Folate known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is essential for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids, which are required for cell division; as humans can not make folate, it is required in the diet. It occurs in many foods; the recommended adult daily intake of folate in the U. S. is 400 micrograms from foods or dietary supplements. Folate in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folate deficiency. Folic acid is used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in the baby. Low levels in early pregnancy are believed to be the cause of more than half of babies born with NTDs. More than 80 countries use either mandatory or voluntary fortification of certain foods with folic acid as a measure to decrease the rate of NTDs. Long-term supplementation with large amounts of folic acid is associated with small reduction in the risk of stroke and an increased risk of prostate cancer.
There are concerns. Not consuming enough folate can lead to folate deficiency; this may result in a type of anemia. Symptoms may include feeling tired, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, open sores on the tongue, changes in the color of the skin or hair. Folate deficiency in children may develop within a month of poor dietary intake. In adults, normal total body folate is between 10 and 30 mg with blood levels of greater than 7 nmol/L. Folate was discovered between 1931 and 1943, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost of supplements in the developing world is between US$0.001 and 0.005 per dose as of 2014. The term "folic" is from the Latin word folium. "Folate" refers to the many forms of folic acid and its related compounds, including tetrahydrofolic acid, methyltetrahydrofolate, methenyltetrahydrofolate, folinic acid and pteroylglutamic acid. Historic names included L.casei, factor vitamin Bc and vitamin M.
The terms "folate" and "folic acid" have somewhat different meanings in different contexts, although sometimes used interchangeably. Within the field of organic chemistry, folate refers to the conjugate base of folic acid. Within the field of biochemistry, folates refer to a class of biologically active compounds related to and including folic acid. Within the field of nutrition, the "folates" are a family of essential nutrients related to folic acid obtained from natural sources whereas the term "folic acid" is reserved for the manufactured form, used as a dietary supplement. Chemically, folates consist of three distinct chemical moieties linked together. A pterin heterocyclic ring is linked by a methylene bridge to a p-aminobenzoyl group that in turn is bonded through an amide linkage to either glutamic acid or poly-glutamate. One-carbon units in a variety of oxidation states may be attached to the N5 nitrogen atom of the pteridine ring and/or the N10 nitrogen atom of the p-aminobenzoyl group.
Folate is important during periods of frequent cell division and growth, such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting hematopoietic cells and neoplasms the most because of their greater frequency of cell division. RNA transcription and subsequent protein synthesis are less affected by folate deficiency, as the mRNA can be recycled and used again. Folate deficiency can be caused by unhealthy diets that do not include enough vegetables and other folate-rich foods. Folate deficiency is accelerated by alcohol consumption by interference with folate transport. Folate deficiency may lead to glossitis, depression, confusion and fetal neural tube and brain defects. Other symptoms include fatigue, gray hair, mouth sores, poor growth, swollen tongue. Folate deficiency is diagnosed by analyzing a complete blood count and plasma vitamin B12 and folate levels. A serum folate of 3 μg/L or lower indicates deficiency. Serum folate level reflects folate status, but erythrocyte folate level better reflects tissue stores after intake.
An erythrocyte folate level of 140 μg/L or lower indicates inadequate folate status. Serum folate reacts more to folate intake than erythrocyte folate. Since folate deficiency limits cell division, erythropoiesis is hindered; this leads to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by large, immature red blood cells. This pathology results from persistently thwarted attempts at normal DNA replication, DNA repair, cell division, produces abnormally large red cells called megaloblasts with abundant cytoplasm capable of RNA and protein synthesis, but with clumping and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin; some of these large cells, although immature, are released early from the marrow in an attempt to compensate for the anemia. Both adults and children need folate to make normal red and white blood cells and
Robert Lindstedt and Nenad Zimonjić were the defending champions but decided not to participate together. Lindstedt played alongside Łukasz Kubot, but lost in the first round to Julien Benneteau and Édouard Roger-Vasselin. Zimonjić teamed up with Daniel Nestor, but lost in the quarterfinals to Michaël Llodra and Nicolas Mahut. Llodra and Mahut won the title, defeating Jean-Julien Rojer and Horia Tecău in the final, 6–2, 7–6. Michael Berrer / Sergiy Stakhovsky James Cerretani / Adil Shamasdin Main Draw
Sebastian Toni Deisler is a former professional football player and a former international player for Germany. During his career, Deisler was employed as attacking midfielder. Having been hailed as the future of German football at the turn of the millennium, Deisler could never manage to reach his full potential due to several cruciate ligament ruptures and other major injuries, as well as depression. Deisler retired from professional football in January 2007 at the age of 27. Deisler joined FV Turmringen, when he was only six. At age 15, he was scouted and signed by the Bundesliga outfit Borussia Mönchengladbach and played for the club at junior level from 1995 to 1998, he started his professional career at the club in 1998, making his Bundesliga debut against Eintracht Frankfurt on 8 September. During the 1998–99 season he made 17 Bundesliga appearances and scoring one goal, in a 2–0 win over 1860 München; however the Foals were relegated to the second division. As Borussia Mönchengladbach were relegated at the end of the season, Deisler moved on to Hertha BSC for 4.5m DM.
The Berlin club offered a participation in the 1999–2000 Champions League. Although only 19 at his arrival and handicapped by a cruciate ligament rupture in 1999, Deisler established himself in the Hertha BSC midfield and was about to become Dariusz Wosz's replacement as the central figure in Hertha's offence when he tore a synovial membrane in his right knee in October 2001 and missed the rest of the season. German tabloid Bild made known that an agreement had been reached between the player and FC Bayern Munich. Deisler was to join Bayern at the beginning of the 2002–03 season and had received a sum of DEM 20 million from the club. Deisler faced immense critique from the fans and the media for not having announced the agreement earlier as well as accepting the payment. Deisler stated that he was asked to keep silent by the Hertha BSC manager Dieter Hoeneß to avoid unrest. During his time at Hertha, Deisler helped. In July 2002, Deisler joined Bayern on a four-year contract. Deisler arrived at Bayern injured.
Deisler's time at the club was a turbulent one as Deisler only managed 62 league appearances in four and a half years. Due to his injuries, he was unable to establish himself as a constant starter over a longer period of time. At the same time, Deisler struggled to endure the pressure he was exposed to at Bayern and developed a depression for which he was treated as a stationary patient in a Munich clinic from November 2003. After several months, Deisler rejoined the squad, but suffered a relapse in October 2004. Deisler looked to break into Bayern's first team from 2004–05 on and was able to play for the most part of 2005. After Michael Ballack's departure to Chelsea, Deisler was about to become the chief in the Bayern midfield. However, he damaged the synovial membrane in his right knee again in March 2006 and missed the World Cup on home soil. Although Deisler came back in November, he felt exhausted and, citing his lack of confidence in regaining the necessary stability in his often-injured knee, he announced his retirement on 16 January 2007.
Bayern manager Uli Hoeneß stated that Deisler's contract, which ran until 30 June 2009, would not be dissolved but instead be in abeyance. Deisler stated that he came to the conclusion that he was not made for the football business. Deisler played for the German national team between 2000 and 2006, winning 36 international caps and scoring three goals, he made his debut for the team in a friendly match against the Netherlands on 23 February 2000 and was part of the German squad at the Euro 2000 finals four months appearing in all three group matches before the Germans disappointingly exited the competition in the first round. On 2 September 2000, he scored his first goal for Germany as he opened their 2–0 win over Greece in the 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying. Due to injuries, he missed both the 2002 and 2006 FIFA World Cups, the latter being held in Germany, as well as UEFA Euro 2004. In 2005, he appeared in all of the German team's five matches at the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup in Germany.
His last match for the German national team was a friendly against Italy on 1 March 2006. Scores and results list Germany's goal tally first. Score column indicates score after each Deisler goal. HerthaDFB-Ligapokal: 2001BayernBundesliga: 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06 DFB-Pokal: 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06 DFB-Ligapokal: 2004 Germany U18European Under-18 Football Championship Runner-up: 1998GermanyFIFA Confederations Cup Third Place: 2005 Deisler has a Brazilian wife named Eunice Dos Santos Santana; the couple have a son named Raphael. The level of formal education he reached is technical college, he mentions basketball, food and movies as his hobbies. In September 2007, Deisler stated; the book was released in 2009. Now Deisler lives in Freiburg. Sebastian Deisler at fussballdaten.de Sebastian Deisler at WorldFootball.net Sebastian Deisler at National-Football-Teams.com Observer Sport Extra: Deisler the danger