Klang or Kelang Royal Town of Klang, is a royal town and former capital of the state of Selangor, Malaysia. It is located within the Klang District, it was the civil capital of Selangor in an earlier era prior to the emergence of Kuala Lumpur and the current capital, Shah Alam. Port Klang, located in the Klang District, is the 12th busiest transshipment port and the 12th busiest container port in the world, it holds the record for the largest AEON in Asia, AEON Bukit Tinggi. The Klang Municipal Council or MP Klang exercises jurisdiction for a majority of the Klang District while the Shah Alam City Council exercises some jurisdiction over the east of Klang District, north of Petaling District and the other parts of Selangor State including Shah Alam itself; as of 2010, the Klang City has a total population of 240,016, while the population of Klang District is 842,146, the population of all towns managed by Klang Municipal Council is 744,062. The royal town of Klang has been a site of human settlement since prehistoric times.
Bronze Age drums and other artefacts have been found in the vicinity of the town and within the town itself. A bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC is now in the British Museum. Found are iron tools called "tulang mawas". Commanding the approaches to the tin rich Klang Valley, Klang has always been of key strategic importance, it was mentioned as a dependency of other states as early as the 11th century. Klang was mentioned in the 14th century literary work Nagarakretagama dated to the Majapahit Empire, the Klang River was marked and named on the earliest maritime charts of Chinese Admiral Cheng Ho on his visits to Malacca from 1409 to 1433. Klang was under the control of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century; the celebrated Tun Perak, the Malacca's greatest Bendahara, came from Klang and became its territorial chief. According to the Malay Annals, the people of Klang overthrew the local chief or penghulu and asked the Sultan of Malacca Muzaffar Shah to appoint another, Tun Perak was appointed the leader.
Klang was known as a producer of tin. Klang however remained in Malay hands after the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese in 1511, was controlled by the Sultan Johor-Riau until the creation of Selangor sultanate in the 18th century. Klang was once known as Pengkalan Batu meaning "stone jetty". In the 19th century the importance of Klang increased by the rapid expansion of tin mining as a result of the increased demand for tin from the West; the desire to control the Klang Valley led directly to the Klang War of 1867–1874 when Raja Mahdi fought to regain what he considered his birthright as territorial chief against Raja Abdullah. During the Klang War, in 1868, the seat of power was moved to Bandar Temasya, Kuala Langat, to Jugra which became the royal capital of Selangor. Klang however did not lose its importance. In 1874, Selangor accepted a British Resident who would "advise" the Sultan, Klang became the capital of British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when the capital city was moved to Kuala Lumpur due to the growth of Kuala Lumpur from tin-mining.
Today Klang is no longer State capital or the main seat of the ruler, but it remains the headquarters of the District to which it gives it name. Until the construction of Port Swettenham in 1901, Klang remained the chief outlet for Selangor's tin, its position was enhanced by the completion of the Klang Valley railway to Bukit Kuda in 1886, connected to Klang itself via a rail bridge, the Connaught Bridge, completed in 1890. In the 1890s its growth was further stimulated by the development of the district into the State' leading producer of coffee, rubber. In 1903, the royal seat was moved back to Klang. In May 1890, a local authority, known as Klang Health Board, was established to administer Klang town; the official boundary of Klang was first defined in 1895. The first road bridge over the Klang River connecting the two parts of the town, the Belfield Bridge, was constructed in 1908. In 1926 the health boards of Klang and Port Swettenham were merged, in 1945 the local authority was renamed Klang Town Board.
In 1954, the Town Board became the Klang Town Council after a local election was set up to select its members in accordance with the Local Government Election Ordinance of 1950. In 1963, the Port Klang Authority was created and it now administers three Port Klang areas: Northport and West Port. In 1971, the Klang District Council, which incorporated the nearby townships of Kapar and Meru as well as Port Klang, was formed. After undergoing a further reorganisation according to the Local Government Act of 1976, Klang District Council was upgraded to Klang Municipal Council on 1 January 1977. From 1974 to 1977, Klang was the state capital of Selangor before the seat of government shifted to Shah Alam in 1977. Klang may have taken its name from the Klang River; the entire geographical area in the immediate vicinity of the river, which begins at Kuala Lumpur and runs west all the way to Port Klang, is known as the Klang Valley. One popular theory on the origin of the name is; the word may mean a canal or waterway, alternatively it has been argued that it means "warehouses", from the Malay word Kilang – in the old days, it was full of warehouses.
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
The National Front is a political coalition in Malaysia, founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centre parties. They are the largest opposition coalition in the country's Dewan Rakyat; the Barisan Nasional coalition employs the same inter-communal governing model of its predecessor the Alliance Party but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point. It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from opposition parties, notably the Pakatan Rakyat and the Pakatan Harapan alliances. Taken together with its predecessor, it had a combined period of rule from 1957 to 2018, was considered as the longest ruling coalition party in the democratic world. In the aftermath of the 2018 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition lost its hold of the parliament to PH for the first time in Malaysian history, it was the first time Barisan Nasional became the opposition coalition after 61 years in power, with former prime minister and Barisan Nasional chairman Mahathir Mohamad becoming PH's leader.
Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of United Malays National Organisation, Malaysian Chinese Association, Malaysian Indian Congress. It was founded in the aftermath of the 13 May riots; the Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, the resulting tension between different communities led to riots and the declaration of a state of emergency. After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with former opposition parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972 followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional; the Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak, registered in June 1974 as a coalition of nine parties.
It contested the 1974 general election as a grand coalition under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak, which it won with considerable success. In 1977, PAS was expelled from Barisan Nasional following a revolt within the Kelantan state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government. Barisan Nasional won the 1978 general election convincingly, it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan to PAS, Sabah to United Sabah Party which joined Barisan Nasional. By 2003, Barisan Nasional had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties, it performed well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats. Although Barisan Nasional never achieved more than 67% of the popular vote in elections from 1974 until 2008, it maintained consecutive two-thirds majority of seats in the Dewan Rakyat until 2008, benefitting from Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system.
In the 2008 general election, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, namely Selangor, Penang and Kedah fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Perak however was returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties diminished in the Peninsula; the losses continued in the 2013 general election, it recorded its worst election result at the time. BN lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Despite winning only 47% of the popular vote, it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament, and during the 2018 general election, Barisan Nasional lost control of the parliament to Pakatan Harapan, winning a total of only 79 parliamentary seats. The crushing defeat ended their 61-year rule of the country, paving way for the first change of government in Malaysian history.
The coalition won only 34% of the popular vote, despite redrawing the electoral boundaries in their favour. In addition to their failure in regaining the Penang and Kelantan state governments, six state governments, namely Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Sabah fell to Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN; the Terengganu state government fell but to the Gagasan Sejahtera. Barisan Nasional was only in power in three states. Many of BN's component parties left the coalition following its humiliating defeat at the 2018 general election, reducing its number to only the original three of UMNO, MCA and MIC compared to 13 before the election; these parties either aligned themselves with the new Pakatan Harapan federal government, formed a new state-based pact or remained independent. They include four Sarawak-based parties, myPPP and Gerakan. MyPPP experienced a leadership dispute, with Maglin announced that the party remained within the coalition and Kayveas announced that the party had left the coalition, resulting in the dissolution
Malaysian Chinese Association
The Malaysian Chinese Association is a uni-racial political party in Malaysia that seeks to represents the Malaysian Chinese ethnicity. Along with the largest and third largest component party in BN, i.e. United Malays National Organisation and Malaysian Indian Congress, MCA has a significant influence over the political arena in Malaysia since its independence. Through its holding of companies such as Huaren Holdings, MCA controls The Star, Malaysia's best-selling English newspaper; the party was once the largest party representing the Chinese community in Malaysia, was dominant in the early period until the late 1960s. Its fortunes fluctuated after the establishment of other political parties in the 1960s that challenged it for the Chinese votes, although it still enjoyed strong support in the mid-1990s to mid-2000s period. However, it has performed poorly in elections since 2008, with the Malaysian Chinese community voting for the Democratic Action Party, they lost all but one of their parliamentary seats in the 2018 Malaysian general election.
The Malayan Chinese Association was formed on 27 February 1949 with the implicit support by the post-World War II British colonial administration. A central purpose of the MCA at the time of its founding was to manage the specific social and welfare concerns of the populations interned in the so-called New Villages created under the Briggs' Plan in response to the Malayan Emergency; the declaration that announced the MCA as a formal political party in 1951 was written by a prominent Straits Chinese businessman, Tan Cheng Lock, its first president. In general, its early members were landowners, businessmen, or otherwise better off, while the working classes in the New Villages overwhelmingly joined the Socialist Front instead. Many prominent members of the MCA were Kuomintang members opposed to the Malayan Communist Party. Leong Yew Koh, was a KMT major general who became a cabinet minister and became governor of Malacca. S. Lee, was a KMT colonel. In 1952, MCA joined force with United Malays National Organisation on a local level to contest the Kuala Lumpur municipal elections which would lead to the formation of the Alliance Party.
The alliance was joined by Malaysian Indian Congress in 1954 and they contested the first Malayan General Election in 1955 as one body, the alliance won 51 of the 52 seat contested. MCA won all 15 of the seats allocated. Tan Cheng Lock was succeeded by Lim Chong Eu after a successful challenge by Lim for the presidency in 1958. Lim attempted to amend the party's Constitution to consolidate the power of the Central Committee, although amendment was passed narrowly, it split the party. Prior to the 1959 General Election, Lim pressed for an increase of the allocated number of seats from 28 to 40, but this was refused by UMNO leader Tunku Abdul Rahman. Lim was forced to back down and resigned as president, with Cheah Toon Lock taking over as acting president. Other members resigned from MCA to contest the election as independent candidates, which cost the party some seats; the party only won 19 of the 31 seats allocated. Lim himself left the party in December 1960 becoming one of the founding members of the opposition Gerakan in 1968.
In 1961 Tan Siew Sin, son of Tan Cheng Lock and favoured by Tunku, became MCA's third President. Tan led the party to a firm victory in the 1964 General Election, winning 27 of the 33 parliamentary seats contested. In 1969, Tan established Tunku Abdul Rahman College after a proposal for a Chinese-language university was turned down by the government; the third Malaysian general elections were held on 10 May 1969. MCA faced strong challenges from the new Chinese, opposition parties Democratic Action Party and Gerakan. Of the 33 parliamentary seats contested, MCA managed to retain only 13. MCA lost control of the Penang State Government to Gerakan; the gain by the opposition parties led to tension between different communities which erupted into the May 13 Riots. Prior to the riots, on 12 May 1969, Tan Siew Sin announced that the party would withdraw from the Alliance, but reconsidered on 20 May and joined the National Operations Council formed in place of the suspended Parliament after the riots.
The loss of support for MCA among the Chinese population elicited a comment by the Deputy Prime Minister Dr Ismail that if MCA continue to lose support, UMNO may stop co-operating with it. To regain Chinese support, Tan attempted to broaden the appeal of the party seen as a party of the taukeh, invited professionals to join the party. However, many of these were expelled after a dispute involving Lim Keng Yaik who joined Gerakan. With the loss of support for MCA in the 1969 election, the enlargement of the Alliance party in 1972 to include Gerakan, UMNO became more dominant and MCA suffered a loss of status within the coalition. In 1973, Tan Siew Sin requested a position as Deputy Prime Minister in the cabinet reshuffle following the death of Tun Dr. Ismail, but this was refused by Tun Abdul Razak, which angered Tan. On 8 April 1974, prior to the general election, Tan Siew Sin resigned all of his
Pudu, Kuala Lumpur
Pudu is a ward of Kuala Lumpur located along the Pudu Road. It houses Pudu Prison. Pudu Market is one of the largest wet markets in Kuala Lumpur. Adjacent to it is Jalan Pasar where there are shops selling electronics devices. During colonial rule, Pudu was known as Pudoh. Pudu is sandwiched between Bukit Bintang and Cheras; the Ampang Line and Sri Petaling Line AG10 SP10 Pudu LRT station's sign was used in the movie Entrapment, although it was the SP17 Bukit Jalil LRT station, used as the filming location. Pudu LRT station Tung Shin Academy Of Nursing Pudu is located in the Bukit Bintang parliamentary constituency, though a part spills over into Cheras constituency
2013 Malaysian general election
A general election was held on Sunday, 5 May 2013 for members of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 222 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections took place in 505 state constituencies in 12 out of 13 states on the same day; the incumbent right-wing Barisan Nasional led by Prime Minister Najib Razak won a second term against the opposition centre-left Pakatan Rakyat led by Opposition Leader Anwar Ibrahim, after Barisan Nasional formed a majority government at a federal level. Barisan Nasional won 133 seats in the 222-seat Dewan Rakyat and 47.38% of the vote whereas the informal coalition, Pakatan Rakyat contesting under a different election symbol, saw a slight increase in both support and seats, winning 50.87% of the popular vote and 89 seats. This was the best performance shown by the opposition bloc against the federal ruling Barisan Nasional, the first time Barisan Nasional won less of the popular vote than the opposition.
Because Barisan Nasional nonetheless won more parliamentary seats than the opposition, the elections were followed by protests and accusations of gerrymandering. The Malaysian Parliament was dissolved on 3 April 2013 by Tuanku Abdul Halim, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Tun Razak; the Prime Minister made a televised statement announcing the dissolution of the 12th Parliament at 11:30 am local time the same day. Following the dissolution of Parliament, a general election was required to be held within 60 days, between 3 April and 2 June 2013, with the date to be decided by the Election Commission. On 10 April 2013, the Election Commission of Malaysia announced that nominations for election candidates would be held on 20 April, with the general election set for 5 May; the early voting date of 30 April was announced by the Election Commission. Official campaigning began on 20 April. Postal voting for eligible overseas Malaysians was announced to happen on 28 April 2013.
Malaysian representative offices would open on that day for this purpose from 9 am to 6 pm local time. Offices in London and Melbourne would close at 8 pm instead, for the number of postal voters registered in those cities exceeded 1,000. Malaysia is one of the most ethnically diverse countries, with a majority Malay population in addition to Chinese and Indian minorities, so the political parties are diverse. Parties engage ethnic divisions, conflicts over power play out between political parties that represent specific ethnic groups. According to the author Lim Hong Hai, writing in 2002, “over 80 per cent of Malaysia’s population of over 23 million is found in Peninsular Malaysia, where the Malays form the largest ethnic group followed by the Chinese and Indians. All these ethnic groups are minorities in Sabah and Sarawak, where native ethnic groups other than the Malays make up about 60 per cent and 50 per cent of the population, respectively.”The Federation of Malaya was composed of 11 states in the Malay Peninsula that gained independence from Britain in 1957, two states from the Borneo Island and Sarawak which became members of the Federation of Malaya in 1963.
Ruling party, Barisan Nasional has 137 seats in the parliament. In history, BN has dominated the political framework and won each election since the first national vote in 1959; the incumbent Barisan Nasional coalition returned to power in the 2008 general elections with 140 seats. The opposition parties that would form the Pakatan Rakyat coalition won a total of 82 seats, thereby denying the BN its two-thirds majority, required to pass amendments to the Federal Constitution. Following their losses Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi announced on 8 October 2008 that he was stepping down, resigning his post as United Malays National Organisation party leader. A leadership election was held on 26 March 2009, where Deputy Prime Minister and Prime Minister-designate Najib Tun Razak was elected unopposed as the UMNO party leader. On 2 April 2009, Prime Minister Abdullah tendered his resignation to the Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, consented. On 3 April 2009, Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak was sworn-in as the sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia at the Istana Negara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in front of Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin.
Pakatan Rakyat is composed of three large parties. Pakatan Rakyat gained control of five out of thirteen state assemblies and 10 of the 11 parliamentary seats in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Former Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia and the Leader of the Opposition Anwar Ibrahim the head of Pakatan Rakyat was returned to parliament after a ten-year absence following his victory in the Permatang Pauh by-election; the by-election was triggered when his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail resigned from her Permatang Pauh parliamentary seat, allowing Anwar to contest the seat and subsequently return to parliament. In accordance with Malaysian law, the parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each state would automatically dissolve on the fifth anniversary of the first sitting, elections must be held within sixty days of the dissolution, unless dissolved prior to that date by their respective Heads of State on the advice of their Heads of Government. On 28 March 2013, the Negeri Sembilan Legislative Assembly became the first state assembly to dissolve automatically in Malaysian history.
The state government would remain in place as a caretaker government and assembly members' consti
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.