A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches, associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Some Christian churches, such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican church, view the diaconate as part of the clerical state; the word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos, a standard ancient Greek word meaning "servant", "waiting-man", "minister", or "messenger". One promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it means "through the dust", referring to the dust raised by the busy servant or messenger, it is assumed that the office of deacon originated in the selection of seven men by the apostles, among them Stephen, to assist with the charitable work of the early church as recorded in Acts 6. The title deaconess is not found in the Bible. However, one woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16:1–2 as a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, although it is assumed she carried Paul's Letter to the Romans.
The exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. In some traditions a female deacon is a member of the order of deacons, while in others, deaconesses constitute a separate order. In some traditions, the title "deaconess" was sometimes given to the wife of a deacon. Female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. 112. “I believed it was necessary to find out from two female slaves who were called deacons, what was true—and to find out through torture ”This is the earliest Latin text that appears to refer to female deacons as a distinct category of Christian minister. A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3:1–13. Among the more prominent deacons in history are Stephen, the first Christian martyr. Prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket, Reginald Pole. On June 8, 536, a serving Roman deacon was raised to Silverius.
The title is used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland. The diaconate is one of the major orders in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox churches; the other major orders are those of bishop and presbyter and sub-deacon. While the diaconate as a vocation was maintained from earliest Apostolic times to the present in the Eastern churches, it disappeared in the Western church during the first millennium, with Western churches retaining deacons attached to diocesan cathedrals; the diaconate continued in a vestigial form as a temporary, final step along the course toward ordination to priesthood. In the 20th century, the diaconate was restored as a vocational order in many Western churches, most notably in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the United Methodist Church. In Catholic and Anglican churches, deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties, but report directly to the bishops of their diocese, they have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Western Churches.
In the Eastern Church, deacons have a profound liturgical presence in the Divine Liturgy. In the Western Church, Pope St. Gregory the Great reduced the liturgical role of the deacon in the Roman Rite, limiting them to serving the bishop, the proclamation of the Gospel, assisting the celebrant at the altar aside from the deacon's calling of charity. Today, deacons are granted permission to preach. Beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the permanent diaconate in the Latin church, it has however remained a vital part of the Eastern Catholic Churches. From that time until the years just prior to the Second Vatican Council, the only men ordained as deacons were seminarians who were completing the last year or so of graduate theological training, so-called "transitional deacons", who received the order after they complete their third year at the theological seminary, several months before priestly ordination. Following the recommendations of the council, in 1967 Pope Paul VI issued the motu proprio Sacrum Diaconatus Ordinem, restoring the ancient practice of ordaining to the diaconate men who were not candidates for priestly ordination.
These men are known as permanent deacons in contrast to those continuing their formation, who were called transitional deacons. There is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons; the permanent diaconate formation period in the Roman Catholic Church varies from diocese to diocese as it is determined by the local ordinary. But it entails a year of prayerful preparation, a four- or five-year training period that resembles a collegiate course of study, a year of post-ordination formation as well as the need for lifelong continuing education credits. Diaconal candidates receive instruction in philosophy, study of the Holy Scriptures (
Canton of Thurgau
The canton of Thurgau is a northeast canton of Switzerland. It is named for the river Thur, the name Thurgovia was used for a larger area, including part of this river's basin upstream of the modern canton; the area of what is now Thurgau was acquired as subject territories by the cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the mid 15th century. Thurgau was first declared a canton in its own right at the formation of the Helvetic Republic in 1798; the population, as of December 2017, is 273,801. In 2007, there were a total of 47,390; the capital is Frauenfeld. In prehistoric times the lands of the canton were inhabited by people of the Pfyn culture along Lake Constance. During Roman times the canton was part of the province Raetia until in 450 the lands were settled by the Alamanni. In the 6th century Thurgovia became a Gau of the Frankish Empire as part of Alemannia, passing to the Duchy of Swabia in the early 10th century. At this time, Thurgovia included not just what is now the canton of Thurgau, but much of the territory of the modern canton of St. Gallen, the Appenzell and the eastern parts of the canton of Zurich.
The most important cities of Thurgovia in the early medieval period were Constance as the seat of the bishop, St. Gallen for its abbey; the dukes of Zähringen and the counts of Kyburg took over much of the land in the High Middle Ages. The town of Zürich was part of the Thurgau until it became reichsunmittelbar in 1218; when the Kyburg dynasty became extinct in 1264 the Habsburgs took over that land. The Old Swiss Confederacy allied with ten freed bailiwicks of the former Toggenburg seized the lands of the Thurgau from the Habsburgs in 1460, it became a subject territory of seven Swiss cantons. During the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, both the Catholic and emerging Reformed parties sought to swing the subject territories, such as the Thurgau, to their side. In 1524, in an incident that resonated across Switzerland, local peasants occupied the cloister of Ittingen in the Thurgau, driving out the monks, destroying documents, devastating the wine-cellar. Between 1526 and 1531, most of the Thurgau's population adopted the new Reformed faith spreading from Zurich.
Instead, the First Peace of Kappel protected both Catholic and Reformed worship, though the provisions of the treaty favored the Catholics, who made up a majority among the seven ruling cantons. Religious tensions over the Thurgau were an important background to the First War of Villmergen, during which Zurich occupied the Thurgau. In 1798 the land became a canton for the first time as part of the Helvetic Republic. In 1803, as part of the Act of Mediation, the canton of Thurgau became a member of the Swiss confederation; the cantonal coat of arms was designed in 1803, based on the coat of arms of the House of Kyburg which ruled the Thurgau in the 13th century, changing the background to green-and-white, at the time considered "revolutionary" colours. The current cantonal constitution of Thurgau dates from 1987. To the north the canton is bound by the Lake Constance across which lies Austria; the Rhine creates the border in the northwest. To the south lies the canton of St. Gallen; the area of the canton is 991 km2 and divided into three hill masses.
One of these stretches along Lake Constance in the north. Another is further inland between the river Murg; the third one forms the southern border of the canton and merges with the Hörnli mountain in the pre-Alps. The population of the canton is 273,801; the canton is German speaking. The population is split between Roman Catholics. Since January 2011, Thurgau has been divided into five districts which are named after their capitals. Before this date, there were eight districts -. Frauenfeld District with capital Frauenfeld Kreuzlingen District with capital Kreuzlingen Weinfelden District with capital Weinfelden Münchwilen District with capital Münchwilen Arbon District with capital Arbon As of 2009, there are 80 municipalities in the canton; the ten largest municipalities by population are: ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates; the canton of Thurgau is known for its fine agricultural produce. Apples, pears and vegetables are well-known; the many orchards in the canton are used for the production of cider.
Wine is produced in the Thur valley. There is industry in the canton of Thurgau; the main industries are printing and handicrafts. Small and middle-sized businesses are important for the cantonal economy. Many of these are concentrated around the capital. Official website Official statistics
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints. Until the medieval emergence of the book of hours, psalters were the books most owned by wealthy lay persons and were used for learning to read. Many Psalters were richly illuminated and they include some of the most spectacular surviving examples of medieval book art; the English term is from Church Latin psalterium, the name of the Book of Psalms. The Book of Psalms contains the bulk of the Divine Office of the Roman Catholic Church; the other books associated with it were the Lectionary, the Antiphonary, Responsoriale, the Hymnary. In Late Modern English, psalter has ceased to refer to the Book of Psalms and refers to the dedicated physical volumes containing this text. Dedicated psalters, as distinct from copies of the Psalms in other formats, e.g. as part of a full edition of the Old Testament, were first developed in the Latin West in the 6th century in Ireland and from about 700 on the continent.
The extensively illustrated Utrecht Psalter is one of the most important surviving Carolingian manuscripts and exercised a major influence on the development of Anglo-Saxon art. In the Middle Ages psalters were among the most popular types of illuminated manuscripts, rivaled only by the Gospel Books, from which they took over as the type of manuscript chosen for lavish illumination. From the late 11th century onwards they became widespread - Psalms were recited by the clergy at various points in the liturgy, so psalters were a key part of the liturgical equipment in major churches. Various different schemes existed for the arrangement of the Psalms into groups; as well as the 150 Psalms, medieval psalters included a calendar, a litany of saints, canticles from the Old and New Testaments, other devotional texts. The selection of saints mentioned in the calendar and litany varied and can give clues as to the original ownership of the manuscript, since monasteries and private patrons alike would choose those saints that had particular significance for them.
Many psalters were lavishly illuminated with full-page miniatures as well as decorated initials. Of the initials the most important is the so-called "Beatus initial", based on the "B" of the words Beatus vir... at the start of Psalm 1. This was given the most elaborate decoration in an illuminated psalter taking a whole page for the initial letter or first two words. Historiated initials or full-page illuminations were used to mark the beginnings of the three major divisions of the Psalms, or the various daily readings, may have helped users navigate to the relevant part of the text. Many psalters from the 12th century onwards, included a richly decorated "prefatory cycle" – a series of full-page illuminations preceding the Psalms illustrating the Passion story, though some featuring Old Testament narratives; such images helped to enhance the book's status, served as aids to contemplation in the practice of personal devotions. The psalter is a part of either the Horologion or the breviary, used to say the Liturgy of the Hours in the Eastern and Western Christian worlds respectively.
Non-illuminated psalters written in Coptic include some of the earliest surviving codices altogether. The Mudil Psalter, the oldest complete Coptic psalter, dates to the 5th century, it was found in the Al-Mudil Coptic cemetery in a small town near Egypt. The codex was in the grave of a young girl, with her head resting on it. Scholar John Gee has argued that this represents a cultural continuation of the ancient Egyptian tradition of placing the Book of the Dead in tombs and sarcophagi; the Pahlavi Psalter is a fragment of a Middle Persian translation of a Syriac version of the Book of Psalms, dated to the 6th or 7th century. In Eastern Christianity, the Book of Psalms for liturgical purposes is divided into 20 kathismata or "sittings", for reading at Vespers and Matins. Kathisma means sitting, since the people sit during the reading of the psalms; each kathisma is divided into three stases, from stasis, to stand, because each stasis ends with Glory to the Father…, at which everyone stands. The reading of the kathismata are so arranged that the entire psalter is read through in the course of a week.
During Bright Week there is no reading from the Psalms. Orthodox psalters also contain the Biblical canticles, which are read at the canon of Matins during Great Lent; the established Orthodox tradition of Christian burial has included reading the Psalms in the church throughout the vigil, where the deceased remains the night before the funeral. Some Orthodox psalters contain special prayers for the departed for this purpose. While the full tradition is showing signs of diminishing in practice, the psalter is still sometimes used during a wake. See Category:Illuminated psalters Psalter of St. Germain of Paris, 6th century Cathach of St. Columba, early 7th century Faddan More Psalter Vespasian Psalter, 2nd quarter of the 8th century Montpellier Psalter Chludov Psalter, 3rd quarter of the 9th century Southampton Psalter Utrecht Psalter, 9th c
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. Most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian, tympana contain religious imagery, when on religious buildings. A tympanum over a doorway is often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. In classical architecture, in classicising styles from the Renaissance onwards, major examples are triangular; these shapes influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum. Bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is supported by a decorated pillar called a trumeau. Church architecture Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The dynasty consolidated its power in the 8th century making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary, becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the Merovingian throne. In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, a Carolingian Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks; the Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in the West in over three centuries. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian empire and decline that would lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire; the Carolingian dynasty takes its name from Carolus, the Latinised name of Charles Martel, de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
The name "Carolingian" or "the family of Charles." Traditional historiography has seen the Carolingian assumption of the Frank kingship as the product of a long rise to power, punctuated by a premature attempt to seize the throne through Childebert the Adopted. This picture, however, is not accepted today. Rather, the coronation of 751 is seen as a product of the aspirations of one man, whose father, dynastic founder Charles Martel, had been a Frankish high court official military commander, of the Roman Catholic Church, always looking for powerful secular protectors and for the extension of its spiritual and temporal influence; the greatest Carolingian monarch was Pepin's son. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800, his empire, ostensibly a continuation of the Western Roman Empire, is referred to historiographically as the Carolingian Empire. The Carolingian rulers did not give up the traditional Frankish practice of dividing inheritances among heirs, though the concept of the indivisibility of the Empire was accepted.
The Carolingians had the practice of making their sons minor kings in the various regions of the Empire, which they would inherit on the death of their father, which Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious both did for their sons. Following the death of the Emperor Louis the Pious in 840, his surviving adult sons, Lothair I and Louis the German, along with their adolescent brother Charles the Bald, fought a three-year civil war ending only in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, which divided the empire into three regna while according imperial status and a nominal lordship to Lothair who at 48, was the eldest; the Carolingians differed markedly from the Merovingians in that they disallowed inheritance to illegitimate offspring in an effort to prevent infighting among heirs and assure a limit to the division of the realm. In the late ninth century, the lack of suitable adults among the Carolingians necessitated the rise of Arnulf of Carinthia as the king of East Francia, a bastard child of a legitimate Carolingian king, Carloman of Bavaria, himself a son of the First King of the Eastern division of the Frankish kingdom Louis the German.
It was after Charlemagne's death that the dynasty began to crumble. His kingdom would end up splitting into three, each being ruled over by one of his grandsons. Only the kingdoms of the eastern and western portions survived, would go on to become the countries known today as Germany and France; the Carolingians were displaced in most of the regna of the Empire by 888. They ruled in East Francia until 911 and held the throne of West Francia intermittently until 987. Carolingian cadet branches continued to rule in Vermandois and Lower Lorraine after the last king died in 987, but they never sought thrones of principalities and made peace with the new ruling families. One chronicler of Sens dates the end of Carolingian rule with the coronation of Robert II of France as junior co-ruler with his father, Hugh Capet, thus beginning the Capetian dynasty; the dynasty became extinct in the male line with the death of Count of Vermandois. His sister Adelaide, the last Carolingian, died in 1122; the Carolingian dynasty has five distinct branches: The Lombard branch, or Vermandois branch, or Herbertians, descended from Pepin of Italy, son of Charlemagne.
Though he did not outlive his father, his son Bernard was allowed to retain Italy. Bernard rebelled against his uncle Louis the Pious, lost both his kingdom and his life. Deprived of the royal title, the members of this branch settled in France, became counts of Vermandois, Valois and Troyes; the counts of Vermandois perpetuated the Carolingian line until the 12th century. The Counts of Chiny and the lords of Mellier, Neufchâteau and Falkenstein are branches of the Herbertians. With the descendants of the counts of Chiny, there would have been Herbertian Carolingians to the early 14th century; the Lotharingian branch, descended from Emperor Lothair, eldest son of Louis the Pious. At his death Middle Francia was divided between his three surviving sons, into Italy and Lower Burgundy; the sons of Emperor Lothair did not have sons of their own, so Middle Francia was divided between the western and eastern branches of the family in 875. The Aquitainian branch, descended from Pepin of Aquitaine, son of Louis the Pious.
Since he did not outlive his father, his sons were deprived of Aquitaine in favor of his younger brother Charles the Bald. Pepin'
The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of
The Lindau Gospels is an illuminated manuscript in the Morgan Library in New York, important for its illuminated text, but still more so for its treasure binding, or metalwork covers, which are of different periods. The oldest element of the book is what is now the back cover, produced in the 8th century in modern Austria, but in the context of missionary settlements from Britain or Ireland, as the style is that of the Insular art of the British Isles; the upper cover is late Carolingian work of about 880, the text of the gospel book itself was written and decorated at the Abbey of Saint Gall around the same time, or later. When J. P. Morgan in his early sixties, bought the book in 1901, it was his first major purchase of a medieval manuscript, setting the direction that much of his subsequent collecting was to follow; the lower or back cover is older than the text and added from another book around the time the text was written. It was originally a front cover, it is the only intact example of a early Insular metal bookcover to survive, although we know from documentary records that famous works like the Book of Kells and the Lindisfarne Gospels had them.
A few Irish cumdachs or metal book-shrines or reliquaries for books have survived, which show broadly comparable styles, use crosses as the central feature of their designs. The style is close to that of the other main survival of Anglo-Saxon work executed on the Continent, the Tassilo Chalice, a number of works executed by local workshops in several parts of Europe. However, the St Cuthbert Gospel, a decorated leather binding thought to date from around 700, is the earliest intact European binding; the design centres on a cross pattée, that is, a cross with spreading members. The spaces between the members of the cross are filled with chip-carved interlace including snake-like beasts and a central stud set with a gem; each arm of the cross has a figure of Christ with a cruciform halo. What distinguishes the cover from the few other surviving pieces of Insular metalwork is the extensive use of enamel, which it is thought may have been learned from north Italy; some of the enamels are in a style of "sunk enamel" only found here and in plaques on the Agate Casket of Oviedo.
These show "brightly coloured, long-legged birds" set into and surrounded by the plain gold background, as opposed to the normal champlevé technique of "full enamel" where the whole surface of a plaque section is covered in enamel. The original book covered was smaller, parts of the borders, which do not match each other, were added to bring it up to the new size. Inside the border there are four plaques in the corners showing the Four Evangelists with their symbols, which are 16th century additions. Around the central topaz are four monograms: "IHS, XPS, DNS, NOS"; the upper cover is lavishly studded with large gems, uses low repoussé relief. The composition centres on a cross, but here a whole Crucifixion scene with a figure of Jesus on the cross and much smaller ones of the Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist; each of these is in a compartment below the arms of the cross, paired with iconographically unusual female figures. Identifications for these lower figures vary. All eight figures are represented crouching or sideways, or hovering horizontally in the case of the angels and below clusters of gems.
Sol and Luna, personifications of the sun and moon, occupy the top of the cross's shaft, a common feature in Crucifixion scenes of the period, although unusually they are here shown on the shaft of the cross itself, above Christ and with Luna above Sol. More they are to either side of the cross-shaft, or at the ends of the arms. Sol here lacks his usual rays, suggesting an eclipse is represented, following the Gospels; the border contains most of the gems, held in Carolingian plant motif settings, which are exceptionally finely executed. The cover of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, which can be dated to 870, is a product of the same workshop, though there are differences of style; this workshop is associated with the Holy Roman Emperor Charles II, called his "Palace School". Its location remains uncertain and much discussed, but Saint-Denis Abbey outside Paris is one leading possibility; the Arnulf Ciborium, now in the Munich Residenz, is the third major work in the group, along with the frame of an antique serpentine dish in the Louvre.
Recent scholars tend to group the Lindau Gospels and the Arnulf Ciborium in closer relation to each other than the Codex Aureus to either. The text is the "Four Gospels preceded by the Epistle of S. Jerome: Ad Damasum, Canon Tables and Prefaces, followed by a Capitulary", written and illuminated in "a not elegant" Carolingian minuscule, the miniatures or by Folchard of St Gall, who portrayed himself in the Folchard Psalter; the style of illumination lacks the Insular elements of that work. The borders are grand and elegant variations on classicising foliage motifs, the large initials reflect the Carolingian development of Insular motifs such