The opossums, known as possums, are marsupial mammals of the order Didelphimorphia /daɪˌdɛlfᵻˈmɔːrfiə/). The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 103 or more species in 19 genera, opossums originated in South America, and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of the two continents. Their unspecialized biology, flexible diet, and reproductive habits make them successful colonizers and survivors in diverse locations and conditions, the word opossum is borrowed from the Powhatan language and was first recorded between 1607 and 1611 by John Smith and William Strachey. Both men encountered the language at the British settlement of Jamestown, stracheys notes describe the opossum as a beast in bigness of a pig and in taste alike, while Smith recorded it hath an head like a swine. Tail like a rat. of the bigness of a cat, the Powhatan word ultimately derives from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning white dog or dog-like beast. The opossum is known as a possum, particularly in the Southern United States.
Didelphimorphia refers to the fact that, like all marsupials, these animals have two wombs, didelphimorphs are small to medium-sized marsupials, ranging in size from a small mouse to a large house cat. They tend to be omnivores, although there are many exceptions. Most members of this taxon have long snouts, a braincase. By mammalian standards, this is an unusually full jaw, the incisors are very small, the canines large, and the molars are tricuspid. Didelphimorphs have a stance and the hind feet have an opposable digit with no claw. Like some New World monkeys, opossums have prehensile tails, like all marsupials, the fur consists of awn hair only, and the females have a pouch. The tail and parts of the feet bear scutes, the stomach is simple, with a small cecum. Notably, the male opossum has a forked penis bearing twin glandes, opossums have a remarkably robust immune system, and show partial or total immunity to the venom of rattlesnakes and other pit vipers. Opossums are about eight times less likely to carry rabies than wild dogs, although all living opossums are essentially opportunistic omnivores, different species vary in the amount of meat and vegetation they include in their diet.
Members of the Caluromyinae are essentially frugivorous, whereas the lutrine opossum, the yapok is particularly unusual, as it is the only living semi-aquatic marsupial, using its webbed hindlimbs to dive in search of freshwater mollusks and crayfish. As a marsupial, the female opossum has a system that includes a bifurcated vagina, a divided uterus and a marsupium. The average estrous cycle of the opossum is about 28 days, opossums do possess a placenta, but it is short-lived, simple in structure, unlike that of placental mammals, is not fully functional
The Canada goose is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brown body. Native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, its migration occasionally reaches northern Europe and it has been introduced to the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. Like most geese, the Canada goose is primarily herbivorous and normally migratory, Canada geese are among the most commonly hunted waterfowl in North America. The Canada goose was one of the species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. It belongs to the Branta genus of geese, which species with largely black plumage. Branta is a Latinised form of Old Norse Brandgás, burnt goose, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first citation for the Canada goose dates back to 1772. The Canada goose is colloquially referred to as the Canadian goose. The British Ornithologists Union followed suit in June 2005, the AOU has divided the many subspecies between the two species.
This has been aggravated by the overlap between the types of Canada goose and larger types of cackling goose. The old lesser Canada goose was believed to be a hybrid population, with the birds named B. c. taverneri considered a mixture of B. c. minima, B. c. occidentalis. In addition, the barnacle goose has been determined to be a derivative of the cackling goose lineage, the black head and neck with a white chinstrap distinguish the Canada goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the cackling goose and barnacle goose. The seven subspecies of this vary widely in size and plumage details. Some of the races can be hard to distinguish from the cackling goose. However, most subspecies of the goose are considerably smaller. The smallest cackling goose, B. h. minima, is larger than a mallard. In addition to the difference, cackling geese have a shorter neck and smaller bill. Canada geese range from 75 to 110 cm in length and have a 127–185 cm wingspan. Among standard measurements, the chord can range from 39 to 55 cm, the tarsus can range from 6.9 to 10.6 cm
These plants are classified in the broomrape family, Orobanchaceae. They are hemiparasitic on the roots of grasses and forbs, the generic name honors Spanish botanist Domingo Castillejo. Castilleja species are eaten by the larvae of some species, including Schinia cupes and Schinia pulchripennis. The flowers of Indian paintbrush are edible, and were consumed in moderation by various Native American tribes as a condiment with other fresh greens, highly alkaline soils increase the selenium levels in the plants. Indian paintbrush has similar benefits to consuming garlic if only the flowers are eaten in small amounts. The Ojibwe used a hairwash made from Indian paintbrush to make their hair glossy and full bodied, the high selenium content of this plant has been cited as the reason for its effectiveness for these purposes. Nevada Indian tribes used the plant to treat sexually transmitted diseases, Castilleja linariifolia is the state flower of Wyoming. The Legend of the Indian Paintbrush, Native Plant Information Network, Listing of species in the Castilleja genus.
Jepson Manual - taxonomic description of the genus
A grebe is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order. Grebes are a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and this order contains only a single family, the Podicipedidae, containing 22 species in 6 extant genera. Grebes are small to medium-large in size, have lobed toes, although they can run for a short distance, they are prone to falling over, since they have their feet placed far back on the body. Grebes have narrow wings, and some species are reluctant to fly and they respond to danger by diving rather than flying, and are in any case much less wary than ducks. Extant species range in size from the least grebe, at 120 grams and 23.5 cm, to the great grebe, at 1.7 kg and 71 cm. The North American and Eurasian species are all, of necessity, migratory over much or all of their ranges, even the small freshwater pied-billed grebe of North America has occurred as a transatlantic vagrant to Europe on more than 30 occasions.
Bills vary from short and thick to long and pointed, depending on the diet, the feet are always large, with broad lobes on the toes and small webs connecting the front three toes. The hind toe has a small lobe, recent experimental work has shown that these lobes work like the hydrofoil blades of a propeller. Curiously, the same mechanism apparently evolved independently in the extinct Cretaceous-age Hesperornithiformes and it is dense and waterproof, and on the underside the feathers are at right-angles to the skin, sticking straight out to begin with and curling at the tip. By pressing their feathers against the body, grebes can adjust their buoyancy, they swim low in the water with just the head and neck exposed. In the non-breeding season, grebes are plain-coloured in dark browns, most have ornate and distinctive breeding plumages, often developing chestnut markings on the head area, and perform elaborate display rituals. The young, particularly those of the Podiceps genus, are often striped, in the breeding season, they mate at freshwater lakes and ponds, but some species spend their non-breeding season along seacoasts.
When preening, grebes eat their own feathers, and feed them to their young, the function of this behaviour is uncertain but it is believed to assist with pellet formation, and to reduce their vulnerability to gastric parasites. Grebes make floating nests of plant material concealed among reeds on the surface of the water, the young are precocial, and able to swim from birth. The grebes are a distinct group of birds as regards their anatomy. Accordingly, they were at first believed to be related to the loons, which are foot-propelled diving birds and loons are now separately classified orders of Podicipediformes and Gaviiformes, respectively. The cladistics vs. phenetics debate of the mid-20th century revived scientific interest in generalizing comparisons, as a consequence, the discredited grebe-loon link was discussed again. This even went as far as proposing monophyly for grebes, still – actually because of this – they do confirm that these birds form a fairly ancient evolutionary lineage, and they support the non-relatedness of loons and grebes
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus. Trout are closely related to salmon and char, species termed salmon, a rainbow trout that spends time in the ocean is called a steelhead. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family, Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, and other animals. They are classified as oily fish, these colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, and will change as the fish moves to different habitats. In general trout that are about to breed have extremely intense coloration and they can look like an entirely different fish outside of spawning season. It is virtually impossible to define a color pattern as belonging to a specific breed, however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have more vivid colors.
Trout have fins entirely without spines, and all of them have an adipose fin along the back. The pelvic fins sit well back on the body, on side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying solely on their gills. There are many species, and even more populations, that are isolated from each other, the trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus, Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, and live much longer than rainbow trout, which have an average maximum lifespan of 7 years. Lake trout can live many decades, and can grow to more than 30 kilograms, Trout are usually found in cool, clear streams and lakes, although many of the species have anadromous strains as well. Young trout are referred to as troutlet, troutling or fry and they are distributed naturally throughout North America, northern Asia and Europe.
Several species of trout were introduced to Australia and New Zealand by amateur fishing enthusiasts in the 19th century, the introduced species included brown trout from England and rainbow trout from California. The rainbow trout were a strain, generally accepted as coming from Sonoma Creek. The rainbow trout of New Zealand still show the tendency to run up rivers in winter to spawn. In Australia the rainbow trout was introduced in 1894 from New Zealand and is a popular gamefish in recreational angling
The bushtits or long-tailed tits, are a family of small, drab passerine birds with moderately long tails. The family contains 11 species in four genera, all but one of which are found in Eurasia, bushtits are active birds, moving almost constantly while they forage for insects in shrubs and trees. During non-breeding season, birds live in flocks of up to 50 individuals, several bushtit species display cooperative breeding behavior, called helpers at the nest. All the Aegithalidae are forest birds, particularly forest edge and understory habitats, the species in the genus Aegithalos prefer deciduous or mixed deciduous forests, while the tiny pygmy tit is found mostly in montane coniferous forest. The bushtit is found in a range of habitats, including on occasion sagebrush and other arid shrublands. Most species in this live in mountainous habitats in and around the Himalayas, and all are distributed in Eurasia except the American bushtit. The long-tailed tit has the most widespread distribution of any species of Aegithalidae, the species in this family are generally not migratory, although the long-tailed tit is prone to dispersing in the northern edges of its range.
Many mountainous species move to ground during the winter. They are small birds, measuring 9 to 14 cm in length, including the long tail. Their plumage is dull grey or brown, although some species have white markings. In contrast to the rest of the family the two Leptopoecile tit-warblers are quite brightly coloured, having violet and blue plumage, the crested tit-warbler is the only member of the family to have a crest. The bills in this family are tiny and conical in shape, the wings are short and rounded and the legs are relatively long. They are omnivorous, primarily eating insects and other such as leafhoppers, aphids, scale insects. Plant material, such as berries or seeds, is taken occasionally during the winter, the family generally forages arboreally, usually in the shrub layer or canopy, and seldom visits the ground. Prey is generally gleaned from branches and buds, less frequently, prey is taken in the air. While foraging, this family may hang upside down on branches. Birds in this live in flocks ranging from 4 to 50 individuals.
Flocks form as soon as one breeding season finishes and last until the next one begins and they maintain contact with churring calls, their songs are quiet
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is equal to the difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, for the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the conventional value KJ-90 is used, K J-90 =0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is typically realized using an array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. in the water-flow analogy sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure.
Current is proportional to the diameter of the pipe or the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping, the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohms Law. Ohms Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems, the voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, mechanical generators can usually be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. High-voltage electric power lines,110 kV and up Lightning, Varies greatly. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of metals to produce electricity was zinc. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name volt for the unit of resistance, by 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission and they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage, the cgs system at the time being the customary system of units in science.
At that time, the volt was defined as the difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The international volt was defined in 1893 as 1/1.434 of the emf of a Clark cell and this definition was abandoned in 1908 in favor of a definition based on the international ohm and international ampere until the entire set of reproducible units was abandoned in 1948. Prior to the development of the Josephson junction voltage standard, the volt was maintained in laboratories using specially constructed batteries called standard cells
Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine, is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The genus includes over 200 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America, smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Users soaked the seed in running water to remove most of the alkaloids and cooked or toasted the seeds to make them edible. Spanish domination led to a change in the habits of the indigenous peoples. The species are herbaceous perennial plants 0. 3–1.5 m tall, but some are annual plants. An exception is the chamis de monte of Oaxaca in Mexico, Lupins have soft green to grey-green leaves which may be coated in silvery hairs, often densely so. The leaf blades are usually divided into five to 28 leaflets. The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, the pea-like flowers have an upper standard, or banner, two lateral wings, and two lower petals fused into a keel. The flower shape has inspired common names such as bluebonnets and quaker bonnets, the fruit is a pod containing several seeds.
The legume seeds of lupins, commonly called beans, were popular with the Romans. Australian sweet lupins or Lupin bean are high in protein, dietary fiber, and antioxidants, very low in starch, Lupins can be used to make a variety of foods both sweet and savoury, including everyday meals, traditional fermented foods, baked foods, and sauces. The European white lupin beans are sold in a salty solution in jars. Lupini dishes are most commonly found in Europe, especially in Portugal, Spain and they are common in Brazil and Egypt. In Egypt lupin is known in Arabic as ترمس termes, and is a street snack after being treated with several soakings of water. In Portugal and Spanish Harlem, they are consumed with beer. In Lebanon, Jordan and Israel, the Andean lupin or tarwi was a widespread food in the Incan Empire. Other species, such as L. albus, L. angustifolius, Lupins were used by many Native American peoples such as the Yavapai in North America. Lupins are known as altramuz in Spain, from Arabic ترمس termes, the seeds are used for different foods, from vegan sausages to lupin-tofu or baking-enhancing lupin flour
The smallmouth bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family of the order Perciformes. It is the species of its genus. The maximum recorded size is approximately 27 inches and 12 pounds, the smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River–Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin. Its common names include smallmouth, brown bass, smallie, bronze bass, the smallmouth bass is generally brown, appearing sometimes as black or green with red eyes, and dark brown vertical bands, rather than a horizontal band along the side. There are 13–15 soft rays in the dorsal fin, the upper jaw of smallmouth bass extends to the middle of the eye. The smallmouths coloration and hue may vary according to variables such as water clarity or diet. Males are generally smaller than felmales, the males tend to range around two pounds, while females can range from three to six pounds. Their habitat plays a significant role in their color, River water smallmouth that live in dark water tend to be rather torpedo-shaped and very dark brown to be more efficient for feeding.
Lakeside smallmouth bass, that live in sandy areas and they have been seen eating tadpoles, aquatic insects, frogs, small mice and birds, and even French fries. There are two recognized subspecies, the Northern smallmouth bass and the Neosho smallmouth bass, the smallmouth bass is found in clearer water than the largemouth, especially streams and the rocky areas and stumps and sandy bottoms of lakes and reservoirs. The smallmouth prefers cooler temperatures than its cousin the largemouth bass. Because it is intolerant of pollution, the bass is a good natural indicator of a healthy environment. Carnivorous, its diet comprises crayfish and smaller fish, the female can lay up to 21,100 eggs, which are guarded by the male in his nest. The migration patterns of smallmouth have been tracked and it is not unusual for a smallmouth to travel 12 miles in a day in a stream. The overall migration can exceed 60 miles, in the United States, smallmouth bass were first introduced outside of their native range with the construction of the Erie Canal in 1825, extending the fishs range into central New York state.
During the mid-to-late 19th century, smallmouth were transplanted via the rail system to lakes and rivers throughout the northern and western United States. Shippers found that smallmouth bass were a species that could be transported in buckets or barrels by rail. They were introduced east of the Appalachians just before the Civil War, with increased industrialization and land use changes, many of the nations eastern trout rivers were polluted or experienced elevated water temperatures, reducing the range of native brook trout
Equestrianism, more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding, refers to the skill of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are used in sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing, driving. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to trails in almost every part of the world, many parks, ranches. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve health and emotional development. Horses are driven in harness racing, at shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony.
In some parts of the world, they are used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in service, in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding, though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light, the horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age, Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.
Humans appear to have expressed a desire to know which horse were the fastest. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle, Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide, in the UK, it is known as flat racing and is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom
The raccoon, sometimes spelled racoon, known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. The raccoon is the largest of the family, having a body length of 40 to 70 cm. Its grayish coat mostly consists of dense underfur which insulates it against cold weather, two of the raccoons most distinctive features are its extremely dexterous front paws and its facial mask, which are themes in the mythology of several Native American ethnic groups. Raccoons are noted for their intelligence, with studies showing that they are able to remember the solution to tasks for up to three years, the diet of the omnivorous raccoon, which is usually nocturnal, consists of about 40% invertebrates, 33% plant foods, and 27% vertebrates. As a result of escapes and deliberate introductions in the century, raccoons are now distributed across mainland Europe, Caucasia. Though previously thought to be solitary, there is now evidence that raccoons engage in social behavior.
Home range sizes vary anywhere from 3 hectares for females in cities to 5,000 hectares for males in prairies, after a gestation period of about 65 days, two to five young, known as kits, are born in spring. The kits are subsequently raised by their mother until dispersal in late fall, although captive raccoons have been known to live over 20 years, their life expectancy in the wild is only 1.8 to 3.1 years. In many areas and vehicular injury are the two most common causes of death, the word raccoon was adopted into English from the native Powhatan term, as used in the Virginia Colony. It was recorded on Captain John Smiths list of Powhatan words as aroughcun and it has been identified as a Proto-Algonquian root *ahrah-koon-em, meaning one who rubs and scratches with its hands. Similarly, Spanish colonists adopted the Spanish word mapache from the Nahuatl mapachitli of the Aztecs, in French and European Portuguese, the washing behavior is combined with these languages term for rat, respectively, raton laveur and ratão-lavadeiro.
The colloquial abbreviation coon is used in words like coonskin for fur clothing and in phrases like old coon as a self-designation of trappers. In the 1830s, the U. S. Whig Party used the raccoon as an emblem, causing them to be known as coons by their political opponents. Soon after that it became an ethnic slur, especially in use between 1880 and 1920, and the term is considered offensive. In 1780, Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr placed the raccoon in its own genus Procyon and it is possible that Storr had its nocturnal lifestyle in mind and chose the star Procyon as eponym for the species. Based on fossil evidence from France and Germany, the first known members of the family Procyonidae lived in Europe in the late Oligocene about 25 million years ago. Similar tooth and skull structures suggest procyonids and weasels share a common ancestor, after the then-existing species crossed the Bering Strait at least six million years in the early Miocene, the center of its distribution was probably in Central America.
Coatis and raccoons have been considered to share common descent from a species in the genus Paranasua present between 5.2 and 6.0 million years ago
The gray fox, or grey fox, is a carnivorous mammal of the family Canidae ranging throughout most of the southern half of North America from southern Canada to the northern part of South America. No other canids natural range spans both North and South America and it is the only American canid that can climb trees. This species and its congener, the diminutive Channel Island fox, are the only living members of the genus Urocyon. Though it was once the most common fox in the eastern United States, the Pacific States still have the gray fox as a dominant. Its specific epithet cinereoargenteus means ashen silver, the gray fox appeared in North America during the mid-Pliocene epoch 3. Genetic analyses of the fox-like canids confirmed that the fox is a distinct genus from the red foxes. Genetically, the gray fox often clusters with two other ancient lineages, the east Asian raccoon dog and the African bat-eared fox, faunal remains at two northern California cave sites confirm the presence of the gray fox during the late Pleistocene.
Genetic analysis has shown that the gray fox migrated into the northeastern United States post-Pleistocene in association with the Medieval Climate Anomaly warming trend, recent mitochondrial genetic studies suggests divergence of North American eastern and western gray foxes in the Irvingtonian mid-Pleistocene into separate sister taxa. The gray foxs dwarf relative, the Channel Island fox, is descended from mainland gray foxes. These foxes apparently were transported by humans to the islands and from island to island, there is little sexual dimorphism, save for the females being slightly smaller than males. The gray fox ranges from 76 to 112.5 cm in total length, the tail measures 27.5 to 44.3 cm of that length and its hind feet measure 100 to 150 mm. The gray fox typically weighs 3.6 to 7 kg and it is readily differentiated from the red fox by the lack of black stockings that stand out on the latter and the stripe of black hair that runs along the middle of the tail. In contrast to all Vulpes and related foxes, the fox has oval pupils.
The gray foxs ability to climb trees is shared only with the Asian raccoon dog among canids and its strong, hooked claws allow it to scramble up trees to escape many predators, such as the domestic dog or the coyote, or to reach tree-bound or arboreal food sources. It can climb branchless, vertical trunks to heights of 18 meters and it descends primarily by jumping from branch to branch, or by descending slowly backwards as a domestic cat would do. The gray fox is nocturnal or crepuscular and makes its den in hollow trees, such gray fox tree dens may be located 30 ft above the ground. In areas where red and gray foxes exist, the gray fox is dominant. The breeding season of the gray fox varies geographically, in Michigan, the gestation period lasts approximately 53 days