Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T
A Fon is a chieftain or king of a region of Cameroon among the Widikum and Bamiléké peoples of the Bamenda grass fields and the Lebialem of the South West Region. Though once independent rulers, most Fons were brought under the German rule or military subjugation during the colonial period. Following the defeat of the Germans in World War I, the Fons came under British or French rule, depending on whether their territory fell into British Cameroon or French Cameroon. Since Cameroon's independence in 1961, the Fons are under the jurisdiction of the Government of Cameroon. However, they maintain semi-autonomous union councils and jurisdiction over their hereditary land; some of the significant Fons of the Northwest are: Fon Angwafo III of Mankon Fon of Anong-Timah Bamtie Fon of Ashong Fon of Awing Fon of Bali-Gansin Fon of Bali-Gashu Fon of Bali-Gham Fon of Bangwa Fon of Batibo Fon of Bessi Fon of Bum Fon of Zang TabiIn the Southwest region, only Lebialem division has Fons, the most notable of them being The Fon of Fontem.
HM Asabaton Fontem, Fon of Fontem HM Fon Lekunze, Fon of Bamumbu HM Fotabong Achenjang, Fon of Lewoh HM Fonjumetaw, Fon of Nwehbetaw This table provides a list of current Fons in Cameroon. "Cameroon traditional states". Worldstatesmen.org. Cahoon, Ben. Retrieved 2010-08-16
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Bafut is a town located in a modern commune in Cameroon, it is a traditional fondom. It is located in the Mezam Department. Bafut is famous for having preserved its structure as a traditional kingdom, under the leadership of the Fon of Bafut, its traditional power structures operate in harmony with its modern local government council, which aims to turn Bafut into an eco-city. The Bafut tradition traces its dynastic origins to the Tikari areas. From the reign of Firloo, the first Fon of Bafut, it has operated as a fondom or kingdom, using traditional power structures. Upon their arrival from Tikari at least 400 years ago, the Bafut people built the current "old palace" of Mbebli known as Ntoh Firloo, it still contains the tombs of the first three Bafut kings Nebasi Suh and Ambebi. The Fon's palace, thus the centre of Bafut's traditional power, was moved to its current location, by the time of the German colonisation of the Cameroons in the late 19th century, Bafut had assumed its present make-up.
The Bafut Wars resulted from German colonial intrusion into the Bafut fondom. The German explorer Dr Eugen Zintgraff visited Bafut in 1889, he had earlier stopped in Bali Nyonga where he had received a warm welcome from Galega, the Fon of Bali Nyonga. However the Bafut Fon, received him with circumspection since Bafut was not on good terms with Bali Nyonga. Zintgraff is said to have committed two breaches of etiquette, he seized the drinking cup from the Fon's hand and drank from it and he insisted on calling Abumbi by his princely name'Gualem'. This open display of disrespect was interpreted in Bafut as a deliberate attempt to belittle the Fon and it was assumed that Galega of Bali Nyonga was behind this. Relations between Bafut and the Germans subsequently deteriorated to the point of armed conflict. In 1891 Bafut went to the aid of its neighbour and ally Mankon, attacked by a German-led Bali Nyonga force en route to Bafut; this force had been sent to avenge the death of two of Zintgraff's messengers sent to Bafut to demand ivory.
On 31 January 1891 it burnt the town. As the attacking force retired, Mankon warriors, assisted now by their allies from Bafut, counter-attacked and inflicted heavy losses on their enemies. Ten years the Germans, under Pavel, returned in full force. Bafut suffered a series of punitive raids in 1901, 1904–05 and 1907, at the end of which the Fon was arrested and exiled to Douala for a year. In the meantime a military station had been established at Bamenda which served as the administrative headquarters of the district until the Germans were expelled during the World War of 1914–1918; the Bamenda garrison fell in October 1915. After a brief period of joint administration Britain and France provisionally partitioned the territory and this, with only minor adjustments, was confirmed by the Milner–Simon agreement of July 1919. Bafut fell into the British sector, constituted into the Cameroons Province and attached to the Southern Provinces of British Nigeria for administrative purposes. At least one Fon of Bafut, Achirimbi II maintained friendly ties with the British.
When the British left Cameroon in 1961, the region had a choice of joining either the newly formed Cameroon or Nigeria. The Fon Achirimbi II is famously said to have remarked that it was a choice between the "Fire and the Deep Sea". On 1 January 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France, on 1 October 1961, the British Southern Cameroons united with French Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon; the Bafut Council was created by a presidential decree on 23 November 1993 to promote local development and improve the living conditions of the region's inhabitants. The local government began operation following municipal elections. Bafut is now estimated to have over 100,000 inhabitants, it is an agrarian region. Bafut is situated about 20 kilometres northwest of Bamenda, in the Mezam Division, covers an area of 340 km2, it is located in the Western Grassfields geographic region, which includes Cameroon's Northwest Province and surrounding grassland areas. Bafut is the most powerful of the traditional kingdoms of the Grassfields, now divided into 26 wards along a 10-kilometre stretch of the "Ring Road" that trails along a ridge above the Menchum Valley.
The population is settled in three main zones: At the centre are the people of Mumala'a clustered around the Fon's palace who refer to themselves as the real Bafut. This name can be applied to the whole chiefdom. To the south is the Ntare. To the north is the Mbunti which descends abruptly to the Menchum river valley; the major languages are the Bafut language and Cameroonian Pidgin English, though Mundum and French are spoken. The Bafut language is classed within the Mbam-Nkam section of the central branch of the Niger-Congo family along with other nearby languages such as Bali Nyonga and Pinyin Bafut is one of the two regions in Cameroon, where traditional power structures are still in place. Bafut is a fondom, it was long the centre of the local kingdom of the Tikar people, is presently administered by the Fon of Bafut. The Fon of Bafut was, to some extent still is, the paramount Fon of the region, with all other Fons pledging allegiance to him; the Fon shared power with a council of elders or "Kwifor".
Membership was restricted to commoners. The strength of Kwifor lay in its role as a council of kingmakers and was thus a check on roya
Northwest Region (Cameroon)
The Northwest Region, or North-West Region of Cameroon is part of the territory of the Southern Cameroons, found in the western highlands of Cameroon. It is bordered to the southwest by the Southwest Region, to the south by the West Region, to the east by the Adamawa Region, to the north by the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Bamenda is the capital of the region; the origins of the region are related to the establishment of the Tikar people who joined the Kingdom of Bamum in the 1700s. In 1884, the region was colonized by Germany until 1916 when it became a colony administered by Great Britain and France. In 1919, the administration of Northwest Region became only British. In 1961, the region joined the Cameroon; the Northwest Region is the third most populated province in Cameroon. It has one major metropolitan city, with several other smaller towns such as Wum, Mbengwi, Nkambé, Batibo and Oshie; the province saw an increase in its population from 1.2 million in 1987 to an estimated 1.8 million in 2010.
The population density of 99.12 people per square kilometer is higher than the national average of 22.6. The provincial urban growth rate is 7.95%, higher than the national average of 5.6%, while the rural growth rate, at 1.16%, is equal to the national rate. In 2001, according to the Statistical Provincial Services of the North-West Province, the population of the province is young, with over 62% of its residents being less than 20 years old. Therefore, the dependency rate in the province is high in the rural areas. Like other regions in Cameroon, the Northwest Region is made up of administrative divisions; the province was created in 1972 with five divisions or departments: Bui, Donga-Mantung, Menchum and Momo. Today, it has seven divisions, the additions being Boyo, carved out of the Menchum division, Ngo-Ketunjia or Ngoketunjia, split off from the Mezam division; each division is further subdivided, with thirty-one total subdivisions in the Northwest Province. The basic unit of local government is the council, there are thirty-two councils in the region.
The Northwest Region has many ethnic groups, including immigrants from other countries. Nigeria is well represented, as it borders the region to the northwest; the native population comprises a variety of linguistic groups. The main ethnic groups are of Tikar origin: Tikari, Widikum and Moghamo; the most spoken languages in the province include Mungaka, Limbum spoken by the Wimbum people of Donga Mantung Division. During the colonial period, administrative boundaries were created which cut across ethnic groups and cultures; as a result, parts of some ethnic groups now lie in different divisions and provinces, believed to have led to several land conflicts. In the provinces, the social organization recognizes a chief as its head called the Fon; the Fons, who in their tribal area may be more influential than the official administrative authorities, are considered the living representative of the tribal ancestors. The Northwest is a stronghold of the Social Democratic Front, one of the main opposition parties of Cameroon.
Some Northwesterners feel marginalized by the government. There is a secessionist movement, the SCNC whose goal is to secede from Cameroon and form a republic consisting of the English-speaking regions. Much of the SCNC's influence exists in the Northwest. In 2008, the President of the Republic of Cameroon, Paul Biya, signed decrees abolishing "Provinces" and replacing them with "Regions"; the Northwest Province subsequently became the Northwest Region. The Northwest region has unique attractions, including the second highest mountain in West Africa, it is home to many rare birds such as the distinctive red crested Bannerman's turaco, unique to this region. There are many crater lakes such as Lake Oku, Lake Awing, Lake Nyos; the largest remaining mountain forest in the Northwest Region is the Kilum-Ijim Forest. Menchum Falls, Abbi Falls in the Mbengwi Division, are located here; the principal public hospital for the Province is the Bamenda Provincial Hospital. The Shisong Hospital, as well as other private and mission hospitals, have helped to resolve the health needs of the region.
"Background Note: Cameroon". 2010. Government of Cameroon. Accessed 11 March 2013
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, grantmaking and training. Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors; the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Gray had conceived of a visionary project to arrest the settlement of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by freezing the soil underneath, formed the organization in 1965 as a vehicle for the implementation of this idea. Though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the young organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.
In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 to the International Fund for Monuments and UNESCO for this project. The project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the monolithic human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. With the help of anthropologist William Mulloy, Gray selected an 8-foot-tall, five-ton head, exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York and in the Pan American Union building in Washington, D. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the broad international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice, Italy from catastrophic flooding. After the high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours.
The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as chairman and Gray as executive secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public, local chapters set up in American cities; this early initiative led to the formation of the independent organization Save Venice in 1971. These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat and U. S. Ambassador to Spain in 1965–67 Angier Biddle Duke. At the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley; the 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened. Sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating, applied annually for protection.
At the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, a large mountaintop fortress near Milot, Haiti. The site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the grand gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods, consolidated the stone galleries of the fortress. IFM sponsored a traveling exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle, used for educational purposes in the United States. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with local community and government partners worldwide to safeguard and conserve places of historic value for future generations. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, including many UNESCO World Heritage Sites. WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites.
Prominent projects are many temples at Angkor, starting in 1990, including Preah Khan and Phnom Bakheng. WMF has participated in projects in the United States, including Ellis Island, Taos Pueblo, Mesa Verde National Park, the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, many sites in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch. Since the first list was compiled in 1996, this program has drawn international attention to cultural heritage sites around the world threatened by neglect, armed conflict, commercial development, natural disasters, climate change. Through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, attracts technical and financial support for the sites; the sites are nominated by international and local preservation groups and professionals, including local authorities. Sites of all types, including secular and religious architecture, archaeologic