In cinematography, a jib is a boom device with a camera on one end, a counterweight and camera controls on the other. It operates like a see-saw, but with the balance point located close to the counterweight, so that the camera end of the arm can move through an extended arc. A jib permits a combination of the two. A jib is mounted on a tripod or similar support. A jib is useful for getting high shots, or shots which need to move a great distance horizontally or vertically, without the expense and safety issues of putting a camera operator on a crane for a crane shot or laying track for a camera dolly. A jib can be mounted on a dolly for shots in which the camera moves over obstacles such as furniture, when a normal dolly shot could not be used. A jib is somewhat more complicated than a simple lever, since always the camera's aim needs to be controlled independently of the swing of the jib arm; this can be done by simple mechanical means or by the use of remotely controlled electric servo motors.
Since the camera operator is not able to use the camera's controls directly or look through the camera's viewfinder, a jib is used in conjunction with a remote camera control for focus and zoom and with a portable video monitor. A device known as a "hot head" or "remote head" is attached to the camera end of larger jibs, it enables remote pan/tilt functions with focus/zoom control. This setup can be operated by one person. In a two-operator situation, one person operates the jib arm/boom while another operates the pan/tilt/zoom functions of the remote head. Tripod head
Perspective in the graphic arts is an approximate representation on a flat surface, of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases. Italian Renaissance painters and architects including Filippo Brunelleschi, Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca and Luca Pacioli studied linear perspective, wrote treatises on it, incorporated it into their artworks, thus contributing to the mathematics of art. Linear perspective always works by representing the light that passes from a scene through an imaginary rectangle, to the viewer's eye, as if a viewer were looking through a window and painting what is seen directly onto the windowpane. If viewed from the same spot as the windowpane was painted, the painted image would be identical to what was seen through the unpainted window; each painted object in the scene is thus a flat, scaled down version of the object on the other side of the window.
Because each portion of the painted object lies on the straight line from the viewer's eye to the equivalent portion of the real object it represents, the viewer sees no difference between the painted scene on the windowpane and the view of the real scene. All perspective drawings assume. Objects are scaled relative to that viewer. An object is not scaled evenly: a circle appears as an ellipse and a square can appear as a trapezoid; this distortion is referred to as foreshortening. Perspective drawings have a horizon line, implied; this line, directly opposite the viewer's eye, represents objects infinitely far away. They have shrunk, to the infinitesimal thickness of a line, it is analogous to the Earth's horizon. Any perspective representation of a scene that includes parallel lines has one or more vanishing points in a perspective drawing. A one-point perspective drawing means that the drawing has a single vanishing point directly opposite the viewer's eye and on the horizon line. All lines parallel with the viewer's line of sight recede to the horizon towards this vanishing point.
This is the standard "receding railroad tracks" phenomenon. A two-point drawing would have lines parallel to two different angles. Any number of vanishing points are possible in a drawing, one for each set of parallel lines that are at an angle relative to the plane of the drawing. Perspectives consisting of many parallel lines are observed most when drawing architecture; because it is rare to have a scene consisting of lines parallel to the three Cartesian axes, it is rare to see perspectives in practice with only one, two, or three vanishing points. The earliest art paintings and drawings sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, did not use foreshortening; the most important figures are shown as the highest in a composition from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called "vertical perspective", common in the art of Ancient Egypt, where a group of "nearer" figures are shown below the larger figure or figures.
The only method to indicate the relative position of elements in the composition was by overlapping, of which much use is made in works like the Parthenon Marbles. Chinese artists made use of oblique perspective from the first or second century until the 18th century, it is not certain. Oblique projection is seen in Japanese art, such as in the Ukiyo-e paintings of Torii Kiyonaga. In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance. Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery; this was detailed within Aristotle's Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth. The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of perspective for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his house designed using skenographia, so this art was not confined to the stage.
Euclid's Optics introduced a mathematical theory of perspective, but there is some debate over the extent to which Euclid's perspective coincides with the modern mathematical definition. Various paintings and drawings from the Middle Ages show amateur attempts at projections of objects, where parallel lines are represented in isometric projection, or by nonparallel ones without a vanishing point. By the periods of antiquity, artists those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was used in a work depended on many factors; some of the paintings found in the ruins o
A bird's-eye view is an elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were a bird used in the making of blueprints, floor plans, maps. It can be an aerial photograph, but a drawing. Before manned flight was common, the term "bird's eye" was used to distinguish views drawn from direct observation at high locations, from those constructed from an imagined perspectives. Bird's eye views; the last great flourishing of them was in the mid-to-late 19th century, when bird's eye view prints were popular in the United States and Europe. The terms aerial view and aerial viewpoint are sometimes used synonymous with bird's-eye view; the term aerial view can refer to any view from a great height at a wide angle, as for example when looking sideways from an airplane window or from a mountain top. Overhead view is synonymous with bird's-eye view but tends to imply a less lofty vantage point than the latter term. For example, in computer and video games, an "overhead view" of a character or situation places the vantage point only a few feet above human height.
See top-down perspective. Recent technological and networking developments have made satellite images more accessible. Microsoft Bing Maps offers direct overhead satellite photos of the entire planet but offers a feature named Bird's eye view in some locations; the Bird's Eye photos are angled at 40 degrees rather than being straight down. Satellite imaging programs and photos have been described as offering a viewer the opportunity to "fly over" and observe the world from this specific angle. In filmmaking and video production, a bird's-eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject; the perspective is foreshortened, making the subject appear short and squat. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene, or to emphasise the smallness or insignificance of the subjects; these shots are used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. It is shot by lifting the camera up by hands or by hanging it off something strong enough to support it; when a scene needs a large area shot, it is a crane shot.
A distinction is sometimes drawn between a bird's-eye view and a bird's-flight view, or "view-plan in isometrical projection". Whereas a bird's-eye view shows a scene from a single viewpoint in true perspective, for example, the foreshortening of more distant features, a bird's-flight view combines a vertical plan of ground-level features with perspective views of buildings and other standing features, all presented at the same scale; the landscape appears "as it would unfold itself to any one passing over it, as in a balloon, at a height sufficient to abolish sharpness of perspective, yet low enough to allow of distinct view of the scene beneath". The technique was popular among local surveyors and cartographers of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Aerial landscape art Aerial perspective Aerial photography Camera angle Cinematic techniques Filmmaking Google Earth Pictorial map Pictometry Plans Top-down perspective Video production Worm's-eye view
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound waves above 20 kHz is not perceptible by humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases and solids including vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer. An audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation and reproduction of sound. Applications of acoustics are found in all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, speech, underwater acoustics, vibration.
Sound is defined as " Oscillation in pressure, particle displacement, particle velocity, etc. propagated in a medium with internal forces, or the superposition of such propagated oscillation. Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in." Sound can be viewed as a wave motion in air or other elastic media. In this case, sound is a stimulus. Sound can be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound is a sensation. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air and solids as longitudinal waves and as a transverse wave in solids; the sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium; as the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure and displacement of the medium vary in time.
At an instant in time, the pressure and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave; this is intuitively obvious for a solid, the same is true for liquids and gases. During propagation, waves can be refracted, or attenuated by the medium; the behavior of sound propagation is affected by three things: A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium. Motion of the medium itself. If the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement. For example, sound moving through wind will have its speed of propagation increased by the speed of the wind if the sound and wind are moving in the same direction. If the sound and wind are moving in opposite directions, the speed of the sound wave will be decreased by the speed of the wind; the viscosity of the medium.
Medium viscosity determines the rate. For many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible; when sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, it may be refracted. The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound can travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids and plasmas; the matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is transmitted through gases and liquids as longitudinal waves called compression waves, it requires a medium to propagate. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation. Sound waves may be "viewed" using parabolic objects that produce sound; the energy carried by an oscillating sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression or lateral displacement strain of the matter, the kinetic energy of the displacement velocity of particles of the medium.
Although there are many complexities relating to the transmission of sounds, at the point of reception, sound is dividable into two simple elements: pressure and time. These fundamental elements form the basis of all sound waves, they can be used to describe, in every sound we hear. In order to understand the sound more a complex wave such as the one shown in a blue background on the right of this text, is separated into its component parts, which are a combination of various sound wave frequencies. Sound waves are simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties: Frequency, or its inverse, wavelength Amplitude, sound pressure or Intensity Speed of sound DirectionSound, perceptible by humans has frequencies from abou
In photography and video production, a long shot shows the entire object or human figure and is intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. These are shot now using wide-angle lenses. However, due to sheer distance, establishing shots and wide shots can use any camera type; this type of filmmaking was a result of filmmakers trying to retain the sense of the viewer watching a play in front of them, as opposed to just a series of pictures. The wide shot has been used since films have been made as it is a basic type of cinematography. In 1878, one of the first true motion pictures, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, was released. Though this wouldn't be considered a film in the current motion picture industry, it was a huge step towards complete motion pictures, it is arguable that it is basic but it still remains that it was displayed as a wide angle as both the rider and horse are visible in the frame. After this innovation, in the 1880s celluloid photographic film and motion picture cameras became available so more motion pictures could be created in the form of Kinetoscope or through projectors.
These early films maintained a wide angle layout as it was the best way to keep everything visible for the viewer. Once motion pictures became more available in the 1890s there were public screenings of many different films only being around a minute long, or less; these films again adhered to the wide shot style. One of the first competitive filming techniques came in the form of the close-up as George Albert Smith incorporated them into his film Hove. Though unconfirmed as the first usage of this method it is one of the earliest recorded examples. Once the introduction of new framing techniques were introduced more and more were made and used for their benefits that they could provide that wide shots couldn't; this was the point at which motion pictures evolved from short, minute long, screening to becoming full-length motion pictures. More and more cinematic techniques appeared, resulting in the wide shot being less used. However, it still remained as it is irreplaceable in what it can achieve.
When television entered the home, it was seen as a massive hit to the cinema industry and many saw it as the decline in cinema popularity. This in turn resulted in films having to stay ahead of television by incorporating superior quality than that of a television; this was done by adding color but it implemented the use of widescreen. This would allow a massive increase amount of space usable by the director, thus allowing an wider shot for the viewer to witness more of whatever the director intends to evoke with any given shot. Most modern films will use the different types of wide shots as they are a staple in filmmaking and are impossible to avoid unless deliberately chosen to. In the current climate of films, the technical quality of any given shot will appear with much better clarity which has given life to some incredible shots from modern cinema. Given the quality of modern home entertainment mediums such as Blu Ray, 3D and Ultra HD Blu Rays this has allowed the scope and size of any given frame to encompass more of the scene and environment in greater detail.
There are a variety of ways of framing. In the case of a person, head to toe; this achieves a clear physical representation of a character and can describe the surroundings as it is visible within the frame. This results in the audience having a desired view/opinion of the location. Wide shot – The subject is only just visible in the location; this can find a balance between a ‘wide shot’ and an ‘Extreme Wide Shot’ by keeping an emphasis on both the characters and the environment finding a harmony between the two of them. Enabling the ability to use the benefits of both type, by allowing the scale of the environment but maintaining an element of focus on the character or object in frame. Extreme wide shot – The shot is so far away from the subject that they are no longer visible; this is used to create a sense of a character being lost or engulfed by the sheer size of their surroundings. Which can result in a character being made small or insignificant due to their situation/surroundings. Establishing shot – A shot used to display a location and is the first shot in a new scene.
These establish the setting of a film, whether, the physical location or the time period. But it gives a sense of place to the film and brings the viewer to wherever the story requires them to. Master Shot – This shot can be mistaken for an establishing shot as it displays key characters and locations. However, it is a shot in which all relevant characters are in frame. With inter cut shots of other characters to shift focus; this is a useful method for retaining audience focus as most shots in this style refrain from using cuts and therefore will keep the performances and the dialogue in the forefront of what is going on for the duration of the scene. Many directors are known for their use of the variety of wide shots. A key example of them is the frequent use of establishing shots and wide shots in Peter Jackson’s The Lord of the Rings trilogy showing the vast New Zealand landscape to instil awe in the audience. In the 1993 film Schindler's List, there is a running image of a small girl trapped within a concentration camp wearing a red coat (the only
A sound effect is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, video games, music, or other media. These are created with foley. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music; the term refers to a process applied to a recording, without referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects are called "sound effects"; the term sound effect ranges back to the early days of radio. In its Year Book 1931 the BBC published a major article about "The Use of Sound Effects", it considers sounds effect linked with broadcasting and states: "It would be a great mistake to think of them as anologous to punctuation marks and accents in print.
They should never be inserted into a programme existing. The author of a broadcast play or broadcast construction ought to have used Sound Effects as bricks with which to build, treating them as of equal value with speech and music." It lists six "totally different primary genres of Sound Effect": Realistic, confirmatory effect Realistic, evocative effect Symbolic, evocative effect Conventionalised effect Impressionistic effect Music as an effectAccording to the author, "It is axiomatic that every Sound Effect, to whatever category it belongs, must register in the listener's mind instantaneously. If it fails to do so its presence could not be justified." In the context of motion pictures and television, sound effects refers to an entire hierarchy of sound elements, whose production encompasses many different disciplines, including: Hard sound effects are common sounds that appear on screen, such as door alarms, weapons firing, cars driving by. Background sound effects are sounds that do not explicitly synchronize with the picture, but indicate setting to the audience, such as forest sounds, the buzzing of fluorescent lights, car interiors.
The sound of people talking in the background is considered a "BG," but only if the speaker is unintelligible and the language is unrecognizable. These background noises are called ambience or atmos. Foley sound effects are sounds that synchronize on screen, require the expertise of a foley artist to record properly. Footsteps, the movement of hand props, the rustling of cloth are common foley units. Design sound effects are sounds that do not occur in nature, or are impossible to record in nature; these sounds are used to suggest futuristic technology in a science fiction film, or are used in a musical fashion to create an emotional mood. Each of these sound effect categories is specialized, with sound editors known as specialists in an area of sound effects. Foley is another method of adding sound effects. Foley is more of a technique for creating sound effects than a type of sound effect, but it is used for creating the incidental real world sounds that are specific to what is going on onscreen, such as footsteps.
With this technique the action onscreen is recreated to try to match it as as possible. If done it is hard for audiences to tell what sounds were added and what sounds were recorded. In the early days of film and radio, foley artists would add sounds in realtime or pre-recorded sound effects would be played back from analogue discs in realtime. Today, with effects held in digital format, it is easy to create any required sequence to be played in any desired timeline. In the days of silent film, sound effects were added by the operator of a theater organ or photoplayer, both of which supplied the soundtrack of the film. Theater organ sound effects are electric or electro-pneumatic, activated by a button pressed with the hand or foot. Photoplayer operators activate sound effects either by flipping switches on the machine or pulling "cow-tail" pull-strings, which hang above. Sounds like bells and drums are made mechanically and horns electronically. Due to its smaller size, a photoplayer has less special effects than a theater organ, or less complex ones.
The principles involved with modern video game sound effects are the same as those of motion pictures. A game project requires two jobs to be completed: sounds must be recorded or selected from a library and a sound engine must be programmed so that those sounds can be incorporated into the game's interactive environment. In earlier computers and video game systems, sound effects were produced using sound synthesis. In modern systems, the increases in storage capacity and playback quality has allowed sampled sound to be used; the modern systems frequently utilize positional audio with hardware acceleration, real-time audio post-processing, which can be tied to the 3D graphics development. Based on the internal state of the game, multiple different calculations can be made; this will allow for, for example, realistic sound dampening and doppler effect. The simplicity of game environments reduced the required number of sounds needed, thus only one or two people were directly responsible for the sound recording and design.
As the video game business has grown and computer sound reproductio
A point of view shot is a short film scene that shows what a character is looking at. It is established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something, a shot showing the character's reaction; the technique of POV is one of the foundations of film editing. A POV shot need not be the strict point-of-view of an actual single character in a film. Sometimes the point-of-view shot is taken over the shoulder of the character, who remains visible on the screen. Sometimes a POV shot is "shared", i.e. it represents the joint POV of two characters. Point-of-view, or p.o.v. Camera angles record the scene from a particular player's viewpoint; the point-of-view is an objective angle, but since it falls between the objective and subjective angle, it should be placed in a separate category and given special consideration. A point-of-view shot is as close as an objective shot can approach a subjective shot—and still remain objective; the camera is positioned at the side of a subjective player—whose viewpoint is being depicted—so that the audience is given the impression they are standing cheek-to-cheek with the off-screen player.
The viewer does not see the event through the player's eyes, as in a subjective shot in which the camera trades places with the screen player. He sees the event from the player's viewpoint, as if standing alongside him. Thus, the camera angle remains objective, since it is an unseen observer not involved in the action." —Joseph V. Mascelli, The Five C's of Cinematography Supporting narrative elements are required to indicate the shot to the viewer as a POV shot; these may include sound effects, visual effects and acting. When the leading actor is the subject of the POV it is known as the subjective viewpoint; the audience sees events through the leading actor's eyes, as if they were experiencing the events themselves. Some films are or shot using this technique, for example the 1947 film noir Lady in the Lake, shot through the subjective POV of its central character in an attempt to replicate the first-person narrative style of the Raymond Chandler novel upon which the film is based. POV footage has existed since the first cameras were mounted in early airplanes and cars, anywhere a film’s creator intended to take viewers inside the action with the psychological purpose of giving viewers a feel of "What he or she is going through", he or she being a participant in the subject matter.
Cameras were introduced into more difficult experiences. Dick Barrymore, an early action filmmaker akin to Warren Miller, experimented with film cameras and counter weights mounted to a helmet. Barrymore could ski unencumbered while capturing footage of scenery and other skiers. Though the unit was heavy relative to its manner of use, it was considered hands-free, worked. Numerous companies have developed successful POV designs, from laparoscopic video equipment used inside the body during medical procedures, to high tech film and digital cameras mounted to jets and employed during flight. On professional levels, the equipment is well defined and requires intensive training and support; however the race for hands-free POV cameras for use on a consumer level has always faced problems. The technology has had issues with usability, combining lenses with microphones with batteries with recording units. In making 1927's Napoléon, director Abel Gance wrapped a camera and much of the lens in sponge padding so that it could be punched by other actors to portray the leading character's point of view during a fist fight, part of a larger snowball fight between schoolboys including young Napoleon.
Gance wrote in the technical scenario that the camera "defends itself as if it were Bonaparte himself. It is in the fights back, it jumps down, as if it were human. A punch in the lens. Arms at the side of the camera as if the camera itself had arms. Camera K falls on the ground, gets up." In the scenario, "Camera K" refers to Gance's main photographer, Jules Kruger, who wore the camera mounted to a breastplate strapped to his chest for these shots. POV shots were used extensively by Alfred Hitchock for various narrative effects; the long running British sitcom Peep Show, is filmed in point of view shots. Enter the Void by Gaspar Noé is shot from the first-person viewpoint, although in an unusual way, since most of the movie involves an out-of-body experience. Action film Hardcore Henry consists of POV shots, presenting events from the perspective of the title character, in the style of a first-person shooter video game. Nearly the entire film Maniac, is shot from the murderer's point of view, with his face being shown only in reflections and in the third person