The Brent Reservoir is a reservoir between Hendon and Wembley Park in London. It straddles the boundary between the boroughs of Brent and Barnet and is owned by the Canal & River Trust; the reservoir takes its informal name from a public house called The Welsh Harp, which stood nearby until the early 1970s. It is a 68.6 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest, the only SSSI in either Borough and among more than 30 SSSIs in London. The reservoir is fed by the River Brent, its main outflow is the River Brent. Its smaller outflow is a feeder channel to the canal system, it holds an estimated 1,600,000 m³. In 1994 when the reservoir was drained more than 6,700 lb of fish were captured, 95% of which were roach. However, fishing is prohibited; the reservoir has a sailing centre, home to Welsh Harp Sailing Club, Wembley Sailing Club, the Sea Cadets, the University of London Sailing club. In 1960, it hosted the Women's European Rowing Championships. Plans for the construction laid in 1803 were abandoned because of cost.
Canal branches and wharfs continued to be dug in the early 19th century. Regular traffic meant lock openings draining the local canals leading to canal-water shortages. By 1820 there was not enough water to supply the Grand Union Canal and the Regent's Canal so having obtained an enabling act of Parliament in 1819, the Regent's Canal Company decided to dam the River Brent to create a reservoir and cut a feeder channel from it to an upper point on the Grand Union Canal, it now holds an estimated 1,600,000 m³. The reservoir was constructed by contractor William Hoof between 1834 and 1835; the water flooded much of Cockman's Farm. Its owner gave it the name of its then-parish. At first it was 69 acres between Old Kingsbury Edgware Road. Hoof, under the tender awarded for the work, was paid £ six shillings. Construction met problems. Additional building was completed in December 1837 to extend the reservoir. In 1841 after seven days of continuous rain the dam head collapsed, it was after this that a supervisor was employed for the first time, with a cottage near the dam, which remains.
At its greatest extent it covered 400 acres in 1853. It was reduced to 195 acres in the 1890s. During the second half of the 19th century the area became a destination for recreation and evening entertainment entirely due to W. P. Warner, who in 1858 became licensee of the Old Welsh Harp Tavern; the tavern stood near where it crossed the Brent. Warner, who fought with distinction in the Crimean War, created the tavern along the lines of the London pleasure gardens. For 40 years, Warner made the Old Welsh Harp Tavern one of London's most popular places and it was celebrated in song by the music hall star Annie Adams as'The Jolliest Place That's Out'; the amusements were focused not just around the reservoir. Warner operated; the first greyhound races with mechanical hares took place here in 1876. In 1891 Capazza attempted to launch his Patent Parachute Balloon – it failed to take off and accounts record'nasty incidents' among the 5000 spectators; these activities attracted crime and violence were not uncommon.
One observer described the races as a'carnival of vice'. The reservoir, like nearby Hampstead Heath, was famous for Bank Holiday fairs. During its Victorian heyday a bear escaped from the menagerie; the reservoir was popular for speed boat and other water sports. The reservoir has a sailing centre, home to Welsh Harp Sailing Club, Wembley Sailing Club, the Sea Cadets, the University of London Sailing club, it hosted the 1960 European Rowing Championships, which that year was for women only as the men competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics instead. More than 200 competitors and officials attended, with 5,000 spectators; the BBC and Eurovision televised the event. The first formal cycle race was held at the Welsh Harp grounds on 1 June 1868, it was won by Arthur Markham. He received a silver cup from the licensee of the sponsor of the race. For many years Markham had a bicycle shop at nearby 345 Edgware Road; the race was held the day after what is referred to as the world's first race, in the park at St Cloud west of Paris.
It was won by James Moore. His grandson, believes Moore is buried near the reservoir. In winter the reservoir froze for skating. In February 1893, Jack Selby drove four horses across the reservoir. Towards the end of the 19th century, urbanisation led to fewer informally organised frolics. Naturists gathered at the Welsh Harp from 1921, until in June 1930 about 250 sunbathers were attacked by 200 objectors; this is referred to as "The Sun-Bathing Riots". The Midland Railway built its Welsh Harp station in 1870 on its new line from Bedford to St. Pancras; the area lost its attraction with the development of West Hendon between 1895 and 1915 and the station closed in 1903. The Mechanical Warfare Department, part of the War Office based nearby in Cricklewood, used the Welsh Harp for secret tests of a new weapon from 1916 - the Tank the amphibious Mark IX tank. Early film of these tests was shown on British Television in the l
The River Brent is a river in west and northwest London, a tributary of the River Thames. 17.9 miles in length, it rises in the Borough of Barnet and flows in a south-west direction before joining the Tideway stretch of the Thames at Brentford. A letter from the Bishop of London in 705 suggesting a meeting at Breġuntford, now Brentford, is the earliest record of this place and therefore that of the river, suggesting that the name may be related to the Celtic *brigant- meaning "high" or "elevated" linked to the goddess Brigantia The River Thames can first be identified as a discrete drainage line as early as 58 million years ago, in the Thanetian stage of the late Palaeocene epoch; until around half a million years ago, the Thames flowed on its existing course through what is now Oxfordshire, before turning to the north east through Hertfordshire and East Anglia to reach the North Sea near Ipswich. At this time the river system headwaters lay in the English West Midlands and may, at times, have received drainage from the North Wales Berwyn Mountains.
The river Brent and its valley's formation was the result of glacial action during the ice age which had started some 500,000 years ago. The River Brent and adjacent tributaries the Colne Brook and those downstream such as the River Lea either flowed into this more northern Thames or formed the early course of the present day river Thames; the arrival of an ice sheet in the Quaternary Ice Age, about 450,000 years ago, dammed the river in Hertfordshire causing large ice lakes which burst their banks and caused the river to be diverted onto its present course through London. Progressively in this Ice Age, the northern channel was pushed south to form a lake, now the St Albans depression, by the repeated advances of the ice sheet; this created pressure to form the Goring Gap and a new river route through Berkshire, joining with the Kennet that formed the early southern headwater and on into London after which the river rejoined its original course in southern Essex, near the present River Blackwater estuary.
Here it entered a substantial freshwater lake in the southern North Sea basin. A torrent produced by the rupture of this lake was a major cause of the formation of the Dover Strait gap between Britain and France. Subsequent development led to the continuation of the course which the river follows at the present day. Most of the bedrock of the Vale of Aylesbury is made up of clay and chalk, formed at the end of the ice age and at one time was under the Proto-Thames, creating vast underground reserves of water that make the water table higher than average in the Vale of Aylesbury from Thame to Hemel Hempstead; the last advance from that Scandinavian ice flow to have reached this far south covered much of north west Greater London and forced the proto-Thames to take its present course. At the height of the last ice age, around 10,000 BCE, Britain was connected to mainland Europe by a large marshy expanse of land known as Doggerland in the southern North Sea basin; this forced flow southwards from the eastern Essex coast where it met the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt flowing from what are now the Netherlands and Belgium.
These rivers formed a single river—the Channel River that passed through the Dover Strait and drained into the Atlantic Ocean in the western English Channel. The ice sheet which stopped near Finchley deposited Boulder clay to form Dollis Hill and Hanger Hill, its torrent of meltwater gushed through the Finchley Gap and south towards the new course of the Thames, proceeded to carve out the Brent Valley in the process. Upon the valley sides there can be seen other terraces of Brickearth; these deposits were brought in by the winds during the periglacial periods, suggesting that wide flat marshes were part of the landscape, which the new river Brent proceeded to cut down. The steepness of the valley sides is witness to the much lower mean sea levels caused by glaciation locking up so much water on land masses, the potential energy causing the river water to flow seaward and so erode its bed downwards; the original land surface was some 350 to 400 feet above the current sea level. The surface had sandy deposits from an ancient sea, laid over sedimentary clay.
All the erosion down from this higher land surface and sorting action by these changes of water flow and direction, formed what is known as the Thames River Gravel Terraces. Since Roman times and earlier, the isostatic rebound from the weight of previous ice sheets, its interplay with the eustatic change in sea level, means that the old valley of the river Brent, together with that of the Thames, has been silting up again. Thus, along much of the Brent's present day course one can make out the water meadows of rich alluvium, augmented by frequent floods. So extensive have the changes to this landscape been that what little evidence there is of man's presence before the ice came has shown signs of transportation here by water and reveals nothing local. Evidence of occupation since the arrival of the Romans, may lie next to the original banks of the Brent but have been buried under centuries of silt; the most prominent pre-Roman settlement on the River Brent was at Brentford. This Bronze Age site pre-dates the Roman occupation of Britain, thus predates the founding of London itself.
Many pre-Roman artifacts have been excavated in and around th
East Finchley Cemetery
East Finchley Cemetery is a cemetery and crematorium in East End Road, East Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet. The facilities are managed by the City of Westminster; the St Marylebone Burial Board purchased 47 acres of Newmarket Farm in 1854. Principal features are two Lebanon Cedar trees planted on the front lawn; the crematorium is now owned by The London Cremation Company. Due to local government reorganisation, the cemetery was managed by the Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone – from 1900; the cemetery contains about 22,000 interments. The cemetery was awarded a Green Flag Award in 2007, 2008 and 2009, it is a Site of Local Importance for Nature Conservation. The nearest London Underground station is East Finchley, on the Northern line; the cemetery became a point of controversy in the early nineties when the Leader of Westminster City Council and Councillor Hartley wanted the Cemetery to be sold. The cemetery included a considerable amount of land being used at the time for plant propagation for horticultural use throughout the City of Westminster.
After much political argument at Council Meetings and against the advice of the Chief Officers concerned, the Cemetery was sold for three pence. Within a short period of time the cemetery was sold by a Westminster estate agent for one million pounds, it was sold on to an off-shore company for three million pounds. How the management of burials came back to W. C. C. is not known. The cemetery contains a number of structures listed on the National Heritage List for England; the monuments to Thomas Skarratt Hall, Harry Ripley, Peter Nicol Russell, Thomas Tate, the mausoleum of Algernon Borthwick, 1st Baron Glenesk and his wife and son are all listed Grade II, as is the crematorium and chapel. Melanie Appleby – one half of pop duo Mel and Kim Henry Walter Bates - Naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals Jeremy Beadle - TV presenter Sir Henry Bishop – Professor of Music at Oxford and operatic composer Keith Blakelock – Police Constable murdered in Tottenham riot Algernon Borthwick, 1st Baron Glenesk – Memorial chapel and Mausoleum Sir Austen Chamberlain – Foreign Secretary, recipient of Nobel Peace Prize, son of Joseph Chamberlain and brother of Neville Chamberlain Harry Champion – Music Hall Singer Robert Donat – Actor Matthew Garber – Actor William Gowland - Engineer and archaeologist who for many years lived in Japan Thomas Skarratt Hall - foundation investor in the Mount Morgan mine, Australia Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe – Founder of the Daily Mail Sir Robert Harmsworth – Newspaper Publisher with a memorial by Edwin Lutyens Harold Harrison - England rugby union international, died serving as army Colonel in World War II.
Sir George Hayter – Queen Victoria’s principal painter in ordinary Humphrey Lyttelton - English jazz musician and broadcaster Max Herrmann-Neisse - exiled German poet and novelist Thomas Henry Huxley – Scientist Sidney Paget - Illustrator of Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories Wendy Richard - Actress cremated Golders Green Crematorium W. Heath Robinson – Artist and cartoonist Gaynor Rowlands – Actress and Singer Thomas Stevens – Cyclist, the first one to circle the globe by bicycle Henry Charles Stephens – Ink magnate and local MP Marie Studholme – Actress and Singer Leopold Stokowski – Conductor William Bernhardt Tegetmeier - English naturalist, bee keeper and friend of Charles Darwin Little Tich – Music Hall singer and dancer. George Walters – Sergeant in the 49th Foot who won the Victoria Cross at the Battle of Inkermann in 1854 Kenneth Williams - Actor and comedian. Sir Arthur Worley - President, British Insurance Association There are 75 Commonwealth service war burials of World War I in the cemetery, most in the War Graves plot in the cemetery's northwest corner, set aside for military burials in 1916, 79 of World War II, besides ten'Non War graves' that the Commonwealth War Graves Commission maintains.
A Screen Wall memorial, behind the Cross of Sacrifice, records the names of the 20 World War II casualties who were cremated at the St Marylebone Crematorium. There are special memorials to eight World War I servicemen whose graves could not be marked by headstones. Nature reserves in Barnet St Pancras and Islington Cemetery Westminster cemeteries scandal Official website War Graves
Hampstead Heath is a large, ancient London heath, covering 320 hectares. This grassy public space sits astride a sandy ridge, one of the highest points in London, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band of London Clay; the heath is rambling and hilly, embracing ponds and ancient woodlands, a lido, a training track, it adjoins the former stately home of Kenwood House and its estate. The south-east part of the heath is Parliament Hill, from which the view over London is protected by law. Running along its eastern perimeter are a chain of ponds – including three open-air public swimming pools – which were reservoirs for drinking water from the River Fleet; the heath is a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, part of Kenwood is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Lakeside concerts are held there in summer; the heath is managed by the City of London Corporation, lies within the London Borough of Camden with the adjoining Hampstead Heath Extension and Golders Hill Park in the London Borough of Barnet.
The heath first entered the history books in 986 when Ethelred the Unready granted one of his servants five hides of land at "Hemstede". This same land is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as held by the monastery of St. Peter's at Westminster Abbey, by is known as the "Manor of Hampstead". Westminster held the land until 1133 when control of part of the manor was released to one Richard de Balta. Manorial rights to the land remained in private hands until the 1940s when they lapsed under Sir Spencer Pocklington Maryon Wilson, though the estate itself was passed on to Shane Gough, 5th Viscount Gough. Over time, plots of land in the manor were sold off for building in the early 19th century, though the heath remained common land; the main part of the heath was acquired for the people by the Metropolitan Board of Works. Parliament Hill was purchased for the public for £300,000 and added to the park in 1888. Golders Hill was added in 1898 and Kenwood House and grounds were added in 1928. From 1808 to 1814 Hampstead Heath hosted a station in the shutter telegraph chain which connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth.
The City of London Corporation has managed the heath since 1989. Before that it was managed before that by the London County Council. In 2009, the City of London proposed to upgrade a footpath across the heath into a service-road; the proposal met with protests from local residents and celebrities, did not proceed. The heath sits astride a sandy ridge, it runs from east to its highest point being 134 metres. As the sand was penetrated by rainwater, held by the clay, a landscape of swampy hollows and man-made excavations was created. Hampstead Heath contains the largest single area of common land in Greater London, with 144.93 hectares of protected commons. Public transport near the heath includes London Overground railway stations Hampstead Heath and Gospel Oak and London Underground stations at Hampstead and Belsize Park to the south, Golders Green to the north-west, Highgate and Archway to the east. Buses serve several roads around the heath; the heath's 320 hectares include a number of distinct areas.
Hampstead Heath has over 25 ponds. Whitestone Pond is a triangular pond, centrally located on the heath's south side and north-northwest of the former Queen Mary's House care home, across busy Heath Street. A small dew pond called the Horse Pond, it was renamed after a waypoint stone and is artificially fed, it has an exposed location surrounded by roads, which limits its recreational use. It is the heath's best known body of water, many people's introduction to Hampstead Heath's ponds. Highgate Ponds are a series of eight former reservoirs, on the heath's east side, were dug in the 17th and 18th centuries, they include two single-sex swimming pools, a model boating pond, two ponds which serve as wildlife reserves: the Stock Pond and the Bird Sanctuary Pond. Fishing is allowed in some of the ponds, although this is threatened by proposals to modify the dams; the Hampstead Ponds are three ponds in the heath's south-west corner, towards South End Green. One of these is the ` mixed pond', they are the result of the 1777 damming of Hampstead Brook, by the Hampstead Water Company, formed in 1692 to meet London's growing water demands."Boudicca's Mound", near the present men's bathing pond, is a tumulus where, according to local legend, Queen Boudicca was buried after she and 10,000 Iceni warriors were defeated at Battle Bridge.
However, historical drawings and paintings of the area show no mound other than a 17th-century windmill. In 2004 the City of London Corporation, rejected a proposal by the Hampstead Heath Winter Swimming Club to allow "early-morning, self-regulated swimming in the mixed sex pond on Hampstead Heath"; the swimmers challenged this in the High Court, which in 2005 ruled that members of the swimming club had the right to swim at their own r
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn, it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock, it rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London, its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise and fall of 23 feet. Running through some of the driest parts of mainland Britain and abstracted for drinking water, the Thames' discharge is low considering its length and breadth: the Severn has a discharge twice as large on average despite having a smaller drainage basin. In Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the Thames' average discharge from a drainage basin, 60% smaller.
Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs. Its catchment area covers a small part of western England; the river contains over 80 islands. With its waters varying from freshwater to seawater, the Thames supports a variety of wildlife and has a number of adjoining Sites of Special Scientific Interest, with the largest being in the remaining parts of the North Kent Marshes and covering 5,449 hectares; the Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys "Thames". The name may have meant "dark" and can be compared to other cognates such as Russian темно, Lithuanian tamsi "dark", Latvian tumsa "darkness", Sanskrit tamas and Welsh tywyll "darkness" and Middle Irish teimen "dark grey"; the same origin is shared by countless other river names, spread across Britain, such as the River Tamar at the border of Devon and Cornwall, several rivers named Tame in the Midlands and North Yorkshire, the Tavy on Dartmoor, the Team of the North East, the Teifi and Teme of Wales, the Teviot in the Scottish Borders, as well as one of the Thames' tributaries called the Thame.
Kenneth H. Jackson has proposed that the name of the Thames is not Indo-European, while Peter Kitson suggested that it is Indo-European but originated before the Celts and has a name indicating "muddiness" from a root *tā-,'melt'. Indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name'Thames' is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit, it is believed. Tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography; the river's name has always been pronounced with a simple t /t/. A similar spelling from 1210, "Tamisiam", is found in the Magna Carta; the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. And in Victorian times and cartographers insisted that the entire river was named the Isis from its source down to Dorchester on Thames and that only from this point, where the river meets the Thame and becomes the "Thame-isis" should it be so called. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as "River Isis" down to Dorchester. However, since the early 20th century this distinction has been lost in common usage outside of Oxford, some historians suggest the name Isis is nothing more than a truncation of Tamesis, the Latin name for the Thames.
Sculptures titled Tamesis and Isis by Anne Seymour Damer can be found on the bridge at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida; this gave the name to a settlement on its banks, which became known as Londinium, from the Indo-European roots *pleu- "flow" and *-nedi "river" meaning something like the flowing river or the wide flowing unfordable river. For merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the "London River". Londoners refer to it as "the river" in expressions such as "south of the river"; the river gives its name to three informal areas: the Thames Valley, a region of England around the river between Oxford and West London. Thames Valley Police is a formal body. In non-administrative use, the river's name is used in those of Thames Valley University, Thames Water, Thames Television, publishing company Thames & Hudson and South Thames College. An example of its use in the names of historic entities is the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company.
The administrative powers of the Thames Conservancy have been taken on with modifications by the Environment Agency and, in respect of the Tideway part of the river, such powers are split between the agency and the Port of London Authority. The marks of human activity, in some cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river; these include a variety of structure
Barnet Gate Wood
Barnet Gate Wood is a public open space in Barnet Gate, London. It is owned and managed by the London Borough of Barnet, is part of the Watling Chase Community Forest, it is a small ancient wood, with a canopy of oak and hornbeam, an understorey dominated by rhododendron. Some of the hornbeam are in strange shapes as they were trained as hedges and allowed go wild; the entrance is near the junction with Barnet Road. There is access from the Dollis Valley Greenwalk and London Loop, at wooden posts numbered 12 and 13, which are points on the Barnet Gate Wood Nature Trail. Barnet Gate Wood is part of Moat Mount Open Space and Mote End Farm, a Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Borough Grade II. Nature reserves in Barnet Barnet Gate Wood Nature Trail, Hertfordshire Community & Living
Friary Park is a nine hectare formal Edwardian park in Friern Barnet in the London Borough of Barnet. The site was home to the Knights Hospitaller in the Middle Ages, of Friern Barnet Manor House from the sixteenth century; the name Friary Park was adopted in the 1870s and it was opened to the public in 1910. In 2010 the Friends of Friary Park and other local societies organised centenary celebrations, it is owned and managed by Barnet Council, has a children's playground, tennis courts, a bowling green, a pitch and putt, a skatepark, outdoor gym equipment and a cafe. It is a Site of Local Importance for Nature Conservation, has received a Green Flag Award; the cafe is housed in the nineteenth century Gothic Revival Friary House, otherwise unused, although Barnet Council announced in 2010 that work is underway to convert it to a base for the local police Safer Neighbourhood Team. A prominent feature is a statue, the'Bringer of Peace', dedicated to the memory of King Edward VII, erected on 7 May 1910, the day after his death.
Its most interesting features ecologically are ancient oak trees and a small stream called Blacketts Brook, a tributary of Pymme's Brook. There is access from Friary Road and Friern Barnet Lane; the park has an active friends group. The North Middlesex Golf Course is adjacent to the park to the north at Grid Ref TQ269 930. Blacketts Brook runs through two ponds on the golf course before entering the park. Palmate newts, which are rare in London, breed in the ponds, which are a Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade II; the reserve is not open to the public. Barnet parks and open spaces Nature reserves in Barnet Friary Park, London Gardens Online