron of animals. March - The fire festival "Las Fallas" is celebrated from 14 to 19 March. June - On the evening of 23 June are the fires of Saint Joan where, on the beaches and firework displays are held. August - The San Roque Festival is held between the 15 and 17 of August but in reality is celebrated for the whole of the month; the celebrations consist of street parties followed by bull runs in the streets of the village. September - On the first Sunday and Monday of the month of September the people of El Puig celebrate the festival of the Virgin which comprises street processions of the virgin of Puig.
October - The Community of Valencia day is held on 9 October. El Puig Local Council
Godella is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Nord, province of Valencia, Spain. Godella was founded in 1238 by the cession of James I of Aragon of a region named Godayla to the Aragonese Pedro Maza. Although part of the municipal area is cultivated, agriculture is not a principal economic activity of the municipality. Noisy-le-Roi, since August 2006 Taller d'Història Local de Godella
Emperador is a municipality in the comarca of Horta Nord in the Valencian Community, Spain. It is the smallest municipality in all Spain, covering just 0.03 km2. It has 306 inhabitants as of 2006. In Valencian it's called "Emperador" or "Venta de l'Emperador" or just "la Venta"
Agullent is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Official website of the village Official website of the major festival
Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight