As a comprehensive design and art movement it remained popular into the 1930s. However, in arts and architectural design it has continued with numerous revivals. The American Craftsman style developed out of the British Arts and Crafts movement going on since the 1860s, while the American movement reacted against the eclectic Victorian over-decorated aesthetic, the Arts and Crafts styles American arrival coincided with the decline of the Victorian era. In the late 1800s, a group of Boston’s more influential architects and its first meeting, to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects, was held in January 1897 at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. They succeeded in opening the first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition in April 1897 at Copley Hall, featuring over 10 objects made by 160 craftsmen, half of whom were craftswomen. The exhibitions success led to the formation of The Society of Arts and Crafts in June 1897, with a mandate to “Develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts.
”The Society focused on the relationship of artists and designers to the world of commerce, and on high-quality workmanship. The Society of Arts and Crafts mandate was expanded into a credo which read. It hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, in China the Arts and Crafts style incorporated locally handcrafted wood and metal work creating objects that were both simple and elegant. The movements name American Craftsman came from the magazine, The Craftsman, founded in 1901 by philosopher, furniture maker. The magazine featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene and Greene company, emphasis on the originality of the artist/craftsman led to the design concepts of the 1930s Art Deco movement. Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are not only to changes in taste and style. The middle-class housewife of the era would not have domestic servants and would be doing much if not all of the housework herself, as well as watching the children.
These added roles made it important that the kitchen be integrated into the house with easy sight lines to the common areas of the main floor as well as to the back yard. Another common design development arising from the class-shift of the time was the built-in breakfast nook in the kitchen, the Victorian kitchen of the previous era was separated from the family view and daily routine. It typically had a table at which the servants would eat after the family meal was served. The Victorian kitchen had no place for a family member to sit, eat. Again, as the housewife of the Craftsman era was now preparing the family meals, the Victorian kitchen gave way to one designed as the heart of the familys daily life. The breakfast nook often placed under a window or in its own bay provided a place for the family to gather at any time of the day or evening, particularly while food was being prepared
International Style (architecture)
A visually weightless quality engendered by the use of cantilever construction. Glass and steel, in combination with usually less visible reinforced concrete, are the materials of the construction. Commissioned in 1931 by the director of the Museum of Modern Art, Alfred H. Barr Jr. The original exhibition catalogue was followed up immediately by the book titled The International Style, the aesthetics-based definition of The International Style identified and expanded upon characteristics said to be common to Modernism across the world and its stylistic aspects. Hitchcock and Johnson identified three principles, the expression of volume rather than mass, the emphasis on rather than preconceived symmetry. The aim of Hitchcock and Johnson was to define a style that would encapsulate this modern architecture, all the works in the 1932 Museum of Modern Art exhibition were carefully selected, only displaying those that strictly followed these rules. Many Modernists disliked the term, believing that they had arrived at an approach to architecture that transcended style, the British architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner commented, To me what had been achieved in 1914 was the style of the century.
It never occurred to me to look beyond, here was the one and only style which fitted all those aspects which mattered, aspects of economics and sociology, of materials and function. It seems folly to think anybody would wish to abandon it. The exhibition Modern Architecture, International Exhibition opened on February 9,1932, at the Museum of Modern Art, in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Room B was a section titled Housing, presenting the need for a new domestic environment” as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Raymond Hood and Richard Neutra, among these works was shown Alvar Aaltos Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland. The exhibition is significant for its approach to the architectural exhibition. Highly curated in nature, the 1932 exhibition was driven by a desire to promote and consolidate the theory of international modernism, as such, the exhibition featured prominently the work of the core of the modernist group.
With Van Der Rohe, Corbusier and Gropius at the forefront, moMAs director Alfred H. Barr hired art historians Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock to curate the museums first architectural exhibition. In 1929, Johnson attended the ceremony of his sister in Wellesley College, where he met Barr. In one month, Barr would be interviewed by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller for the position of the director of the MOMA, Barr added Johnson to MOMAs Junior Advisory Committee. Hitchcock graduated in 1924 after having completed his studies in three years and spending his senior year in architecture
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, many elements of what is typically termed Victorian architecture did not become popular until in Victorias reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of middle east, the name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it follows Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, during the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. Paxton continued to build houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. In this era of prosperity new methods of construction were developed, other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen.
Victorian architecture usually has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae, some chose the United States, and others went to Canada and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield, the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is generally recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated, The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, during the British colonial period of British Ceylon, Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States, Victorian architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900, a list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, and Shingle.
As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick, on the other hand, terms such as Painted Ladies or gingerbread may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style. The names of architectural styles varied between countries, many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, Nob Hill, the extent to which any one is the largest surviving example is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America, cabbagetown is the largest and most continuous Victorian residential area in North America.
Other Toronto Victorian neighbourhoods include The Annex and Rosedale, in the USA, the South End of Boston is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest and largest Victorian neighborhood in the country. Old Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky claims to be the nations largest Victorian neighborhood, Virginia is home to several large Victorian neighborhoods, the most prominent being The Fan
French Colonial is a style of architecture used by the French during colonization. French Colonial was one of four architectural styles that developed during the colonial period in what would become the United States. The other styles were Colonial Georgian, Dutch Colonial, and Spanish Colonial, French Colonial developed in the settlements of the Illinois Country and French Louisiana. It is believed to have been influenced by the building styles of French Canada. It had its beginnings in 1699 with the establishment of French Louisiana, styles of building that evolved during the French colonial period include the Creole cottage, Creole townhouse, and French Creole plantation house. Most buildings constructed during the French colonial period utilized a heavy timber frame of logs installed vertically on a sill, poteaux-sur-sol, or into the earth, poteaux-en-terre. An infill of lime mortar or clay mixed with small stones or a mixture of mud, many times the infill would be replaced with brick. This method of construction was used in the Illinois Country as well as Louisiana, general characteristics of a French Colonial dwelling included a raised basement which would support the floor of the homes primary living quarters.
Exterior stairs were another element, the stairs would often climb up to a distinctive, full-length veranda or gallery. The roof over the veranda was normally part of the overall roof, French Colonial roofs were either a steep hipped roof, with a dormer or dormers, or a side-gabled roof. The veranda or gallery was accessed via French doors. French Colonial homes in the American South commonly had stuccoed exterior walls, American colonial architecture, which states that by 1770 the briquette-entre-poteaux replaced earlier types of French Colonial construction. Creole cottage Hotel St. Pierre Lafittes Blacksmith Shop
Ephriam M. Baynard House
The Ephriam M. Baynard House is a historic home in Auburndale, located at 208 West Lake Avenue. On November 10,2001, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and houses the Baynard House Museum, the Architect was Alfred Chipman Thorp, and Baynards home was designed and built in the Folk Victorian style. The houses namesake, Ephriam Mikell Baynard was a real estate developer in the region, Baynard was designated a Great Floridian by the Florida Department of State in the Great Floridians 2000 Program. A plaque attesting the honor is located at the Baynard House, media related to Ephriam M. Baynard House at Wikimedia Commons Floridas Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Baynard House Museum Great Floridians of Auburndale
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
Shingle style architecture
In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. The plain, shingled surfaces of buildings were adopted. Aside from being a style of design, the style conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume, perhaps the most famous Shingle-style house built in American was Kragsyde the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea, Massachusetts. The William G. Low House, designed by McKim, Mead & White, many of the concepts of the Shingle style were adopted by Gustav Stickley, and adapted to the American version of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Additionally, there are other notable styles of Victorian architecture, including Italianate, Second Empire, Folk. Some concentrations of shingle-style architecture are listed in the U. S. National Register of Historic Places and this was followed by several magazine articles on the subject, culminating in Scullys The Shingle Style with the Stick Style in 1971 and The Shingle Style Today in 1974.
This impression of the passage of time is enhanced by the use of shingles, some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building, had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk and installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade. Shingle-style houses often use a single, large roof, such as a gambrel or hip roof, the houses thus emanate a more pronounced mass and a greater emphasis on horizontality. The Shingle Style eventually spread beyond North America, in Australia, it was introduced by the Canadian architect John Horbury Hunt in the nineteenth century. Some of his Shingle Style homes still survive and are heritage-listed, some of his most notable examples of the style are Highlands, a home in the Sydney suburb of Wahroonga, and Pibrac, in the nearby suburb of Warrawee. The latter house has featured in a television commercial. Gatehouse, in Wahroonga, was not one of Hunts designs, Victorian architecture Queen Anne style architecture in the United States Scully, Vincent. ISBN 0-8076-0760-6 About Shingle architecture, photo-essay at About.
Com Definition with examples at Phorio Standards
Spanish Colonial architecture
These two visible aspects of the city are connected and complementary. The 16th century Laws of the Indies included provisions for the layout of new settlements in the Americas. The new churches and mission stations, for example, aimed for maximum effect in terms of their imposition and domination of the buildings or countryside. In order for that to be achievable, they had to be strategically located - at the center of a square or at a higher point in the landscape. The Spanish Colonial style of architecture dominated in the early Spanish colonies of North and South America and it is sometimes marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain - and the richest province of Spains colonial empire - has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. With twenty-nine sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any country in the Americas.
Some of the most famous cities in Mexico built in the Colonial style are Puebla, Querétaro, the historic center of Mexico City is a mixture of architectural styles from the 16th century to the present. The Metropolitan Cathedral – built from 1563 to 1813 in a variety of including the Renaissance, Baroque. The rich interior is mostly Baroque, during the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexicos most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque. These buildings were built in an ultra-Baroque, fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic style, Antigua Guatemala in Guatemala is known for its well preserved Spanish colonial style architecture. The city of Antigua is famous for its well-preserved Spanish Mudéjar-influenced Baroque architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches dating from the 16th century. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Ciudad Colonial of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, founded in 1498, is the oldest city in the New World and a prime example of this architectural style.
San Juan was founded by the Spaniards in 1521, where Spanish colonial architecture can be found like the Historic Hotel El Convento, Old San Juan with its walled city and buildings are very good examples, and in excellent condition. According to UNESCO, Ecuador has the largest, best-preserved and it was the first city that was inscribed onto the UNESCO World Heritage List, along with Kraków, Poland in 1978. The historic district of city is the sole largest and best preserved area of Spanish Colonial architecture in the world. The idea of laying out a city in a pattern is not unique to the Spanish. In fact, it never started out with the Spanish colonizers and it has been traced back to some ancient civilizations especially the ancient cities of the Aztec and Maya, and Ancient Greeks
Tudor Revival architecture
It became an influence in some other countries, especially the British colonies. For example, in New Zealand, the architect Francis Petre adapted the style for the local climate, elsewhere in Singapore, a British colony, architects such as R. A. J. Bidwell pioneered what became known as the Black and White House. The earliest examples of the style originate with the works of such eminent architects as Norman Shaw and George Devey and this was generally modelled on the grand prodigy houses built by the courtiers of Elizabeth I and James VI. It was associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, outside North America, Tudorbethan is used synonymously with Tudor revival and mock Tudor. The emphasis was on the simple and the less impressive aspects of Tudor architecture, the Tudor revival style was a reaction to the ornate Victorian Gothic revival of the second half of the 19th century. Confusingly, it was promptly named Queen Anne style, when in reality it combined a revival of Elizabethan and Jacobean design details including mullioned.
The style began to incorporate the classic pre-Georgian features that are understood to represent Queen Anne in Britain. The term Queen Anne for this style of architecture tends to be commonly used in the USA than in Britain. In the USA it evolved into a form of architecture not instantly recognisable as that constructed in either the Tudor or Queen Anne period, in Britain the style remained closer to its Tudor roots. Large and small houses alike with half-timbering in their upper storeys and gables were completed with tall ornamental chimneys and it was here that the influences of the arts and crafts movement became apparent. However, Tudor Revival cannot really be likened to the structures of the originals. An example of this is the cottage style of Ascott House in Buckinghamshire. This was designed by Devey for the Rothschild family, who were among the earliest patrons, the Tudor revival, now concentrated on the picturesque. A very well known example of the idealised half-timbered style is Liberty & Co.
department store in London, the store specialised, among other goods, in fabrics and furnishings by the leading designers of the Arts and Crafts movement. In the early part of the century, one of the exponents who developed the style further was Edwin Lutyens and this is Tudorbethan at its best, free in ground plan, stripped of cuteness, yet warmly vernacular in effect, familiar though new, eminently liveable. An example of Tudorbethan architecture was seen at Greaves Hall. Many of the features of the building could still be seen until it was demolished in 2009. Later came Mackey Hugh Baillie Scott and Blair Imrie who made their names as Tudor style architects, Lutyens though took the style away from what is generally understood as Tudor revival creating a further highly personalised style of his own
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
American colonial architecture
These styles are associated with the houses and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. Several relatively distinct regional styles of architecture are recognized in the United States. Building styles in the 13 colonies were influenced by techniques and styles from England, in New England, 17th-century colonial houses were built primarily from wood, following styles found in the southeastern counties of England. In the Delaware Valley, Swedish colonial settlers introduced the log cabin to America, a style sometimes called Pennsylvania colonial appeared and incorporates Georgian architectural influences. A Pennsylvania Dutch style is recognized in parts of southeastern Pennsylvania that were settled by German immigrants in the 18th century, early buildings in some other areas of the United States reflect the architectural traditions of the colonial powers that controlled these regions. These buildings typically included details including steep roofs, small casement leaded glass windows, rich ornamentation, to maximize natural light in northern climes, early houses faced southeast, regardless of a buildings alignment to the road.
Conversely, in colonies, houses faced northwest to minimize the suns heat. Developed in French-settled areas of North America beginning with the founding of Quebec in 1608 and New Orleans, Louisiana in 1718, the early French Colonial house type of the Mississippi River Valley region was the poteaux-en-terre, constructed of heavy upright cedar logs set vertically into the ground. These basic houses featured double-pitched hipped roofs and were surrounded by porches to handle the hot summer climate, by 1770, the basic French Colonial house form evolved into the briquette-entre-poteaux style familiar in the historic areas of New Orleans and other areas. These homes featured double-louvred doors, flared hip roofs, the early type of dwelling in Spanish Florida was the board house, a small one-room cottage constructed of pit-sawn softwood boards, typically with a thatched roof. During the 18th century, the houses were whitewashed in lime mortar with an oyster shell aggregate. Typically two-story, the houses included cooling porches to accommodate the Florida climate, the style developed in the Southwest with Pueblo design influences from the indigenous Puebloan peoples architecture.
Ranchos were typically built of adobe, developed from around 1630 with the arrival of Dutch colonists to New Amsterdam and the Hudson River Valley in what is now New York and in Bergen in what is now New Jersey. Initially the settlers built small, one room cottages with stone walls, by 1670 or so, two-story gable-end homes were common in New Amsterdam. In the countryside of the Hudson Valley, the Dutch farmhouse evolved into a home with straight-edged gables moved to the end walls. Developed after about 1675, when the Delaware River Valley area was settled by immigrants from Sweden, Scotland, Ireland and several other northern European nations. The early colonists to this region adapted the style of construction popular in Europe. The bank house was a form of home during this period, typically constructed into a hillside for protection during the cold winters