Black River, Jamaica
Black River is the capital of St. Elizabeth Parish, in southwestern Jamaica, it developed as a port around the mouth of the river of the same name. Today the city is a gateway to the Treasure Beach resort area. Treasure Beach and Crane Beach are with Luana Beach to the west. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was a thriving sugar port with a market for African slaves. Growing prosperity in the sugar and lumber trade led to the construction of several warehouses; some have been adapted as bases for eco-tours of the river. Black River is one of the oldest European towns in the island of Jamaica, being shown on John Sellers' 1685 map, it was designed by the Leyden brothers of England, three wealthy men who were substantial land proprietors in the area. In 1773 Black River replaced 19 miles to the north-east, as the capital of St. Elizabeth. Soon after it became the main commercial and transshipment centre of the parish. By the early 1900s, it was second only to Kingston in economic importance on the island.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Black River was a busy seaport for the lucrative logwood trade and for exports of rum and cattle skins from the nearby Holland and Fullerswood plantations. The Logwood tree trunks were floated down the Black River to the port to be shipped to England for making of dyes. Into the early 19th century, slaves from Africa and other Caribbean islands were landed here and sold at auction at Farquharson Wharf; this wharf still stands. In 2007, the United Kingdom celebrated the 200th anniversary of the Slave Trade Act 1807, which ended the African slave trade in its colonies. A monument was installed at Black River in 2007 to memorialize the slaves killed in the Zong massacre of 1781. More than 132 slaves were thrown overboard at sea from the Zong, they were sacrificed by the crew purportedly to save the remainder and the crew because of a shortage of water on board. The Zong landed at Black River, its owners sued for insurance claims for the slaves, killed, the case was litigated in 1783 in Britain.
The court rejected the owners' claim, as it was shown that the crew had made navigation errors that kept the ship at sea and threatened its supplies. Abolitionists publicized it, the case became a catalyst for continuing efforts to abolish slavery. Britain abolished slavery in its empire in 1833; as a major sea port, Black River became a commercial center on the south coast of Jamaica. Due to its wealth, in 1893 this was the first town in Jamaica to be lit by electricity. Ten years in 1903 it was the first city on the island to have automobiles. A telephone system was installed. Aerial view
Hellshire Beach, Jamaica, is located near Portmore, famed for its fried fish and safe swimming. It has near white sands with a small trace of black sand. Exposed when there is a sea running to the south, the waters close to shore are quite cloudy due to the stirred up sand, it is a popular public beach conveniently located for the residents of Portmore and weekend visitors from Kingston. Once called "Healthshire" due to its reputation as a health retreat its name has since evolved into "Hellshire" though both pronunciations are technically correct. In the early nineteenth century, colonial records describe hundreds of runaway slaves escaping to "Healthshire" where they flourished for several years before they were captured by a party of Jamaican Maroons. There is a section with life guards and a buoyed off swimming area 200 m long, it has changing/showering facilities which are kept clean. This has a number of tables and benches in the shade of grapenut trees and there is a fish restaurant and bar.
Further to the west there is a free entry to the beach and here there are a large number of fried fish and other stalls. List of beaches in Jamaica Photos
Alligator Pond is a fishing village on the southwestern coast of Jamaica in the parish of Manchester. Unlike the tourist-oriented coasts in the northern part of the country, Alligator Pond's shoreline is as much about work as play. Weather-worn cookshops and bars line the sand's edge, supplying food staples such as curried goat and Red Stripe beer. Alligator Pond lies at the foot of the Don Figueroa Mountains to the north-east, some 35 km from Mandeville; the name is said by locals to derive from the shape of the mountain range, which viewed from the beach has bumps which suggest an alligator's back. The Alligator Pond River is a bathing spot about 2 miles west of the village off the road leading to Port Kaiser; the Little Ochie, a fish restaurant, is located in several huts on the beach, some made from the hulls of fishing boats with thatched roofs. It has expanded to seat several hundred and attracts a clientele from far and wide, including some tourist tours. List of cities and towns in Jamaica List of beaches in Jamaica Photo essay on life in Alligator Pond, Jamaica
Bluefields Beach Park is a popular public beach in Bluefields in the south-east of Westmoreland, Jamaica. It gets busy at weekends and holidays; the old road from Black River to Savanna-la-Mar is separated from the beach by only a low stone wall. However, this old road was replaced by a more inland bypass in the 1990s and one now approaches the beach through gates from a junction at the western end of this bypass; as a result, there is now extensive car parking within a gated Beach Park. The whole area can become full on holidays. A further set of gates provides pedestrian access to the old road by the beach; the beach is narrow and about 1 km long. It is beautiful with soft white sand; the stones seem to have appeared after hurricane Dean. The swimming is regarded as good, although the exposed situation can result in uncomfortable waves if there is a swell. There is little shade from the sun on the beach and no chairs or umbrellas are on offer. However, the Beach Park is located in a shady, well-wooded area and offers for a fee of $50 Jamaican the usual showering/changing/toilet facilities.
The park holds a number of small restaurants which are noted for their locally caught fish. One of the most famous restaurants in the park is Meals on wheels which was/is now known as Fresh Touch Restaurant. List of beaches in Jamaica Aerial view. Photos:. Website of Bluefields' People's Community Association
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Treasure Beach is the name given to a stretch of four Jamaican coves and their associated settlements: Billy's Bay, Frenchman's Bay, Calabash Bay and Great Pedro Bay. The region is isolated from the main tourist areas and the minor roads connecting with the main highway at Black River or Santa Cruz tend to suffer damage in heavy rain, but are passable with care. There are a few small hotels and guest houses serving tourists seeking a quiet seaside location. Fort Charles Bay is the first beach; the beach is a great swimming beach. Billy's Bay is 2 miles east of Fort Charles Bay and is the second fishing beach and settlement reached when approaching Treasure Beach from Black River. Frenchman's Bay is the second beach and settlement reached when approaching Treasure Beach from Black River or Santa Cruz. There are a number of bustling restaurants. Calabash Bay is the first of the Treasure Beach settlements and beaches reached when approaching from Santa Cruz, its 600m long beach has a narrow strip of yellow-red sand.
The swimming is good but since the beach is open to the south, small breakers sometimes appear when strong seas are running. The presence of tourists attracts a few hawkers to the beach to sell their wares. There are a few simple restaurants in the village; the former Old Wharf Hotel housed a residential treatment facility named Tranquility Bay. Great Pedro Bay is the most easterly of the beaches that make up Treasure Beach; the road ends regardless of where you are coming from. List of beaches in Jamaica Perry Henzell [http://wikimapia.org/#lat=17.8760006&lon=-77.7571964&z=14&l=0&m=b&v=8 Aerial view. Treasure Beach Community Web Site Treasure Tours http://www.jamaicaescapes.com 360 VIRTUAL TOUR IN HD Travel Articles around the world on Treasure BeachAccommodationTreasure Beach scene Aerial view. Photos:. Aerial view. Photos:. Aerial view. Photos:. Aerial view. Photos
Negril is a small but dispersed beach resort town located across parts of two Jamaican parishes and Hanover. Negril is about an hour and fifteen minute drive on the coastal highway from Sir Donald Sangster International Airport, in Montego Bay. Westmoreland is the westernmost parish in Jamaica, located on the south side of the island. Downtown Negril, the West End cliff resorts to the south of downtown, the southern portion of the so-called "seven mile beach" are in Westmoreland; the northernmost resorts on the beach are in Hanover Parish. The nearest large town is the capital of Westmoreland Parish; the name Negril is a shortened version of Negrillo, as it was named by the Spanish in 1494. A theory holds that because there was a vast population of black eels along Negril's coast, the Spaniards called the area Anguila Negra, shortened to Negrillo and to Negril. Although Negril has a long history, it did not become well known until the second half of the twentieth century. Negril's development as a resort location began during the late 1950s, though access to the area proved difficult as ferries were required to drop off passengers in Negril Bay, forcing them to wade to shore.
Most vacationers would rent rooms inside the homes of Jamaican families, or would pitch tents in their yards. Daniel Connell was the first person to create more traditional vacation lodging for these "flower children" when he set up the first guest house in Negril - Palm Grove; the area's welcoming and hospitable reputation grew over time and the first of many resorts was constructed in the mid to late 1960s. The first hotel in Negril was the Yacht Club by Mary's Bay on the West End; when the road between Montego Bay and Negril was improved in the early 1970s, it helped to increase Negril's status as a new resort location. It was a two-lane paved road that ran 100 yards inland from two white coral sand beaches, at the southern end of, a small village; the long paved road from the village ran north to Green Island, home to many of the Jamaican workers in Negril, was straight enough to double as a runway for small airplanes, why there were lengths of railroad track standing on end along the side of the road - to discourage drug smugglers from landing on the road to pick up cheap cargos of marijuana.
After Negril's infrastructure was expanded—anticipating the growth of resorts and an expanding population, a small airport, the Negril Aerodrome, was built in 1976 near Rutland Point, alongside several small hotels catering to the North American winter tourists. Europeans came to Negril, several hotels were built to cater directly to those guests; the geography of Jamaica is diverse. The western coastline contains the island's finest beaches, stretching for more than 6 km along a sandbar at Negril, it is sometimes known among tourists as the "7-Mile Beach" although it is only more than 4 mi in length, from the Negril River on the south to Rutland Point on the north. On the inland side of Negril's main road, to the east of the shore, lies a swamp called the Great Morass, through which runs the Negril River. Within the Great Morass is the Royal Palm Reserve, with protected forest. In 1990, the Negril Coral Reef Preservation Society was formed as a non-profit, non-governmental organization to address ongoing degradation of the coral reef ecosystem.
The Negril Marine Park was declared on 4 March 1998 covering a total area of 160 km2 and extending from the Davis Cove River in the Parish of Hanover to St. John’s Point in Westmoreland. Scuba diving and snorkeling are good in the protected reef areas; the West End Road is known as Lighthouse Road as there is a Belgian engineered lighthouse protecting seafarers from the cliffs. There are views from this western tip near Negril Lighthouse. For years, Negril's beach was rated as one of the top ten beaches in the world by several travel magazines; the beach's length is significant — the two bays comprise the Seven Mile Beach. The beach is a little less than 7 miles in length, with Bloody Bay being around 2 miles, Long Bay being just under 5 miles. Bloody Bay is home to the large, all-inclusive resorts, Long Bay has all-inclusives and smaller, family-run hotels. South of downtown Negril is West End Road, known as the West End, lined with resorts that offer more privacy; these areas have access to waters used for snorkelling and diving, with jumping points reaching more than 40 feet high.
Many vendors and shops are located around the beach resorts. A new highway from Montego Bay and an improved infrastructure may bring more tourists; as a result, more hotels and tour operators continue to develop new attractions and excursions in Negril. Since the 1980s, it has become a popular location for U. S. college students to visit during spring break, or just a regular vacation in Jamaica. The last few years have seen major development along the beach; the resorts include Couples Swept Away, Couples Negril, Beaches, Samsara Hotel, Legends Resort, the Grand Lido, Riu Palace Tropical Bay, Riu Club Hotel and Hedonism II. The Hedonism II resort is one enduring hotel/resort, saved from bankruptcy and remains an adult destination. A franchise of Jimmy Buffett's chain restaurant and bar, Jimmy Buffett's Margaritaville, a duty-free zone have been added. In recent years, a large development has been constructed consisting of ocean front villas, 2 or 3 bed townhouse developments and studio apartme