14th arrondissement of Paris
The 14th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quatorzième; the arrondissement, called Observatoire, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It contains most of the Montparnasse district, it is today best known for its skyscraper, the Tour Montparnasse, its major railway terminus, the Gare Montparnasse, both located in the neighboring 15th arrondissement. The district has traditionally been home to many artists as well as a Breton community, arrived at the beginning of the 20th century upon the creation of the Montparnasse railway terminus. Universities located in the 14th arrondissement include the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris, located near the Parc Montsouris, the Stade Charléty and the catacombs; the land area of this arrondissement is 5.621 km². The 14th arrondissement attained its peak population in 1954, it continues to have a high density of both population and business activity with 132,844 inhabitants and 71,836 jobs as of the last census, in 1999.
Aéroports de Paris has its head office in the arrondissement. In addition Société d'exploitation de l'hebdomadaire Le Point, the company that operates Le Point, has its head office in the arrondissement. SNCF, the French rail company had its head office in Montparnasse and the 14th arrondissement. La Santé Prison, operated by the Ministry of Justice, is in the arrondissement; the head office of the Agency for French Education Abroad, the French international schooling network, is in the arrondissement. The International Astronomical Union head office is located on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris; the Théâtre Rive Gauche is located at 6, rue de la Gaîté. Paris Catacombs museum Cimetière du Montparnasse Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain Gare Montparnasse Michael Servetus statue Montparnasse area Musée Lenine Musée Jean Moulin Paris Observatory La Santé Prison Tour Montparnasse Sainte-Anne Hospital Center Rue de l'Arrivée Place Denfert-Rochereau Rue Delambre Rue du Départ Place Edgar Quinet Avenue du Maine Boulevard du Montparnasse Boulevard Raspail 14th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Sarah Sze is a contemporary artist known for sculpture and installation works that employ everyday objects to create multimedia landscapes. Sze works in New York City and is a professor of visual arts at Columbia University. Sze was born in Boston in 1969, she received a BA from Yale University in 1991 and an MFA from New York's School of Visual Arts in 1997. Sze draws from Modernist traditions of the found object, she uses everyday items like string, Q-tips and wire to create complex constellations whose forms change with the viewer's interaction. The effect of this is to "challenge the material of sculpture, the constitution of sculpture, as a solid form that has to do with finite geometric constitutions and content."Sze represented the United States at the Venice Biennale in 2013, was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2003. She has exhibited in museums worldwide, her works are held in the permanent collections of prominent institutions, including The Museum of Modern Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
Sze's work has been featured in The Whitney Biennial, the Carnegie International and several international biennials, including Berlin, Liverpool, Lyon, São Paulo, Venice. Sze has created public works for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, the High Line in New York. Sze was born in Boston and lives and works in New York. On January 1, 2017, a permanent installation commissioned by MTA Arts & Design of drawings by Sze on ceramic tiles opened in the 96th Street subway station on the new Second Avenue Subway line in New York City. Sze is represented by Victoria Miro Gallery in London. Sze lives in New York City with her husband, Siddhartha Mukherjee, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Emperor of All Maladies who teaches medicine at Columbia, their two daughters. 2016 – "Sarah Sze," The Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 2015 – "Sarah Sze," Tanya Bonakdar Gallery, New York, NY 2015 – "All The Worlds Futures", 56th Venice Biennale, Italy, curated by Okwui Enwezor 2015 – "Sarah Sze", Victoria Miro Gallery, London, UK 2014 – "Sarah Sze: Triple Point," Bronx Museum of the Arts, Bronx, NY 2013 – "Sarah Sze," The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA 2002 – Grow or Die, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN 2013 – Triple Point, American Pavilion, 55th Venice Biennale, Italy 2012 – "Sarah Sze", MUDAM Museum, Luxembourg 2011–2012 - Sarah Sze: Still Life with Landscape, High Line, between West 20th and West 21st Streets, New York City, NY 2011 – Sarah Sze: Infinite Line, Asia Society, New York, NY 2009 – Tilting Planet, Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Newcastle, UK 2008 – "Sarah Sze", Maison Hermès 8F Le Forum, Japan 2007 – "Sarah Sze", Victoria Miro Gallery, London, UK 2006 – "Sarah Sze", Malmo Konsthall, Sweden 2006 – Corner Plot, Doris C. Freedman Plaza, New York, NY 2006 – Model for Corner Plot, Agassiz House, Radcliffe Yard, Cambridge, MA 2005 – "Sarah Sze", Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, NY 2005 – An Equal and Opposite Reaction, the Seattle Opera, Seattle, WA, 2004 – Blue Poles, Sidney-Pacific Graduate Dormitory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 2004 – "Sarah Sze: The Triple Point of Water", Fondazione Davide Halevim, Italy 2003 – "Sarah Sze: The Triple Point of Water", The Whitney Museum, New York, NY 2002 – "Sarah Sze", Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA 2001 – "Sarah Sze", Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, NY 2001 – Drawn, Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, CA 2000 – "Sarah Sze", Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York, NY 1999 – "Sarah Sze", Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL 1999 – "Sarah Sze: Still Life with Flowers", Galerie fur Zeitgenossische Kunst, Germany 1999 – "Sarah Sze", Foundation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, France 1998 – "Sarah Sze", Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, UK 1997 – Migrateurs, Musee d’Art Modern de la Ville de Paris, France 1997 – White Room, White Columns, New York, NY Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY The New Museum, New York, NY San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, CA Detroit Institute of Art, Detroit, MI Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN National Gallery of Victoria, Australia Cartier Foundation, France 21st Century Museum of Art, Japan Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA Fogg Museum of Art, Boston, MA Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IL National Gallery of Canada, Canada Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH 2017 – Honoree, National Academy Museum and School, New York 2016 – Louise Blouin Foundation Award 2014 – Amherst Honorary Degree, Doctor of the Arts, Honoris Causa 2014 – School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Medal Award 2013 – US Representative for the Venice Biennale 2013 – Inducted into the National Academy 2012 – American Federation of the Arts Cultural Leadership Award 2012 – Laurie M. Tisch Award for civic responsibility and action and significant leadership in education, culture, civic affairs and/or health 2012 – AICA Award for Best Project in a Public Space, Sarah
Gérard Deschamps is a French contemporary artist. Deschamps lived in Lyon until 1944, when he moved to Paris, where he lived until 1970, his first exhibition took place in 1955 at the Gallery Fachetti in Paris. At this time he abandoned oil painting, which he said lacks flexibility, turned to collages, incorporating pictures of items from the Manufrance catalog. In 1957, he exhibited, at the Galerie du Haut Pave in Paris, his first paintings made of rags and pleating that announced New Realism. In November 1957, he was sent to Algeria for 27 months, where he took part in the famous 1958 counter-attack and the operation "jumelles". Released in 1960, he met Raymond Hains and Jacques Villeglé and joined the New Realist group in 1961, a year after its official founding. With pleating, he wanted to renovate the excesses of tissue, which he said "were the guardians of the breath of art to the West in periods of decline. Indeed, what would be the victory of Samothrace without his thin wetted coat that made it the ancestor of compressed cars, the ultimate creation, inspired to me by my lack of financial means".
He specialized in female underwear, found at a rag called Chatton. These cloths industrial Japanese tissues, were invading his workshops at La Châtre and Rue Gambetta in Paris, his compositions containing female underwear – for example "le Rose de la Vie", a blend of predominantly pink panties, bras and garters – caused him to be censored several times. In 1961, he found a new mine: U. S. Army tarps with fluorescent colors, he worked on rags from Japanese and Belgian advertising as well as sheets of plastic kitchenware patchworks. In the same period, he used armor plates and metal enclosures that served to isolate the aircraft engines, marked by iridescent heat. In 1965, developing his military metaphors, he created the "bananas", made of folded and colored wire, which can be up to 8 meters long and remind strips military decorations, he invented the moiré patterns by overlapping metal grids. In 1970, as he disagreed with the Parisian art world, Gerard Deschamps moved to La Châtre, home of his grandparents.
His creative activity is ongoing, as will again be shown since 1978 in exhibitions and galleries in Paris and abroad. By 1980, Deschamps gave his vision of a leisure society, with his playful outfits, made of assemblies of swimwear, balloons and surfboards, which may bring Pop Art to mind. In the 1990s, he created colorful beach ball blends packed in nets, in 2001, skateboards, he presented his recent Pneumostructures, which are assemblies, or not, of buoys, inflatable air mattresses, or other objects related to a child's imagination. New Realism Dictionnaire de l'art moderne et contemporain, nlle. éd. Paris, Éditions Hazan, 2006, 194 pages www.gerarddeschamps.org Gérard Deschamps, homo accessoirus, interview with Hélène Kelmachter, Actes Sud, 1998 Non official website dedicated to Gérard Deschamps, in French, with many pictures
Jean-Michel Othoniel is a contemporary artist born in 1964 in Saint-Etienne. He works in Paris. An artist who has a passion for all sorts of metamorphoses and transmutations, Jean-Michel Othoniel has a predilection for materials with reversible properties. Othoniel first gained recognition with a series of sculptures made of sulfur, exhibited at Documenta IX in Kassel in 1992. In 1993, Jean-Michel Othoniel began to explore its properties. Transformations, mutations of materials, rites of passage from one state to another echo an essential rite in the artist’s work: that of journeys and memory. In 1994, he participated in the exhibition Féminin/Masculin at the Pompidou Center in Paris, with an installation entitled My Beautiful Closet, a mise-en-scène of dancers filmed in the darkness of a closet. In 1996, Othoniel hung gigantic necklaces in the bamboo gardens of the Villa Medici in Rome, in the trees of the Venetian garden of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, at the Alhambra and Generalife, in Granada.
Similar to a forbidden fruit, the necklace has a life in and of itself: it merges into the landscape and the leaves, like organic outgrowths absorbing shadows and diffracting light. The notion of wound or injury is at the heart of his work. In 1997, Othoniel created Collier Cicatrice, a small necklace made of red glass that the artist offers to whoever wants to wear it with pride. In 2000, a century after Hector Guimard, Jean-Michel Othoniel transformed the Palais Royal-Musée du Louvre into the Kiosque des Noctambules: two crowns made of glass and aluminum conceal a bench designed for chance encounters in the sleepy city. In 2003, Jean-Michel Othoniel conceived Crystal Palace for the Cartier Foundation in Paris and for MOCA in Miami. For Crystal Palace, he asked glassblowers in Venice and at Marseille’s CIRVA to create forms that would become enigmatic sculptures standing between jewelry and erotic objects. In December 2004 in art, at the Théâtre de la Ville in Rochefort and at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, Jean-Michel Othoniel staged Le Petit Théâtre de Peau d’Ane, an installation composed of four lacquered wooden sideboards, surmounted by thirty-five glass-filled models, as many globes or huge vertugadins embroidered with gold and sequins.
This installation was conceived as a decor for the tiny puppets that Pierre Loti used to play with as a child, that Othoniel discovered in the house of this famous French writer. In 2004, for the exhibition Contrepoint at the Louvre Museum, Jean-Michel Othoniel set his works in the museum’s spectacular Mesopotamian rooms, his monumental glass and aluminum sculptures, which are always created in relation to the places in which they are shown, acquire a timeless and peaceful dimension. The great white river of pearls adorned with nipples, purchased by the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, is now on view in the museum’s new collection display. For the Unlimited Section at Art Basel 2005, Jean-Michel Othoniel showed The Boat of Tears in a pool located in front of the fair; the artist, whose works combine the political and the intimate, salvaged a boat built by Cuban boat people and abandoned on the shores of Miami and used it as a basis for his work. A crown and necklaces made of colored glass taper down into giant tears of clear crystal.
The sculpture floats on the water like a ghost ship, loaded with tears of suffering and joy, overflowing with memories and covered by festive ornaments. The artist has progressively built up a world based on ultimate freedom and the acceptance of the reversible, a world characterizing his personality, his work takes on a variety of forms: drawings, photographs, narratives and video. His streamlined works are steeped in eroticism. In 2011, an important exhibition held at the Centre Pompidou Paris presenting the entire gamut of his artistic practice retraced his career; this exhibition, “My Way”, was staged at the Leeum Samsung Museum of Art/Plateau, Seoul, at the Hara Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, at the Macao Museum of Art, at the Brooklyn Museum of New York. In 2012 an invitation from the Musée Delacroix in Paris offered an opportunity to instigate a dialog with this studio-museum laden with history, by means of a series of sculptures and plates from his Herbier Merveilleux. In spring 2013, the Mori Art Museum of Tokyo has ordered from him a new piece of work for its 10th anniversary, Kin no Kokoro, a monumental work of art located in the Japanese Garden Mohri Garden.
On March 12, 2015, Jean-Michel Othoniel will open a new exhibit, Secret Flower Sculptures, at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, that will travel to San Francisco in Autumn. In May 2015, Jean-Michel Othoniel revealed Les Belles Danses, three sculptures installed on the ponds of the new Water Theatre grove created by the landscape designer Louis Benech; the design was inspired by a dance script that the artist found in Raoul Auger Feuillet’s book Choregraphie, ou, L’art de décrire la dance, par caracteres, figures, et signes démonstratifs. It will be the first permanent commission in the gardens of the Palace since Louis XVI. Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA Centre Georges Pompidou, France Musée d'Art moderne de la Ville de Paris, France Fondation Cartier Pour l'Art Contemporain, France New Orleans Museum of Art, La Nouvelle-Orléans, USA Fonds National d'Art Contemporain, France Bibliothèque Nationale, France The Corning Museum of Glass, New York, USA New York Public Library, New York, USA FRAC Languedoc-Roussillon, France FRAC Aquitaine, France Musée d'Art moderne de Saint-Étienne, Saint-Etienne, France Chanel Hong Kong, Chine Chanel Los Angeles, USA Filmoteca un
Wim Delvoye is a Belgian neo-conceptual artist known for his inventive and shocking projects. Much of his work is focused on the body, he links the attractive with the repulsive, creating work that holds within it inherent contradictions – one does not know whether to stare, be seduced, or to look away. As the critic Robert Enright wrote in the art magazine Border Crossings, "Delvoye is involved in a way of making art that reorients our understanding of how beauty can be created". Wim Delvoye has an eclectic oeuvre, exposing his interest in a range of themes, from bodily function, scatology to the function of art in the current market economy, numerous subjects in between, he lives and works in Brighton, UK. Delvoye was raised in a small town in West Flanders, Belgium, he did not have a religious upbringing but has been influenced by the Roman Catholic architecture that surrounded him. In a conversation with Michaël Amy of the New York Times, Delvoye stated, "I have vivid memories of crowds marching behind a single statue as well as of people kneeling in front of painted and carved altarpieces… Although I was aware of the ideas lurking behind these types of images, I soon understood that paintings and sculptures were of great importance".
Growing up, Delvoye attended exhibitions with his parents, his love of drawing led him to art school, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Delvoye has said that the pessimistic expectations for Belgian art students freed him making him realize that he “had nothing to lose”. Shortly thereafter, Delvoye began painting over wallpaper and carpets, coloring in the existing patterns and defying the tendency towards free expression vibrant in the art world at the time. Delvoye considers himself an originator of concepts—he is attracted to the theory behind pieces, instead of the act of painting itself. After 1990, specialists directed by Delvoye have executed most of his work. In 1992, Delvoye received international recognition with the presentation of his “Mosaic” at Documenta IX, a symmetrical display of glazed tiles featuring photographs of his own excrement; the organizer of Documenta IX, Jan Hoet claimed, “The strength of Wim Delvoye lies in his ability to engineer conflict by combining the fine arts and folk art, playing seriousness against irony.”
Three of his most well known projects are “Cloaca”, “Art Farm”, a series of Gothic works. Delvoye is best known for his digestive machine, which he unveiled at the Museum voor Hedendaagse Kunst, after eight years of consultation with experts in fields ranging from plumbing to gastroenterology; as a comment on the Belgians’ love of fine dining, Cloaca is a large installation that turns food into feces, allowing Delvoye to explore the digestive process. In his large mechanism, food begins at a long, transparent bowl, travels through a number of machine-like assembly stations, ends in hard matter, separated from liquid through a cylinder. Delvoye collects and sells the realistically smelling output, suspended in small jars of resin at his Ghent studio; when asked about his inspiration, Delvoye stated. The most useless object he could create was a machine that serves no purpose at all, besides the reduction of food to waste. Cloaca has appeared in many incarnations including: Cloaca Original, Cloaca - New & Improved, Cloaca Turbo, Cloaca Quattro, Cloaca N° 5, Personal Cloaca.
Delvoye sold specially printed toilet paper as a souvenir of the exhibit. In 2016, 5 rolls from the 2007 Mudam Luxembourg exhibit were offered for re-sale for US$300 through an online vendor. Delvoye claimed that he would never sell a Cloaca machine to a museum as he could never trust that the curator would maintain the installation properly. However, after two years of discussion with David Walsh, Delvoye agreed to construct a custom Cloaca built for the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania; the new installation is suspended from the museum ceiling in a room custom-built for it. Though Delvoye started tattooing pig skins taken from slaughterhouses in the United States in 1992, he began to tattoo live pigs in 1997. Delvoye was interested in the idea that “the pig would grow in value," both in a physical and economic sense, he moved the operation to an Art Farm in China in 2004. The pigs have been inked with a diverse array of designs, including the trivial, such as skulls and crosses, to Louis Vuitton designs, to designs dictated by the pig's anatomy".
In an interview with ArtAsiaPacific's Paul Laster, Delvoye described the process of tattooing a live pig, "we sedate it, shave it and apply Vaseline to its skin". Delvoye is additionally well known for his “gothic” style work. In 2001, with the help of a radiologist, had several of his friends paint themselves with small amounts of barium, perform explicit sexual acts in medical X-ray clinics, he used the X-ray scans to fill gothic window frames instead of classic stained glass. Delvoye suggests; when he was not an active participant, Delvoye observed from a computer screen in another room, allowing the subjects enough distance to perform although Delvoye has described the whole operation as "very medical antiseptic". Delvoye creates oversized laser-cut steel sculptures of objects found in construction, customized in seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque style; these structures juxtapose "medieval craftsmanship with Gothic filigree". Delvoye brings together the heavy, brute force of contemporary machinery and the delicate craftsmanship associated with Gothic architecture.
In a 2013 show in New York City
Denfert-Rochereau (Paris Métro)
Denfert-Rochereau is a station on the Paris Métro in France. An adjacent station with the same name is served by RER B; the station opened on 24 April 1906 with the opening of the extension of line 2 Sud from Passy to Place d'Italie. On 14 October 1907 line 2 Sud became part of line 5. On 12 October 1942 the section of line 5 between Étoile and Place d'Italie, including Denfert-Rochereau, was transferred from line 5 to line 6 in order to separate the underground and elevated sections of the metro; the line 4 platforms were opened on 30 October 1909 when the southern section of line 4 was opened between Raspail and Porte d'Orléans. The name of the station refers to Place Denfert-Rochereau, named for the 19th‑century general Pierre Philippe Denfert-Rochereau, who led the resistance of Belfort to a siege during the Franco-Prussian War; the first part of the name is identical in pronunciation to its former name of Place d'Enfer. It is the location of the Barrière d’Enfer, a gate built for the collection of taxation as part of the Wall of the Farmers-General.
The station is sub-titled Colonel Rol-Tanguy, after Henri Rol-Tanguy, a leader in the French Resistance during World War II
Île Seguin is an island on the Seine river between Boulogne-Billancourt and Sèvres, in the west suburbs of Paris, France. It has a surface area of 11.5 hectares, is positioned opposite Meudon, a short distance downstream from the Île Saint-Germain. Administratively Meudon and the island are included as part of Boulogne-Billancourt, on the river's right bank, rather than of Sèvres on the left bank. During most of the twentieth century, Île Seguin was home to a Renault factory, covering the whole island; the last car from the Renault production line was a 1992 Renault 5 Supercinq. The factory remained dormant until 2005; the architect Jean Nouvel was appointed in 2009 as the lead planner to transform the island into a new cultural hub. The first permanent concert and performance spaces in the project, known as La Seine Musicale, were opened in April 2017. Before the seventeenth century the island was owned by the Abbey of St. Victor and the land was cultivated by tenant farmers; the island's importance received a sudden boost at the end of the seventeenth century with the construction of a Palace at nearby Versailles, because it was positioned along the route that connected the new palace with Paris.
The road was much frequented by itinerant aristocrats. In 1747 the palace builder's grandson, Louis XV, acquired the island - known as the "Île de Sève", on behalf of his daughters; the island found itself renamed as the "Île Madame", during the pre-revolutionary decades it was home to a commercial laundry, the "Buanderie de Sèvres". Under the revolutionary government the laundry was nationalised and the island fell under direct state control. In 1793 it was owned by a banker called Jean-Baptiste Vandenyver, but he was guillotined a few months later. Control of the island was disputed, in the broader context of the redrawing of the Paris city limits, between the three municipalities/districts of Sèvres and Auteuil. In 1794 the island was acquired by the entrepreneurial chemist, Armand Seguin, from whom it takes its name. Seguin became rich, in part by using his island to construct a factory applying a new approach to tanning leather, on an industrial scale; the island continued to be home to laundry businesses.
During the closing decades of the nineteenth century, while retaining its industrial businesses, the island became a leisure destination, used for recreational boating, clay pigeon shooting and angling. Louis Renault, a founder and the energetic hands-on owner of the "Société des Automobiles Renault", was one of several major automakers to have expanded production and to have prospered during the war. At this point he controlled factories on both banks of the river, in 1919 he acquired the Île Seguin in the middle of it. Renault built his first factory on the island between 1929 and 1934. For the rest of the twentieth century the island's history would be the history of the Renault plant; the factory was self-sufficient, with its own electric power generation facilities and several testing sites including an underground test track. Infrastructure included dock facilities necessary for taking delivery of bulk supplies and for transporting finished automobiles by river. Billancourt became France's largest factory.
During the Second World War the factory, at this time being used to produce trucks for the Germans, was an easy target for bomber pilots using the River Seine to navigate, suffered from several destructive allied bombings attacks. Renault himself was accused of collaboration directly after the war, in the frenzied atmosphere of retribution that characterized the post-liberation period he died in prison under suspicious circumstances, without benefiting from the trial, intended for him, his company was placed under the direction of a well-connected resistance hero, on 15 January 1945 nationalised and renamed "Régie nationale des usines Renault" France had missed out on the economic recovery that had boosted prosperity in Britain and Germany during the 1930s, but she participated in the sustained post-war boom that got going in the 1950s. The Renault plant on the Île Seguin became, at this time, a beacon for the growth and modernisation of French industry, reflecting the success of models such as the Renault 4CV launched in 1947, which would be the first French car to break through the "one million" threshold.
The factory continued to justify its reputation, established during the turbulence of the mid-1930s, as a bastion of trades union militancy, notably being closed down by a 33-day strike during the "Événements" of May 1968. Growth in the 1950s and 1960s enabled Renault to open several newer car plants on greenfield sites in France and further afield. Rising wages, union militancy and high employment taxes encouraged the French auto-industry to become a pioneer of automated vehicle assembly and the Billancourt factory, designed for an era of labor-intensive production processes, was hard to adapt to the new techniques. Renault announced in 1989 that the factory would close and Billancourt's last car, a Renault Supercinq, emerged on 31 March 1992. A major clean-up of the buildings began at once, but the challenge was formidable with regard to the necessary asbestos removal and soil decontamination. Destruction of the factory buildings began only on 29 March 2004, was completed on 8 March 2005.
At the time of the factory, the island was accessible from two metal bridges (a suspension bridge designed by Daydé in 1928 linked the island to the right bank o