Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion and medicinal practices on the natives; some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars counter that this is an intrinsically Eurocentric rationalization, given that modernization is itself a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests. Early records of colonization go as far back as Phoenicians, an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC and the Greeks and Persians continued on this line of setting up colonies; the Romans would soon follow, setting up colonies throughout the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia.
In the 9th century a new wave of Mediterranean colonization had begun between competing states such as the Islamic Ottomans and the Venetians and Amalfians, invading the wealthy Byzantine or Eastern Roman islands and lands. Venice began with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest nominal extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire. In the 15th century some European states established their own empires during the European colonial period; the Belgian, Danish, French, Russian and Swedish empires established colonies across large areas. Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and in the late 19th century the German and the Italian. At first, European colonizing countries followed policies of mercantilism, in order to strengthen the home economy, so agreements restricted the colonies to trading only with the metropole. By the mid-19th century, the British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs.
Christian missionaries were active in all of the colonies because the Colonialists were Christians. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans controlled at least 35% of the globe, by 1914, they had gained control of 84%. In the aftermath of World War II, the archetypal European colonial system ended between 1945–1975, when nearly all Europe's colonies gained political independence. Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas". Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories"; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas and parts of Africa and Asia".
It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can'colonialism' be defined independently from'colony?'" He settles on a three-sentence definition: Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are defined in a distant metropolis.
Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule. Historians distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which are classified into four types: settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, internal colonialism. Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons, it pursues to replace the original population. Here, a large number of people emigrate to the colony for the purpose of staying and cultivating the land. Australia, Israel, South Africa, the United States are all examples of current settler colonial societies. Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or population as labor to the benefit of the metropole; this category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration.
Prior to the end of the slave trade and widespread abolition, when indigenous labor was unavailable, slaves were imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese Empire, by the Spanish, Dutch and British. Surrogate colonialism involves a set
The Tikar is a blanket term used for several ethnic groups in Cameroon. It has been used for different peoples and their culture. There is a single ethnic group called the Tikar, they speak. Their population is 25,000; the Bedzan pygmies share their language. The main Tikar towns are Bankim, Ngambe Tikar, Magba; the Tikar have elements of patrilineal descent. Their folk belief states that during pregnancy the blood that the woman would release during menstruation forms parts of the fetus; this blood is said to form the skin, blood and most of the organs. The bones, brain and teeth are believed to be formed from the father's sperm. In the case of a son, the masculinity comes from this; the Tikar are noted as mask-makers. Quite different from these Tikar are many groups in the northwestern part of the country, in the Northwest Region near the Nigerian border whose royal families trace links to the Tikar royal family. Examples are the Nso' and the Wimbum from the North West as well as the Bamoun whose languages are different from Tikar.
Although it is common to see statements such as the "Nso' are Tikar" or the Wimbum came from Tikari, that should not be taken to be a statement about the culture, languages etc. of most of the people of that ethnicity. On the 2006 PBS television program African American Lives, the musician Quincy Jones had his DNA tested. In the PBS television program Finding Your Roots, former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice learned she shared maternal heritage with the Tikar. Fowler and David Zeitlyn.. "Introductory Essay: the Grassfields and the Tikar". In African Crossroads: intersections of history and anthropology in Cameroon. I. Fowler and D. Zeitlyn, eds. pp. 1–16. Oxford: Berghahn. Jeffreys, M. D. W. "Who are the Tikar?".. African Studies 23 no. 3/4: pp. 141–153. Price, David. "Who are the Tikar now?".. Paideuma 25: pp. 89–98. Zeitlyn, David.. "Eldridge Mohammadou on Tikar Origins". Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 26 no. 1: pp. 99–104. Tikar entry at Ethnologue site Article about Bamenda and Tikar
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
West Region (Cameroon)
The West Region is 14,000 km² of territory located in the central-western portion of the Republic of Cameroon. It borders the Northwest Region to the northwest, the Adamawa Region to the northeast, the Centre Region to the southeast, the Littoral Region to the southwest, the Southwest Region to the west; the West Region is the smallest of Cameroon's ten regions in area, yet it has the highest population density. As home to the enterprising Bamileke tribes, the West is an economic bright spot and one of Cameroon's more developed regions; this progressive development is tempered by the strong traditional culture that persists among the Bamileke and the province's other major ethnic group, the Bamum. The West sits at the geolog crossroads of Cameron; the land along the Noun River and at the Bamendjing Reservoir, for example, is a evolved blend of various raw minerals. The province's western half, on the other hand, is a haphazard mixture of raw minerals, ferrallitic patches of red dirt, other types.
The soil of the eastern portions away from the reservoir is ferrallitic. Rocks in the area range from the volcanic along the reservoir and Noun to Precambrian deposits of crystalline rocks such as granite and gneiss under a cover of basaltic rock in the northwest. Metamorphic rocks like gneiss and mica dominate the rest of the territory; the soil throughout is red in color due to high iron content, though that of the northwest is black or brown basalt. The province's soils are most productive in Cameroon; the West's mountainous terrain and active tectonics create many fast-moving rivers with picturesque falls and isolated crater lakes. These rivers follow a Cameroon regime, experiencing a period of high waters during the wet season and a period of low waters in the dry period; the rivers all form part of the Atlantic basin. The Mbam River runs along the border with the Southeast Provinces; the Nkam is the name for the headwaters of the Wouri River, which flow from the West's Bamboutos Mountains.
The eastern branch through the area rises northwest of Bangangté, the western branch forms the border with the Littoral Province southwest of Bafang. These headwaters are subject to seasonal flooding; the Noun River, a tributary of the Sanaga, flows from the Centre Province, around Bafoussam, to the Bamendjing Reservoir. This man-made lake is created by a dam on the Noun River, which helps regulate the Sanaga at Edéa in the Littoral Province and is thus an important component in Cameroon's supply of hydroelectric power. Falls are common, such as the Balatchi, Metché, Tsugning Falls. Most of the West's lakes are crater lakes formed from collapsed volcanoes; such lakes exist at Balent, Banéfo, Doupé, near Foumban. Many of these still have active volcanoes at their bottoms in the northwest on the Western High Plateau. One example is Lake Baleng, northeast of Bafoussam, the twin lakes of Foumbot; these volcanoes can cause deposits of gas to build up at the lakebed until poisonous gases bubble to the surface.
Such an eruption at Lake Monoun killed 37 villagers near Foumbot on 15 and 16 August 1984. The Bamboutos Mountains are the West's primary land feature. Elevations dip as low as 500 metres in the Noun and Nkam valleys; the highest point is a dormant volcano west of Mbouda, at 2,740 metres. These mountains lie along the Cameroon Fault, dating from the Cretaceous, which runs parallel to the border with the Northwest Province and through the capital of Bafoussam. West of the Cameroon Mountains lies the Western High Plateau, with elevations of 1,000-2,500 metres. South of the fault, the land descends in steps until levelling off at the South Cameroon Plateau. Here, terrain is gentler, with large hills separated by deep valleys. High elevations and moderate to high humidity give the West one of Cameroon's more pleasant climates. Temperatures average a cool 22˙, rainfall is moderate. Except for the southeasternmost portions, the West experiences two major seasons in lieu of the traditional four: the year begins in a long, dry period of little rain, which runs until May the rains begin in May or June and last until October or November.
Though the transition is gradual, the southeastern reaches of the province are part of the South Cameroon Plateau and thus have four seasons: the long dry season from December to March, the short rainy season from March to June, the short dry season from June to August, the long rainy season from September to December. The climate is equatorial of the Cameroon sub-variety in the northwestern third and equatorial of the Guinea type in the southeastern two-thirds. Rainfall, moderated by the mountains, averages 1,000-2,000 mm per year throughout, though it is highest at the area of the Bamendjing Reservoir. Little of the West's original flora or fauna survives, since most land has been cleared by human farmers; this is evident on the Western High Plateau, where poor soil and less rainfall have exacerbated the effects of deforestation, turning the area into grassland. The Melap Reserve near Foumban is one wooded area, but it is more of a city park than an actual reserve. East of the Noun River, the terrain is covered in woodland savanna of the Sahel type, which forms a transitional zone to the lowly vegetated northern provinces.
West of that river, this savanna is of the Sudan type, is interspersed among open, dry forest. A few small patches of rain forest persist to the west of the Mbam River in the Noun division; as elevation increases, forests thin out, until they are replaced by ferns and bamboos at 1,800 metres
Politics of Cameroon
The politics of Cameroon takes place in a framework of a unitary presidential republic, whereby the President of Cameroon is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Cameroon; the government adopted legislation in 1990 to authorize the formation of multiple political parties and ease restrictions on forming civil associations and private newspapers. Cameroon's first multiparty legislative and presidential elections were held in 1992 followed by municipal elections in 1996 and another round of legislative and presidential elections in 1997; because the government refused to consider opposition demands for an independent election commission, the three major opposition parties boycotted the October 1997 presidential election, which Biya won. The leader of one of the opposition parties, Bello Bouba Maigari of the NUDP, subsequently joined the government. Cameroon has a number of independent newspapers.
Censorship was abolished in 1996, but the government sometimes seizes or suspends newspapers and arrests journalists. Although a 1990 law authorizes private radio and television stations, the government has not granted any licenses as of March 1998; the Cameroonian Government's human rights record has been improving over the years but remains flawed. There continue to be reported abuses, including beatings of detainees, arbitrary arrests, illegal searches; the judiciary is corrupt and subject to political influence. Worthy of note is the fact that Cameroon is the only country in which two Constitutions are applicable side-by-side. For example, the 1972 Constitution designates the Prime Minister as constitutional successor of the Head of State in case of incapacity, resignation or unaccountable absence of the incumbent. Contrarily, the 1996 Constitutional Reform designates the President of the Senate as constitutional successor. Apart from increasing the presidential mandate from 5 years to 7 years few amendments of the 1996 Constitutional Reform have been applied.
The 1972 constitution of the Republic of Cameroon as modified by 1996 reforms provides for a strong central government dominated by the executive. The president is empowered to name and dismiss cabinet members, generals, provincial governors, sub-prefects, heads of Cameroon's parastatal firms, obligate or disburse expenditures, approve or veto regulations, declare states of emergency, appropriate and spend profits of parastatal firms; the president is not required to consult the National Assembly. In 2008, a constitutional amendment was passed; the judiciary is subordinate to the executive branch's Ministry of Justice. The Supreme Court may review the constitutionality of a law only at the president's request. All local government officials are employees of the central government's Ministry of Territorial Administration, from which local governments get most of their budgets. While the president, the minister of justice, the president's judicial advisers top the judicial hierarchy, traditional rulers and councils exercise functions of government.
Traditional courts still play a major role in domestic and probate law. Tribal laws and customs are honored in the formal court system when not in conflict with national law. Traditional rulers receive stipends from the national government; the 180-member National Assembly meets in ordinary session three times a year, has until made major changes in legislation proposed by the executive. Laws are adopted by majority vote of members present or, if the president demands a second reading, of a total membership. Following government pledges to reform the centralized 1972 constitution, the National Assembly adopted a number of amendments in December 1995 which were promulgated in January 1996; the amendments call for the establishment of a 100-member senate as part of a bicameral legislature, the creation of regional councils, the fixing of the presidential term to 7 years, renewable once. One-third of senators are to be appointed by the President, the remaining two-thirds are to be chosen by indirect elections.
The government has established the Senate in 2013. The judiciary is subordinate to the executive branch's Ministry of Justice; the Supreme Court may review the constitutionality of a law only at the president's request. In an article on the construction of a ‘model Cameroonian woman’ in the Cameroonian parliament, Lilian Atanga, examines arguments used to perpetuate a popular ideal and discourses which "sustain and maintain the status quo". Cameroon is member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Politics of Cameroon portal Cameroon public administration structure
Northwest Region (Cameroon)
The Northwest Region, or North-West Region of Cameroon is part of the territory of the Southern Cameroons, found in the western highlands of Cameroon. It is bordered to the southwest by the Southwest Region, to the south by the West Region, to the east by the Adamawa Region, to the north by the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Bamenda is the capital of the region; the origins of the region are related to the establishment of the Tikar people who joined the Kingdom of Bamum in the 1700s. In 1884, the region was colonized by Germany until 1916 when it became a colony administered by Great Britain and France. In 1919, the administration of Northwest Region became only British. In 1961, the region joined the Cameroon; the Northwest Region is the third most populated province in Cameroon. It has one major metropolitan city, with several other smaller towns such as Wum, Mbengwi, Nkambé, Batibo and Oshie; the province saw an increase in its population from 1.2 million in 1987 to an estimated 1.8 million in 2010.
The population density of 99.12 people per square kilometer is higher than the national average of 22.6. The provincial urban growth rate is 7.95%, higher than the national average of 5.6%, while the rural growth rate, at 1.16%, is equal to the national rate. In 2001, according to the Statistical Provincial Services of the North-West Province, the population of the province is young, with over 62% of its residents being less than 20 years old. Therefore, the dependency rate in the province is high in the rural areas. Like other regions in Cameroon, the Northwest Region is made up of administrative divisions; the province was created in 1972 with five divisions or departments: Bui, Donga-Mantung, Menchum and Momo. Today, it has seven divisions, the additions being Boyo, carved out of the Menchum division, Ngo-Ketunjia or Ngoketunjia, split off from the Mezam division; each division is further subdivided, with thirty-one total subdivisions in the Northwest Province. The basic unit of local government is the council, there are thirty-two councils in the region.
The Northwest Region has many ethnic groups, including immigrants from other countries. Nigeria is well represented, as it borders the region to the northwest; the native population comprises a variety of linguistic groups. The main ethnic groups are of Tikar origin: Tikari, Widikum and Moghamo; the most spoken languages in the province include Mungaka, Limbum spoken by the Wimbum people of Donga Mantung Division. During the colonial period, administrative boundaries were created which cut across ethnic groups and cultures; as a result, parts of some ethnic groups now lie in different divisions and provinces, believed to have led to several land conflicts. In the provinces, the social organization recognizes a chief as its head called the Fon; the Fons, who in their tribal area may be more influential than the official administrative authorities, are considered the living representative of the tribal ancestors. The Northwest is a stronghold of the Social Democratic Front, one of the main opposition parties of Cameroon.
Some Northwesterners feel marginalized by the government. There is a secessionist movement, the SCNC whose goal is to secede from Cameroon and form a republic consisting of the English-speaking regions. Much of the SCNC's influence exists in the Northwest. In 2008, the President of the Republic of Cameroon, Paul Biya, signed decrees abolishing "Provinces" and replacing them with "Regions"; the Northwest Province subsequently became the Northwest Region. The Northwest region has unique attractions, including the second highest mountain in West Africa, it is home to many rare birds such as the distinctive red crested Bannerman's turaco, unique to this region. There are many crater lakes such as Lake Oku, Lake Awing, Lake Nyos; the largest remaining mountain forest in the Northwest Region is the Kilum-Ijim Forest. Menchum Falls, Abbi Falls in the Mbengwi Division, are located here; the principal public hospital for the Province is the Bamenda Provincial Hospital. The Shisong Hospital, as well as other private and mission hospitals, have helped to resolve the health needs of the region.
"Background Note: Cameroon". 2010. Government of Cameroon. Accessed 11 March 2013
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island