The Democrats is a political party in Brazil. It was founded in 1985 under the name of Liberal Front Party from a dissidence of the defunct PDS, successor to the ARENA, the official party during the military dictatorship of 1964–1985, it changed to its current name in 2007. The original name reflected the party's support of free market policies, rather than the identification with international liberal parties. Instead, the party affiliated itself to the international federations of Christian democratic and conservative parties; the Democrats' identification number is 25 and its colors are green and white. On January 24, 1985, DEM's direct predecessor, the Liberal Front Party, was founded by a dissident faction of the Democratic Social Party, founded in 1980 as the successor of the National Renewal Alliance, the former ruling party during the time of military dictatorship. At the time, Brazil was under the effervescence. In the previous year, a series of rallies known as Diretas Já gathered thousands of peoples in the streets of major cities to demand the direct election of the next President, as envisaged in the Dante de Oliveira amendment, pending approval in the Congress.
On January 10, 1984, PDS rejected supporting this proposition, but a pro-Diretas Já faction emerged within the party a few days later. On April 25, 1984, the Congress, besieged by Army officials, voted the amendment, it did not reach the required quorum for approval, due to the absence of 112 deputies from PDS. After the attempts to have a direct election failed, discussions about the presidential succession turned to the National Congress, which would elect the President indirectly in the following year; the pro-Diretas Já faction of PDS formed the Liberal Front, decided to support PMDB's candidate Tancredo Neves against PDS's Paulo Maluf, the official candidate of the military regime. With the support of Aureliano Chaves, Marco Maciel, Antônio Carlos Magalhães, Jorge Bornhausen, among other major dissidents from PDS, the Liberal Front named José Sarney as Neves' running mate for the 1985 presidential election. On January 15, 1985, the Neves/Sarney presidential ticket got 480 of the 686 votes available in the Congress.
Nine days on January 24, 1985, the Liberal Front disbanded from PDS and formed the Liberal Front Party. With the death of Tancredo Neves on April 21, 1985, Sarney took office as President. Due to the same electoral law that forbade coalitions, Sarney was forced to join PMDB, of which he is still a member today. PFL, was a major ally of his government, his daughter, was a member of PFL until 2006, when she was expelled from the party for supporting Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. In 1989, Aureliano Chaves was chosen as PFL's presidential candidate, but the weakness of his campaign made most leaders of the party to declare their support for National Reconstruction Party's candidate, Fernando Collor, himself a former member of ARENA, PDS, PMDB. PFL's Senators, had masterminded the candidacy of businessman and television presenter Silvio Santos, a maneuver, hampered by the Supreme Electoral Court. An ally of Collor in the runoff election against Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, PFL participated in his government, after his impeachment, it participated in the coalition that supported Itamar Franco's government.
From 1994 to 1998, PFL supported Fernando Henrique Cardoso and thus secured the post of vice-president with Marco Maciel. Prior to the 2002 election, an operation led by the Federal Police in Maranhão undermined the presidential candidacy of Roseana Sarney, leading to a rupture with the government. In the legislative elections, on October 6, 2002, the party won 84 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 14 out of 54 seats in the Senate. After this election, which saw the rise of Lula of the PT as President, PFL became an opposition party for the first time since the 1964 coup; the party reorganized its alliance with Cardoso's PSDB in order to form the official opposition in the National Congress. In the following general elections, held on October 1, 2006, the party won 65 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 6 out of the 27 Senate seats up for election, making it the second largest party in the Senate; the party does not run presidential candidates, but does run gubernatorial candidates in several states.
In the 2006 elections, the party lost several state governorships, but won the governorship of the Federal District. However, this governorship was lost due to a corruption scandal in which Governor José Roberto Arruda was caught on tape receiving bribery from private companies. In 2007, the party was adopted its current name. In the 2010 elections, the party continued to suffer losses in the Parliament, losing 22 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, 7 seats in the Senate. DEM was able to elect only two Senators that year, for a total of 6, falling from the second largest party in the Senate to the fourth, its longest-serving member, former Vice President Maciel, first elected to the National Congress in 1966, was not re-elected. On the other hand, DEM won the governorships of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Santa Catarina, expanding its presence in state administrations; the party lost over half of its votes when comparing the 2010 Senate elections. In 2006, it had 21.6 million votes for the upper house, while in 2010 it had just 10.2 million votes.
The decline was less sharp in the Chamber of Deputies elections, as it had 10.1 million votes in 2006
Banana production in Brazil
Banana production in Brazil accounts for 10% of the entire world banana production, making Brazil a major banana-producing country in the world. Production has increased over the years, rising from 5.4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes in 2007. In 2000, Brazil was fourth, behind India and Ecuador, in banana production. By 2006, Brazil became the second largest banana-producer, behind only India, followed by China and the Philippines. Most of the bananas produced are consumed domestically. Gross exports has increased from 12.5 thousand tonnes in 1995 to more than 220 thousand tonnes in 2002 and 2003 to neighbours Argentina and Uruguay, but these figures are still far behind industry leaders such as Ecuador, Costa Rica, the Philippines and Colombia which export more than a million tonnes of bananas annually. Brazil produces and consumes Cavendish and fruit bananas and the main producer in Brazil is in the southeastern state of São Paulo with 16.4% of the Brazilian market, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
Other notable areas where bananas in Brazil are cultivated include Prata in North-East Brazil. As of 2004, 6.6 million tons of bananas were produced, with a turnover of a little in excess US$1 billion. Genetic research into banana production and scientific studies is helping to maximise output and quality, in addition to increasing resistance to disease as the country is developing. A Banana Genome program and a genetic data bank, the DataMusa, is in place institutionally in Brazil to monitor and conduct research; the data bank has 40,000 sequences of DNA and another 5,000 genes and under surveillance of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation in Brazil. In Brazil, 20 scholars and researchers are working on the program, including ongoing collaboration in research into bananas with the Catholic University of Brasília and with the French Agricultural Research Center for International Development. Notably the programme has done much since 2002 to curtail the effects of the black sigatoka which caused widespread disaster to banana plantations in the Amazon.
The Brazilian Banana Genome program is supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development internationally with support from experts in countries such as France and Belgium, UK, Japan and the Czech Republic. Apart from molecular genomics research, Embrapa has a successful banana breeding program, generating disease-resistant varieties, such as the Pacovan Ken. Pacovan Ken, a banana breed resistant to yellow and black sigatoka and to Panama disease launched in November 2001 as a national crop plant in Brazil, is named after Embrapa scientist Kenneth Shepherd
Federal government of Brazil
The Federal Government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district. The Brazilian federal government is divided in three branches: the executive, headed by the President and the cabinet; the seat of the federal government is located in Brasília. This has led to "Brasília" being used as a metonym for the federal government of Brazil. Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on a representative democracy; the federal government has three independent branches: executive and judicial. The Federal Constitution is the supreme law of Brazil, it is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government. It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, to all people within Brazil. Executive power is exercised by the executive, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet of Ministers.
The President is both the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the regional federal courts; the bicameral National Congress consists of: The Federal Senate, which has 81 seats — three members from each States and the Federal District, elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms. One-third are elected after a four-year period, two-thirds are elected after the next four-year period. Federal deputies are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. There are no limits on the number of terms; the seats are allotted proportionally to each state's population, but each state is eligible for a minimum of eight seats and a maximum of 70 seats. The result is a system weighted in favor of smaller states that are part of the Brazilian federation.
15 political parties are represented in Congress. Since it is common for politicians to switch parties, the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. To avoid that, the Supreme Federal Court ruled in 2007 that the term belongs to the parties, not to the representatives. Brazilian courts function under civil law adversarial system; the Judicial branch is organized in federal systems with different jurisdictions. The judges of the courts of first instance take office after public competitive examination; the second instance judges are promoted among the first instance judges. The Justices of the superior courts are appointed by the President for life and approved by the Senate. All the judges and justices must be graduated in law. Brazilian judges must retire at the age of 70; the national territory is divided into five Regions. Each region is divided in Judiciary Sections, coterminous with the territory of each state, subdivided in Judiciary Subsections, each with a territory that may not correspond to the states' comarcas.
The Judiciary subsections have federal courts of first instance and each Region has a Federal Regional Tribunal as a court of second instance. There are special federal court systems, such as Labour Court for labor or employment-related matters and disputes, Election Justice for electoral matters, Military Justice for martial criminal cases, each of them with its own courts. There are two national superior courts that grant writs of certiorari in civil and criminal cases: the Superior Justice Tribunal and the federal supreme court, called the Supreme Federal Court; the STJ grants a Special Appeal when a judgement of a court of second instance offends a federal statute disposition or when two or more second instance courts make different rulings on the same federal statute. There are parallel courts for electoral law and military law; the STF grants Extraordinary Appeals when judgments of second instance courts violate the constitution. The STF is the last instance for the writ of habeas corpus and for reviews of judgments from the STJ.
The superior courts do not analyze any factual questions in their judgments, but only the application of the law and the constitution. Facts and evidences are judged by the courts of second instance, except in specific cases such as writs of habeas corpus. Politics of Brazil Official website of the Presidency of Brazil
Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, is mentally, physically or morally harmful. Such exploitation is prohibited by legislation worldwide, although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour. Child labour has existed to varying extents throughout history. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many children aged 5–14 from poorer families worked in Western nations and their colonies alike; these children worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories and services such as news boys—some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell. In the world's poorest countries, around 1 in 4 children are engaged in child labour, the highest number of whom live in sub-saharan Africa. In 2017, four African nations witnessed over 50 percent of children aged 5–14 working.
Worldwide agriculture is the largest employer of child labour. The vast majority of child labour is found in informal urban economies. Poverty and lack of schools are considered the primary cause of child labour. Globally the incidence of child labour decreased from 25% to 10% between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank; the total number of child labourers remains high, with UNICEF and ILO acknowledging an estimated 168 million children aged 5–17 worldwide were involved in child labour in 2013. Child labour forms an intrinsic part of pre-industrial economies. In pre-industrial societies, there is a concept of childhood in the modern sense. Children begin to participate in activities such as child rearing and farming as soon as they are competent. In many societies, children as young as 13 are seen as adults and engage in the same activities as adults; the work of children was important in pre-industrial societies, as children needed to provide their labour for their survival and that of their group.
Pre-industrial societies were characterised by low productivity and short life expectancy, preventing children from participating in productive work would be more harmful to their welfare and that of their group in the long run. In pre-industrial societies, there was little need for children to attend school; this is the case in non literate societies. Most pre-industrial skill and knowledge were amenable to being passed down through direct mentoring or apprenticing by competent adults. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 18th century, there was a rapid increase in the industrial exploitation of labour, including child labour. Industrial cities such as Birmingham and Liverpool grew from small villages into large cities and improving child mortality rates; these cities drew in the population, growing due to increased agricultural output. This process was replicated in other industrialising countries; the Victorian era in particular became notorious for the conditions under which children were employed.
Children as young as four were employed in production factories and mines working long hours in dangerous fatal, working conditions. In coal mines, children would crawl through tunnels too low for adults. Children worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches and other cheap goods; some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as domestic servants. Working hours were long: builders worked 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants worked 80-hour weeks. Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset brought about by economic hardship; the children of the poor were expected to contribute to their family income. In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to work from a young age. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children.
A high number of children worked as prostitutes. The author Charles Dickens worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in debtor's prison. Child wages were low. Karl Marx was an outspoken opponent of child labour, saying British industries, "could but live by sucking blood, children’s blood too," and that U. S. capital was financed by the "capitalized blood of children". Letitia Elizabeth Landon castigated child labour in her 1835 poem The Factory, portions of which she pointedly included in her 18th Birthday Tribute to Princess Victoria in 1837. Throughout the second half of the 19th century, child labour began to decline in industrialised societies due to regulation and economic factors because of the Growth of Trade Unions; the regulation of child labour began from the earliest days of the Industrial revolution. The first act to regulate child labour in Britain was passed in 1803; as early as 1802 and 1819 Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day.
These acts were ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831
Vale S. A. is a Brazilian multinational corporation engaged in metals and mining and one of the largest logistics operators in Brazil. Vale Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, is the largest producer of iron ore and nickel in the world. Vale produces manganese, copper, potash and cobalt operating nine hydroelectricity plants, a large network of railroads and ports used to transport its products; the company has had two catastrophic tailings dam failures in Brazil: Mariana, in 2015, Brumadinho, in 2019. Although the company's primary operations are in Brazil, Vale has operations in 30 countries, which are detailed below and on the company's website; the company is listed on the stock exchanges of São Paulo, New York City and Madrid. Iron ore: Vale is the world's largest iron ore producer. Sales of iron ore fines and pellets represented 65% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 256 million metric tonnes of iron ore fines and 44 million metric tonnes of iron ore pellets. Vale's Mariana Hub was the 9th largest iron ore mining center in the world in 2014, with an output of 39 million metric tonnes.
Vale's Serra Sull / S11D is the largest mining reserve in the world. The company's iron ore mines are in Brazil. Nickel: Vale is the world's largest nickel producer. Sales of nickel represented 17% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 272,000 metric tonnes of nickel; the company owns nickel mines in Canada, New Caledonia, Brazil. Fertilizer products phosphates and nitrogen: Sales of fertilizer products represented 6% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 9 million metric tonnes of fertilizer products. Copper: Sales of copper concentrate represented 4% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 353,000 metric tonnes of copper; the company owns copper mines in Brazil, Canada and Zambia. Manganese and alloys: Sales of manganese and alloys represented 1% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 2 million metric tonnes of manganese and alloys. Coal: Sales of coal represented 2% of total company revenues in 2014. In 2014, Vale sold 7.5 million metric tonnes of coal.
The company owns coal mines in Mozambique. From 2000 to 2006 Vale invested more than $1.3 billion on the acquisition of over 361 locomotives and around 14,090 freight cars, those locomotives were for iron ore transportation, but some were for regular cargo. Some of the locomotives purchased were secondhand for refurbishment but at least 55 of the locomotives acquired were new ones of the model EMD SD70M, each one costing about $2 million. After those investments, Vale became the owner of over 800 locomotives and more than 35,000 freight cars. Vale owns the concession of three Brazilian railways: Vitória-Minas Railway, Ferrovia Centro-Atlântica and Carajás railroad. Vitória a Minas railroad - Vale operates under a 30-year contract this 905 km, 1,000 mm railroad, used to transport iron from the Iron Quadrangle in Minas Gerais to the Port of Tubarão in the state of Espírito Santo; the concession expires in 2027. This railroad carried 1.1 million passengers in 2006. Carajás railroad - The concession of this 892 km, 1,600 mm gauge railroad expires in 2027, it links Carajás iron ore mines in the state of Pará to Ponta da Madeira port terminal in the state of Maranhão.
Vale operates 340 cars on this railroad. Ferrovia Centro-Atlântica - Vale controls this railroad through the subsidiary FCA; as it is shown on the Vale's operations map above, this 7,000 km, 1,000 mm railroad extends through 6 brazilian states, this railroad belonged to the RFFSA. Vale's concession of this railroad expires in 2026. Vale has a stake in railway operators in Mozambique and Malawi via the Nacala Logistics Corridor. On February 5, 2019, the state court of the Province of Minas Gerais ordered Vale to halt use of eight of its tailings dams, including the Laranjeiras dam at Brucutu. Port of Tubarão - Vale owns and operates this port located in Vitória, Brazil in the state of Espirito Santo. It's the largest iron ore embarking port in the world. Around 80 million metric tons of iron ore are shipped through this port. Ponta da Madeira - Located in the state of Maranhão, it ships around 70 million metric tons of iron ore, but of manganese and copper for the company. Samarco mine – a joint-venture with BHP and the site of the Mariana dam disaster on 5 November 2015.
Feijão mine – site of the Brumadinho dam disaster on 25 January 2019. Vale operates port terminals in the state of Sergipe and two others in the state of Espirito Santo. Teluk Rubiah Maritime Terminal, a state of the art maritime terminal in the state of Perak, operates as a distribution centre for iron ore in the Asia Pacific region. Vale has entered the shipping business by ordering 35 Very Large Ore Carriers to transport iron ore between South America and Asia; these 362-metre, 400,000 DWT ships are the largest dry bulk carriers in the world. The first ship, Vale Brasil, was delivered in March 2011. Vale's energy business is focused at power production to fulfill the needs of its mining operations, as well as sup
A fazenda is a plantation found throughout Brazil. Fazenda now denotes any kind of farm. Fazendas created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. Coffee provided a new basis for agricultural expansion in southern Brazil. In the provinces of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, coffee estates, or fazendas, began to spread toward the interior as new lands were opened. By 1850, coffee made up more than 50% of Brazil's exports, more than half of world coffee production. Along with the expansion of coffee growing came an intensification of slavery in Brazil, as the country's primary form of labor. More than 1.4 million Africans were forced to be slaves in Brazil in the last 50 years of the slave trade, after the trans-Atlantic slave trade ended, slavery continued until 1888. Because of the increased profit from the trade of coffee, the years after 1850 saw considerable growth and prosperity in Brazil. Dom Pedro II proved to be willing to expand economic prosperity if that prosperity was based on slave labor.
Railroads and the telegraph were introduced to Brazil, all paid for by the money the fazendas supplied from their coffee crop. In growing cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, lawyers, a middle class, an urban working class grew, once again paid for by the money coming from the fazendas. Hacienda
A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids water. Cisterns are built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings. Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres forming covered reservoirs. Waterproof lime plaster cisterns in the floors of houses are features of Neolithic village sites of the Levant at, for instance and Lebwe, by the late fourth millennium BC, as at Jawa in northeastern Lebanon, cisterns are essential elements of emerging water management techniques in dry-land farming communities. In the Middle Ages, cisterns were constructed in hill castles in Europe where wells could not be dug enough. There were two types: the filter cistern; such a filter cistern was built at the Riegersburg in Austrian Styria, where a cistern was hewn out of the lava rock. Rain water collected in the cistern; the filter enriched it with minerals. Cisterns are prevalent in areas where water is scarce, either because it is rare or has been depleted due to heavy use.
The water was used for many purposes including cooking and washing. Present-day cisterns are used only for irrigation due to concerns over water quality. Cisterns today can be outfitted with filters or other water purification methods when the water is intended for consumption, it is not uncommon for a cistern to be open in some manner in order to catch rain or to include more elaborate rainwater harvesting systems. It is important in these cases to have a system that does not leave the water open to algae or to mosquitoes, which are attracted to the water and potentially carry disease to nearby humans; some cisterns sit on the top of houses or on the ground higher than the house, supply the running water needs for the house. They are supplied not by rainwater harvesting, but by wells with electric pumps, or are filled manually or by truck delivery. Common throughout Brazil, for example, they were traditionally made of concrete walls, with a similar concrete top, with a piece that can be removed for water filling and reinserted to keep out debris and insects.
Modern cisterns are manufactured of plastic. These cisterns differ from water tanks in the sense that they are not enclosed and sealed with one form, rather they have a lid made of the same material as the cistern, removable by the user. To keep a clean water supply, the cistern must be kept clean, it is important to inspect them keep them well enclosed, to empty and clean them with a proper dilution of chlorine and to rinse them well. Well water must be inspected for contaminants coming from the ground source. City water has up to 1ppm chlorine added to the water to keep it clean, in many areas can be ordered to be delivered directly to the cistern by truck. If there is any question about the water supply at any point the cistern water should not be used for drinking or cooking. If it is of acceptable quality and consistency it can be used for toilets, housecleaning. Water of non-acceptable quality for the aforementioned uses may still be used for irrigation. If it is free of particulates but not low enough in bacteria boiling may be an effective method to prepare the water for drinking.
Many greenhouses rely on a cistern to help meet their water needs in the United States. Some countries or regions, such as Bermuda and the U. S. Virgin Islands, have strict laws requiring that rainwater harvesting systems be built alongside any new construction, cisterns can be used in these cases. Other countries, such as Japan and Spain offer financial incentives or tax credit for installing cisterns. Cisterns may be used to store water for firefighting in areas where there is an inadequate water supply; the city of San Francisco, maintains fire cisterns under its streets in case the primary water supply is disrupted. In many flat areas the use of cisterns is encouraged to absorb excess rainwater which otherwise can overload sewage or drainage systems by heavy rains. In some southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia showers are traditionally taken by pouring water over one's body with a dipper. Many bathrooms in modern houses are constructed with a small cistern to hold water for bathing by this method.
The modern water closet or toilet utilises a cistern to reserve and hold the correct amount of water required to flush the toilet bowl. In earlier toilets, the cistern was located high above the toilet bowl and connected to it by a long pipe, it was necessary to pull a hanging chain connected to a release valve located inside the cistern in order to flush the toilet. Modern toilets may be close coupled, with the cistern mounted directly on the toilet bowl and no intermediate pipe. In this arrangement, the flush mechanism is mounted on the cistern. Concealed cistern toilets, where the cistern is built into the wall behind the toilet, ar