International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2, the capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active, the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in the year 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, the island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the worlds oldest functioning legislative assemblies.
Following a period of strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Iceland thus followed Norways integration to that Union and came under Danish rule after Swedens secession from that union in 1523. In the wake of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Icelands struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918, until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture, and was among the poorest in Europe. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, in 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has an economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. Iceland ranks high in economic and social stability and equality, in 2013, it was ranked as the 13th most-developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.
Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy, some bankers were jailed, and the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nations Scandinavian heritage, most Icelanders are descendants of Germanic and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old Norse and is related to Faroese
Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy. Most countries have rising life expectancy and an ageing population and this is the case for every country in the world except the 18 countries designated as demographic outliers by the UN. The aged population is currently at its highest level in human history, the UN predicts the rate of population ageing in the 21st century will exceed that of the previous century. The number of people aged 60 years and over has tripled since 1950, reaching 600 million in 2000 and it is projected that the combined senior and geriatric population will reach 2.1 billion by 2050. Countries vary significantly in terms of the degree and pace of ageing, Population ageing is a shift in the distribution of a countrys population towards older ages. Population ageing is widespread across the world, among the countries currently classified by the United Nations as more developed, the overall median age rose from 28 in 1950 to 40 in 2010, and is forecast to rise to 44 by 2050.
The corresponding figures for the world as a whole are 24 in 1950,29 in 2010, for the less developed regions, the median age will go from 26 years in 2010 to 35 years in 2050. Population ageing arises from two demographic effects, increasing longevity and declining fertility, an increase in longevity raises the average age of the population by increasing the numbers of surviving older people. A decline in fertility reduces the number of babies, and as the effect continues, of these two forces, it is declining fertility that is the largest contributor to population ageing in the world today. More specifically, it is the decline in the overall fertility rate over the last half century that is primarily responsible for the population ageing in the world’s most developed countries. Because many developing countries are going through faster fertility transitions, they will experience even faster population ageing than the developed countries in the future. A compression of morbidity would imply reduced disability in old age, another option has been posed for a situation of dynamic equilibrium.
This is crucial information for governments if the limits of lifespan continue to increase indefinitely and these surveys cover 308,000 respondents aged 18+ years and 81,000 aged 50+ years from 70 countries. Canada has the highest per capita rate in the world. Howe Institute, a think tank, has suggested that immigration cannot be used as a viable mean for countering population ageing. This conclusion is seen in the work of other scholars and Europe are the two regions where a significant number of countries face population ageing in the near future. In these regions within twenty years many countries face a situation where the largest population cohort will be those over 65. The Oxford Institute of Ageing is a looking at global population ageing
Grafarvogur is among the largest residential districts of Reykjavík, Iceland. It is a new neighbourhood, major construction began in the late 1980s. The district includes 14 neighbourhoods, Foldir, Hús, Borgir, Víkur, Engi, Spöng, Staðir, Höfðar, Geirsnef, of those, five fall within the boundaries of historic Gufunes estate. Grafarvogur currently has one medium-sized shopping centre called Spöngin and its not a mall in itself but a cluster of stores, Hagkaup being the largest. Also there are clusters of stores in Hverafold, by Víkurvegur. Those are much smaller and contain only a few stores, the supermarkets being the largest of the few, media related to Grafarvogur at Wikimedia Commons
Education in Iceland
The system of education in Iceland is divided in four levels, compulsory, upper secondary and higher, and is similar to that of other Nordic countries. Education is mandatory for children aged 6–16, most institutions are funded by the state, there are very few private schools in the country. Iceland is a country with gymnasia, the first national education law was the 1907 education law, and the first national curriculum was published in 1926. According to the Ministry of Education and Culture, The Ministry of Education, traditionally, education in Iceland has been run in the public sector, there is a small, although growing, number of private education institutions in the country. Over the years, the system has been decentralised, and responsibility for primary. The state runs upper secondary schools and higher education institutions, the Ministry issues the National Curriculum Guidelines. The National Centre for Educational Materials publishes educational materials for education institutions, the Educational Testing Institute is the country’s sole examination board, responsible for issuing and grading national assessments.
There are 192 institutions catering for compulsory education,42 schools for secondary education and 9 higher education institutions. The oldest gymnasiums in the country are Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík and Menntaskólinn á Akureyri, Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík traces its origin to 1056, when a school was established in Skálholt. The school was moved to Reykjavík in 1786, but poor housing conditions forced it to again in 1805 to Bessastaðir near Reykjavík. In 1846 the school was moved to its current location, the university originally had only faculties for these three fields, in addition to a faculty of humanities. The first rector of the university was Björn M. Ólsen, the Icelandic education system comprises four levels, compulsory, upper secondary and higher. Playschool or leikskóli, is education for those under the age of six. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 2007, the Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that playschools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines.
They are responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible. However, the Ministry does not implement the regulations and guidelines, instead this is the responsibility of the local authority, in addition, the local authority employs representatives who supervise the playschools’ operation. Parents must pay for their children to attend playschools, around 30% of the costs of running the institutions are covered by these fees. Private playschools’ fees can be around 10–20% higher than those of public institutions, almost all private schools receive some municipal funding